Li Keqiang

Li Keqiang
Li in November 2019
7th Premier of the People's Republic of China
Assumed office
15 March 2013
PresidentXi Jinping
Vice Premier
Cabinet II
Preceded byWen Jiabao
First Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China
In office
17 March 2008 – 15 March 2013
PremierWen Jiabao
Preceded byWu Yi (Acting)
Succeeded byZhang Gaoli
Communist Party Secretary of Liaoning
In office
13 December 2004 – 29 October 2007
DeputyZhang Wenyue (Governor)
Preceded byWen Shizhen
Succeeded byZhang Wenyue
Communist Party Secretary of Henan
In office
30 December 2002 – 13 December 2004
DeputyLi Chengyu (Governor)
Preceded byChen Kuiyuan
Succeeded byXu Guangchun
First Secretary of the Communist Youth League of China
In office
10 May 1993 – 23 June 1998
Preceded bySong Defu
Succeeded byZhou Qiang
Personal details
Born (1955-07-01) 1 July 1955
Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China
Political partyChinese Communist Party (1974–present)
Spouse(s)Cheng Hong
EducationPeking University (LLB, PhD)
CabinetLi Keqiang Government
WebsitePremier Li Keqiang
Central institution membership
  • 2007–: 17th, 18th Politburo Standing Committee
  • 2007–: 17th, 18th Politburo
  • 1997–: Full member, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th Central Committee
  • 1993–1998: Delegate, 8th National People's Congress

Leading group posts
  • 2020–: Leader, leading group on the prevention and control of the novel Coronavirus pandemic
  • 2014–: Deputy Leader, Leading Group for Internet Security and Informatization
  • 2013–: Deputy Leader, Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs
  • 2013–: Deputy Leader, Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms
  • 2013–: Leader, Leading Group for Climate Change and Emissions Reduction
  • 2008–2013: Leader, Leading Group for Health Care Reform
  • 2008–2013: Leader, Leading Group for Coordinating the South-North Water Transfer Project
  • 2008–2013: Leader, Leading Group for Coordinating the Three Gorges Dam Project

Other offices held
Li Keqiang
Li Keqiang (Chinese characters).svg
Li's name in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese李克强
Traditional Chinese李克強

Li Keqiang (Chinese: 李克强; pinyin: Lǐ Kèqiáng; born 1 July 1955) is a Chinese politician. He became premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China on 15 March 2013.

An economist by profession, Li is China's head of government as well as one of the leading figures behind China's Financial and Economic Affairs, Foreign Affairs, National Security and Deepening Reforms. He is also the second-ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, the de facto top decision-making body of the country. Li is a major part of the "fifth generation of Chinese leadership" along with CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping. Li was named the world's 12th most powerful person by Forbes in their list of the world's most powerful people in 2015 and 2016.

Li rose through the ranks through his involvement in the Communist Youth League. From 1998 to 2004, Li served as the Governor of Henan and the province's party secretary. From 2004 to 2007 he served as the Party Secretary of Liaoning, the top political office in the province. From 2008 to 2013, Li served as the first-ranked Vice-Premier[note 1] under then-Premier Wen Jiabao, overseeing a broad portfolio which included economic development, price controls, finance, climate change, and macroeconomic management.[1]

Given his Youth League experience, Li has generally been considered a political ally of former leader Hu Jintao. Li assumed the post of Premier in 2013, and has facilitated the Chinese government's shifting of priorities from export-led growth to a greater focus on internal consumption. Li has also been a major force behind the implementation of the "comprehensively deepening reforms" announced in the fall of 2013. Additionally, Li and his cabinet initiated the Made in China 2025 strategic plan in May 2015.[2]

Early life and education

Li Keqiang was born on 1 July 1955 in Hefei, Anhui province. His father was a local official in Anhui.

