Lieutenant general (Australia)

Lieutenant general
Australian Army OF-8.svg
The LTGEN insignia of Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.
CountryAustralia
Service branchAustralian Army
AbbreviationLTGEN
RankThree-star
NATO rank codeOF-8
Non-NATO rankO-9
Formation1917
Next higher rankGeneral
Next lower rankMajor general
Equivalent ranksVice admiral (RAN)
Air marshal (RAAF)

Lieutenant general (abbreviated LTGEN and pronounced 'lef-tenant general') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army. It was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general, and is considered a three-star rank.

The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Joint Capabilities. The Chief of Capability Development Group, disestablished in 2016, also carried three-star rank.

Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force. The insignia for a lieutenant general is the Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.[1][Note 1]

Australian Army lieutenants general

The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.

CGS/CA – Chief of the General Staff and Chief of Army

From 1 January 1909 to 18 February 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Sir Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. Since August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.

Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–1965)

In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1968 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff, with command authority over the Australian Defence Force, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.

Vice Chief of the Defence Force (since 1986)

In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).

Chief of Capability Development Group (2003–2016)

A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003. Lieutenant General John Caligari was the final officer of three-star rank to hold the position before it was disestablished in 2016

Chief of Joint Operations (since 2007)

In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations, was created.

Equivalents

There are two other permanent three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy and Chief of Air Force. There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.

List of lieutenants general

  This along with the * (asterisk) indicates that the officer was subsequently promoted to general.
  This along with the + (plus sign) indicates that the officer retired with the honorary rank of lieutenant general.
  This along with the ^ (arrowhead) indicates that the officer is a currently serving lieutenant general.

The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:

NameYear of promotionSenior command(s) or appointment(s) in rankNotes
Sir Harry Chauvel*1917Chief of the General Staff (1923–30),[Note 2] Inspector General of the Australian Army (1919–30), Desert Mounted Corps (1917–19)[2]
Sir John Monash*1918Director General of Repatriation (1918–19), Australian Corps (1918)[3]
Sir Brudenell White*1918Chief of the General Staff (1920–23, 1940)[4]
Sir Talbot Hobbs1918Australian Corps (1918–19)[5]
James Gordon Legge+1924[6]
Sir James McCay+1926[7]
Ernest Squires1938Chief of the General Staff (1939–40), Inspector General of the Australian Army (1938–39)[8]
Sir Thomas Blamey*1939I Corps (1940–41)[9]
Sir John Lavarack1939 / 1941[Note 3]First Army (1942–44), I Corps (1941–42), Southern Command (1939–40)[10]
Sir Vernon Sturdee1939Chief of the General Staff (1940–42, 1946–50), First Army (1944–45)[10]
John Whitham+1940Southern Command (1940)[11]
Charles Miles1940Eastern Command (1940–41)[12][13]
Edward Smart1940Southern Command (1940–42)[10]
Sir Iven Mackay1941New Guinea Force (1943–44), Second Army (1942–44)[10]
Henry Wynter1941Lieutenant General Administration at Allied Land Headquarters (1942–44), Eastern Command (1941–42)[14]