Li graduated from Hefei No.8 Senior High School in 1974, during the Cultural Revolution, and was sent for rural labour in Fengyang County, Anhui, where he eventually joined the Chinese Communist Party and made his way in becoming the party head of the local production team. He was awarded the honour of Outstanding Individual in the Study of Mao Zedong Thought during this time.[3] Li refused his father's offer of grooming him for the local county's party leadership and entered the School of Law at Peking University, where he received his LLB[4] and became the president of the university's student council. He earned a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in economics in 1995, and the prominent economist Li Yining (no relation) was his doctoral advisor. His doctoral dissertation was awarded the Sun Yefang Prize, China's highest prize in economics.[5]

In 1982, Li became the Communist Youth League secretary at Peking University.[6] He entered the top leadership of the national organization of the Communist Youth League (CYL) in 1983 as a member of its secretariat, and has worked closely with former Party General Secretary Hu Jintao, who also rose through the ranks of the CYL, ever since. Li became the organization's First Secretary in 1993 and served until 1998. He is a representative member of the first generation to have risen from the CYL leadership.

Rising through the ranks (1998–2012)

Provincial tenures

Li became the youngest Chinese provincial governor in June 1998 when he was appointed governor of Henan at the age of 43. According to provincial officials working with him at the time, Li refused to participate in any banquets or large fancy events not related to government activities.[7] During his time as governor, a public sense of his "bad luck" grew due to the occurrence of three major fires in the province.[8]

Li is known to be outspoken and led economic development in Henan, transforming the poor inland region into an attractive area for investment. Li did not spend time pursuing superficial projects. He trekked through all regions of the province trying to search for a comprehensive solution to its growing problems. Henan jumped in national GDP rankings from 28th in the early 1990s to 18th in 2004, when Li left Henan. However, his government was relatively ineffective at curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic that was affecting the rural areas of the province.

Li was transferred to work as the Party Secretary in Liaoning in December 2004, taking on the top political office of the province. There he is known for the "Five-points to one Line" project, where he linked up Dalian and Dandong, as well as a series of other ports into a comprehensive network to improve trade flow.

With his Youth League experience and his association with then paramount leader Hu Jintao, Li was seen from early on in Hu's term as a contender to succeed Hu when his term as party leader ends in 2012. Li gained membership to the Politburo Standing Committee at 17th Party Congress held in October 2007. He was succeeded in his provincial party secretary post by Governor Zhang Wenyue. While Li's political future seemed promising, he was outranked on the Standing Committee by Xi Jinping, who had just left his role as party secretary of Shanghai to join the central leadership ranks in Beijing. This rank order ostensibly signaled that it would be Xi, not Li, who would eventually succeed Hu as party General Secretary and President. At the 2008 National People's Congress, Li was elected Vice-Premier, first in rank, reinforcing the speculation that Li would become Premier and was being groomed to succeed then-Premier Wen Jiabao.[8]

Vice Premiership (2008–2013)

January 2011, Li attends the China-Britain Business Council dinner and delivers a speech.

During his first term in the PSC between 2007 and 2012, Li took on the most important portfolios in the Chinese government, including economic development, government budgets, land and resources, the environment, and health, ostensibly to prepare him for his upcoming premiership. He also became the head of central commissions overseeing the Three Gorges Dam and the South-North Water Transfer Project, as well as the leader of steering committees in charge of health care reform, food safety, and AIDS-related work. In addition, Li was the principal lieutenant to Premier Wen Jiabao in the broad portfolios of climate change, energy, information technology, northeastern China revitalization, and developing the Chinese far west.

Li's first major appearance internationally was at the 2010 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. The event was seen as a litmus test for Li. At the forum, Li succinctly presented China's long-term vision for development in front of world business and political leaders.[9] In particular, Li briefed the WEF on China's commitment to sustainable development, green energy, decreasing the income gap and modernizing key strategic industries.[9] While reiterating Beijing's commitment to peaceful development and its focus in increasing domestic demand in the face of external pressures during the global financial crisis, Li also warned against protectionism, saying "opening up can be both bilateral and multilateral... in this sense, one plus one is more often than not bigger than two." He also touched upon the importance of international development, and international financial reform. He called for a global governance structure that was "more reflective of the changes in the global political and economic landscape."[10]

In February 2010, Li gave a speech to ministerial and provincial-level leaders about the importance of changing the economic structure of the country in order to be better poised for future growth. The speech was published with minor omissions in the 1 June issue of Qiushi, the Communist Party's political theory publication. Li said that China had come to a critical historical inflection point where a fundamental shift in the structure of the economy must take place in order for the country to continue its path of growth. Li particularly emphasized the need to boost domestic consumption, and emphasized the importance of continued urbanization.[11] Li also emphasized that China should be moving towards a more middle class-oriented society with an "olive"-shaped wealth distribution, with the majority of the country's population and wealth belonging to the middle class.

He has also reiterated the importance of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization in China in order to improve its competitiveness, food security, energy security, affordable housing, and healthcare.[12]

In August 2011, Li went on an official visit to Hong Kong, including a trip to the University of Hong Kong. The political sensitivities and heightened security surrounding the event resulted in the Hong Kong 818 incident, an event that caused controversy in the territory.

At the 18th Party Congress held in the fall of 2012, Li was elevated to the number two spot on the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) and thereby became one of the top leaders of China. As he was expected to become Premier, this was a shift from previous convention on the PSC set in 1997 whereby the Premier ranked third, after the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, who ranked second. This change showed that the party intended to project Li as the number two figure in the Chinese political hierarchy, behind only party General Secretary Xi Jinping. Also in that same year, he had personally met with the openly gay Ma Baoli (a policeman turned businessman) to discuss the threat posed by HIV.[13] In the same conversation, they discussed LGBT issues on preventing discrimination which has been interpreted as a sign that the People's Republic is slowly coming around to the idea as major Chinese businesses have already begun tapping into the purchasing power of the LGBT community.[14]

Premiership (2013 to present)

Li with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte
July 2015, Li attends the Franco-Chinese economic summit and delivers a speech.

On 15 March 2013, Li Keqiang was, as expected, elected by the 12th National People's Congress as Premier.[15] At the same Congress, Party General Secretary Xi Jinping was elected President.[16] Li replaced Wen Jiabao, who retired after serving two terms as premier. Of the nearly 3,000 legislators assembled at the Congress, 2,940 voted for him, three against, and six abstained.[15] He was elected for a five-year term, but was expected to serve two terms like his predecessor Wen.[15]

On 16 March, the Congress selected Zhang Gaoli, Liu Yandong, Wang Yang, and Ma Kai as vice premiers following their respective nominations from Li Keqiang.[17] He gave his first major speech 17 March at the conclusion of the National People's Congress, calling for frugality in government, a fairer distribution of income and continued economic reform. Li has focused his attention on China to move towards a consumption based economy instead of relying on export led growth.[18] Li was ranked 14th of the 2013 Forbes Magazine's List of The World's Most Powerful People, after taking the office of Chinese Premier.[19]

Li is expected to remain in his position until March 2023.[20]

Domestic policy

March 2015, Li attends the Chinese and foreign press conference.

Li has an academic background in economics and is therefore a firm believer in the use of robust economic data to aid in government decision making. He is known to study economic statistics and routinely questions the reliability of the data he works with. Li has been described by international media as the pioneer behind the so-called "Keqiang index",[21] an unconventional economic measurement indicator devised by Li that was said to bypass the often unreliable official GDP numbers and thus serves as a better indicator of economic health and a more useful barometer for decision-making. Instead of gathering data on total economic output alone, Li used three other indicators to keep tabs on the economy while working in Liaoning province. These were, the railway cargo volume, electricity consumption and total loans disbursed by banks.