Sir Leslie Morshead1942I Corps (1944–45), Second Army (1944), New Guinea Force (1944), II Corps (1943)[10]
Gordon Bennett1942III Corps (1942–44)
Sir Edmund Herring1942I Corps (1942–44), New Guinea Force (1942–43), II Corps (1942)[15]
Sir Carl Jess1942Chairman of the Manpower Committee (1939–44)[16]
Sir John Northcott1942British Commonwealth Occupation Force (1946), Chief of the General Staff (1940, 1942–45)[10]
Sir Sydney Rowell1942 / 1946[Note 4]Chief of the General Staff (1950–54), Vice Chief of the General Staff (1946–50), I Corps (1942)[17]
Sir Frank Berryman1944Eastern Command (1946–53), I Corps (1944), II Corps (1943–44)[10]
Sir Stanley Savige1944II Corps (1944–45), New Guinea Force (1944), I Corps (1944)[10]
Sir Horace Robertson1945Southern Command (1953–54), British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1951), British Commonwealth Occupation Force (1946–51), First Army (1945–46)[10]
Allan Boase1949Southern Command (1949–51)[18]
Cyril Clowes+1949[19]
Sir William Bridgeford+1951British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1951–53), Eastern Command (1951)[20]
Sir Henry Wells1951Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–59), Chief of the General Staff (1954–58), British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1953–54), Southern Command (1951–53)[21]
Victor Secombe+1951Northern Command (1952–54), Eastern Command (1951–52)[22]
Sir Eric Woodward1953Eastern Command (1953–57)[23]
Rudolph Bierwirth1954British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1954–56)
Robert Nimmo1954United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (1952–66)[24]
Sir Ragnar Garrett1954Chief of the General Staff (1958–60), Southern Command (1954–58)[25]
Hector Edgar1958Eastern Command (1960–63), Southern Command (1958–60)[26]
Sir Reginald Pollard1960Chief of the General Staff (1960–63), Eastern Command (1957–60)[27]
Sir John Wilton*1963Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1966–70),[Note 5] Chief of the General Staff (1963–66)[28]
Sir Thomas Daly1966Chief of the General Staff (1966–71)[29]
Sir Mervyn Brogan1971Chief of the General Staff (1971–73)
Sir Francis Hassett*1973Chief of the General Staff (1973–75)[30]
Sir Arthur MacDonald*1975Chief of the General Staff (1975–77)[31]
Sir Donald Dunstan1977Chief of the General Staff (1977–82)[32]
Sir Phillip Bennett*1982Chief of the General Staff (1982–84)
Peter Gration*1984Chief of the General Staff (1984–87)[33]
Lawrence O'Donnell1987Chief of the General Staff (1987–90)
John Coates1990Chief of the General Staff (1990–92)[34]
John Sanderson1992Chief of Army (1995–98),[Note 6] Commander Joint Forces Australia (1993–95), Commander United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (1992–93)[35]
John Grey1992Chief of the General Staff (1992–95)[36]
John Baker*1992Vice Chief of the Defence Force (1992–95)[37]
Frank Hickling1998Chief of Army (1998–2000)[38]
Desmond Mueller2000Vice Chief of the Defence Force (2000–02)[39]
Peter Cosgrove*2000Chief of Army (2000–02)[40]
Peter Leahy2002Chief of Army (2002–08)[41]
David Hurley*2003Vice Chief of Defence Force (2008–11), Chief of Joint Operations (2007–08), Chief of Capability Development Group (2003–07)[42]
Ken Gillespie2005Chief of Army (2008–11), Vice Chief of the Defence Force (2005–08)[43]
Mark Evans2008Chief of Joint Operations (2008–11)[44]
Ash Power2011Chief of Joint Operations (2011–14)
David Morrison2011Chief of Army (2011–15)[45]
Angus Campbell*2013Chief of Army (2015–18), Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (2013–15)[46]
John Caligari2014Chief of Capability Development Group (2014–15)[47]
Richard Burr^2018Chief of Army (2018–)
John Frewen^2018Principal Deputy Director Australian Signals Directorate (2018–)
Greg Bilton^2019Chief of Joint Operations (2019–)
Gavan Reynolds^2020Chief of Defence Intelligence (2020–)[48]