When Li initially entered office, China was facing numerous structural problems inherited from the previous administration. Namely, the large abundance of non-performing loans, that many of the giant infrastructure projects the country embarked on since the global financial crisis was overloaded with crushing debt and lower than expected revenues, and the increasingly large wealth gap. Under these circumstances, Li was said to have responded with what became known as "Likonomics", a term coined by economists at the investment bank Barclays Capital. Likonomics consisted of a three-prong approach that included the across-the-board reduction of debt, an end to massive stimulus practices of the Wen Jiabao government, and structural reforms.[22] However, by 2014, global economic pressures and a decrease in demand of Chinese exports led to lower than expected economic growth rates. Year-on-year GDP growth amounted to less than 7.5% for the first time since 1989. Li's government then responded with tax cuts for small businesses, renovation projects of poor urban areas, and another round of rail construction, particularly focused on the country's interior.[23]

After the announcement of comprehensive reforms at the Third Plenum in 2013, Li became a leading figure of the government's reform implementation efforts. The Third Plenum called for market forces to play a "decisive" role in the allocation of resources, ostensibly looking to decrease government regulation on the free market. In early 2014, Li said that local governments were still ineffective at following the central government's reform directives, and that some governments meddle in affairs they shouldn't be involved in, and some don't pay attention to things they should be doing. Li emphasized that the success of reforms came down to "execution and implementation," and criticized local governments for failing to act in support of reforms.[24]

Foreign affairs

Li Keqiang made his first foreign visit to India on 18 May 2013 in a bid to resolve border disputes and to stimulate economic relations.[25] He said the choice of India as the first international visit highlights Chinese importance in its relations with the country.[26] During Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to China in 2015, Li and Modi took a selfie together at the Temple of Heaven.

During his visit to Pakistan he met with top leadership of country and expressed his views "As Pakistan's closest friend and brother, we would like to provide as much assistance as we can for the Pakistani side".[27]

Li Keqiang also visited Switzerland and Germany on his first Europe trip, and met with the two countries' leaders.[28]

United States lieutenant general H. R. McMaster wrote of Li Keqiang that, "If anyone in the American group had any doubts about China's view of its relationship with the United States, Li's monologue would have removed them. He began with the observation that China, having already developed its industrial and technological base, no longer needed the United States."[29]

Reduction of bureaucracy

Li is especially critical of unnecessary government bureaucracy, particularly at the grassroots level. He believes that many lower-level officials fail to provide services to the public in an effective manner. Regarding his disdain for the matter, Li's many quotable anecdotes have become viral. Li referred to a case in which a citizen filling out a form to travel overseas (normal in the PRC) had to write down an emergency contact (the citizen put down their mother as the contact), and the government official overseeing the matter asked the citizen to provide a notarized document to "prove your mom is your mom."[30] Li called this incident "absolutely preposterous." In another case, he referred to a grassroots civil servant who asked for proof that a one-year old does not have a criminal record in order to deliver a government service.[31] In yet another case, Li referred to a senior citizen applying for welfare benefits being forced by government employees to provide proof that "they are still alive." Regarding the latter two incidents, Li said, "this is not a joke, it's all real!"[31]

Manufacturing and technological innovation

Li Keqiang, a vocal proponent of bolstering technological innovation, lamented how China was producing 800 million tons of steel annually but still importing the specialized type of stainless steel needed to make the better tip cases. The Chinese premier's comments caused consternation in China's pen industry – which was not used to being the topic of mainstream political conversation. These pen companies were once happy to manufacture shoddy pens that were sometimes exported abroad as cheap knockoffs of better brands. Now, they were being told that they were expected to do something more.[32]

He reiterated this point frequently during public appearances, adding that pens using domestically produced parts felt inferior to foreign ones. The ballpoint pen became a potent symbol for perceived flaws in China's economy and technological capabilities. "That's the real situation facing us", Li said at a meeting with economists in December 2015. "We cannot make ballpoint pens with a smooth writing function". In 2016 Premier Li Keqiang went on national television and bemoaned the failure of his country to produce a good quality version of this seemingly-simple implement. Locally-made versions felt "rough" compared to those from Germany, Switzerland and Japan, Mr Li complained.