See also

  • Australian Defence Force ranks and insignia
  • Australian Army officer rank insignia
  • List of Australian Army generals

Notes

  1. ^ Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
  2. ^ Chauvel was promoted to general in November 1929, the year prior to his retirement.
  3. ^ Lavarack accepted a demotion to major general in 1940 to assume command of the 7th Division.
  4. ^ Rowell was promoted lieutenant general on assuming command of I Corps in April 1942, but was dismissed from the command in September and subsequently reduced to major general. He was restored to lieutenant general in 1946 on appointment as Vice Chief of the General Staff.[17]
  5. ^ Wilton was promoted to general in September 1968, halfway through his term as Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee.
  6. ^ Sanderson was Chief of the General Staff until the position was re-titled as Chief of Army in February 1997.

References

  1. ^ "Chapter 4: Badges and Emblems" (PDF). Army Dress Manual. Canberra: Australian Army. 6 June 2014. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2015.
  2. ^ Hill, Alec (1978), Chauvel of the Light Horse: A Biography of General Sir Harry Chauvel, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0-522-84146-5, OCLC 5003626
  3. ^ Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "Monash, Sir John (1865–1931)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 12 March 2011 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  4. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1990). White, Sir Cyril Brudenell Bingham (1876–1940). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 460–463. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  5. ^ Hill, A. J. (1983). Hobbs, Sir Joseph John Talbot (1864–1938). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 9. Melbourne University Press. pp. 315–317. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
  6. ^ Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1986). Legge, James Gordon (1863–1947)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 10. Melbourne University Press. pp. 63–65.
  7. ^ Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "McCay, Sir James Whiteside (1864–1930)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 1 December 2009 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  8. ^ Lodge, A. B. (1990). Squires, Ernest Ker (1882–1940). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 41–42.
  9. ^ Horner, David (1978). Crisis of Command: Australian Generalship and the Japanese Threat, 1941–1943. Canberra: Australian National University Press. ISBN 0-7081-1345-1.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Army List of Officers of the Australian Military Forces". Melbourne: Australian Army. 1950. OCLC 220688670. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ Burness, Peter (1990). Whitham, John Lawrence (1881–1952). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 476–477.
  12. ^ "Australian Military Forces". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 4 July 1940. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  13. ^ "Retired List". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 20 March 1947. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  14. ^ Perry, Warren (2002). Wynter, Henry Douglas (1886–1945). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 16. Melbourne University Press. pp. 599–600.
  15. ^ Browne, Geoff. Herring, Sir Edmund Francis (Ned) (1892–1982). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 17. Melbourne University Press. pp. 520–523.
  16. ^ Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1983). Jess, Sir Carl Herman (1884–1948)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 9. Melbourne University Press. pp. 485–487.
  17. ^ a b Hill, A. J. "Rowell, Sir Sydney Fairbairn (1894–1975)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Melbourne University Press. ISSN 1833-7538. Retrieved 31 January 2009 – via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  18. ^ Dicker, George (1993). Boase, Allan Joseph (1894–1964). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 208–209.
  19. ^ Denholm, David (1993). Clowes, Cyril Albert (1892–1968). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 446–447.
  20. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1993). Bridgeford, Sir William (1894–1971). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 255–257.
  21. ^ Andrews, E. M. (2002). Wells, Sir Henry (1898–1973). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 16. Melbourne University Press. p. 521.
  22. ^ Greville, P. J (2002). Secombe, Victor Clarence (1897–1962). Australian Dictionary of Biography. 16. Melbourne University Press. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  23. ^ "Woodward, Sir Eric Winslow (1899–1967)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  24. ^ James, Neil; Londey, Peter (2005). Nimmo, Robert Harold (1893–1966)]. Australian Dictionary of Biography Supplementary volume. Melbourne University Press. pp. 303–304.
  25. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1996). Garrett, Sir Alwyn Ragnar (1900–1977)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. 14. Melbourne University Press. p. 252.
  26. ^ "Edgar, Hector Geoffrey". World War II Nominal Roll. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  27. ^ Clark, Chris. "Pollard, Sir Reginald George (1903–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  28. ^ Horner, David. "Wilton, Sir John Gordon Noel (1910–1981)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  29. ^ Farquharson, John (9 January 2004). "Daly, Sir Thomas Joseph (Tom) (1913–2004)". Obituaries Australia. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  30. ^ "Who's who in Australian Military History: General Francis George (Frank) Hassett, AC, KBE, CB, DSO". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  31. ^ "Previous Chiefs". Chief of the Defence Force. Australia: Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
  32. ^ "In Memoriam: Lieutenant General Sir Donald Beaumont Dunstan, AC, KBE, CB (1923–2011)". Australian Army Journal. VIII (3): 187–189. 2011. ISSN 1448-2843.
  33. ^ "Peter Courtney Gration". Who's Who in Australia Online. Crown Content. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  34. ^ "Lieutenant General Henry John Coates". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  35. ^ "Lieutenant General John Murray Sanderson, AC". Australian War Museum.
  36. ^ "Lieutenant General John Cedric Grey". Who's Who in Australia Online. Connect Web. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  37. ^ "Short biography (and service record) of General John Stuart Baker AC, DSM". MECC 200/07 (Press release). Department of Defence, Australian Government. 10 July 2007.
  38. ^ Singh, Shivani (2010). Who's Who in Australia 2010. Melbourne, Australia: Crown Content. ISBN 1-74095-172-7.
  39. ^ "LTGEN Desmond Mueller". Biography (Press release). Department of Defence. 2 May 2000.
  40. ^ "Biographies of Peter and Lynne Cosgrove". Governor-General of Australia. Australian Government. Archived from the original on 29 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  41. ^ "Lieutenant General Professor Peter Francis Leahy". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  42. ^ "General David Hurley, AC, DSC". Biography. Department of Defence, Australian Government.
  43. ^ "Biography: LTGEN Ken Gillespie". Department of Defence, Australian Government. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
  44. ^ "Lt-Gen. (Rtd) Mark Evans". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  45. ^ "Chief of Army – Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 4 August 2013.
  46. ^ "Major General Angus Campbell promoted to Lieutenant General". Defence News. Department of Defence, Australian Government. 19 September 2013.
  47. ^ "Lieutenant General John Graham Caligari". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
  48. ^ McLaughlin, Andrew (3 July 2020). "Defence Intelligence Group Formed". ADBR. Retrieved 12 October 2020.

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Australian Army Rank OF-8 (Lieutenant General)