On one level, whether China can make a great pen is not hugely important in the scheme of things. High-tech and innovative manufacturing lie at the heart of the central government's Made in China 2025 programme – designed to help domestic growth. Relatively low-value items, like ballpoint pens, have not been a priority. But the pen-conundrum was a symbolic one. About much more than pens, his goal is to encourage independence and innovation. The pen tip issue was first brought into the spotlight by Li Keqiang, offering an insight into a major issue confronting Chinese manufacturers – weak competitiveness in core technology. State-owned Taiyuan Iron and Steel (Group) Co plans to mass-produce ballpoint pen tips and replace imports in two years, company officials said in 2017.[33]

Xi–Li Administration

Xi Jinping (left) and Li Keqiang (right)

At the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee held in the fall of 2013, the Communist Party announced far reaching economic and social reforms. However, the document outlining the reforms was drafted under the leadership of Xi, Liu Yunshan and Zhang Gaoli, and Li was ostensibly not involved in preparing the document. This departure from convention (Wen Jiabao was the principal drafter of documents behind the reforms announced at the Third Plenum of 2003) led to speculation that Li was becoming marginalized in the new administration, and that the widely touted "Xi-Li Administration" in fact did not exist, as power was increasingly being centralized under the hands of Xi as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.[34]

Following the Third Plenum of 2013, Xi amassed a series of leadership roles on four new powerful supra-ministerial bodies overseeing "comprehensively deepening reforms", the internet, military reform, and also the National Security Commission. The "deepening reforms" leading group was said to be encroaching on the affairs in the economic realm normally handled by the Premier, and was seen as having the effect of reducing Li's institutional power. However, Li appeared in official press releases as Xi's foremost lieutenant, being named Vice Chairman of the National Security Commission,[35] in addition to becoming the deputy leader of leading groups on "deepening reforms", internet security, and the economy and finance.

On 18 March 2018, Li was reappointed Premier of China after receiving 2,964 votes in favour and just two against by the National People's Congress.[36]

On 11 March 2022, Li confirmed that he would be stepping down as Premier of China upon the expiration of his second term in March 2023.[37]

COVID-19 pandemic

Since January 2020, Li has been in charge of the Chinese government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[38][39] On 27 January, Premier Li Keqiang visited Wuhan, the original epicenter of the pandemic, to direct outbreak prevention work.[40]

Personal life

Li is married to Cheng Hong, a professor in English Language and Literature (especially American Naturalism) at Capital University of Economics and Business in Beijing. His father-in-law was once the deputy secretary of the Communist Youth League Central Committee. He speaks conversational English.[41]


  • Li, Yining; Meng, Xiaosu; Li, Yuanchao; Li, Keqiang (December 2018). The Strategic Choice for China's Prosperity (English Version). Translated by Shi, Guangjun; Jiang, Hongxing. Singapore: South Ocean Publishing House.

See also


  1. ^ Li's title has been variously translated as "Executive Vice Premier" or "First Vice-Premier", though the practice of making explicit reference to the Vice Premier's rank has gradually been phased out since Deng Xiaoping last assumed the title of "First Vice Premier" during the Cultural Revolution. In state media, Li has almost always been referred to as simply the "Vice Premier".


  1. ^ "China's new top Party leaders make debut". 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2012.
  2. ^ "Made in China 2025" plan unveiled to boost manufacturing Archived 25 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine China News Service, May 2015
  3. ^ 《多维月刊》:李克强出身非平民,成长靠恩师(2). (in Chinese). 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  4. ^ "Profile: Chinese First Vice Prime Minister Li Keqiang". Radio Free Europe. 7 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  5. ^ 总理恩师厉以宁 [Li Yining: teacher of the premier] (in Chinese (China)). Sohu. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  6. ^ Xiaobing Li (2015). Modern China. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California. p. 104. ISBN 978-1610696258.
  7. ^ "Duowei: Li Keqiang helps Henan fight off the poverty". Chinese Newsnet (in Chinese). 10 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  8. ^ a b "Power Players: Li Keqiang". The Diplomat. 28 September 2012. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  9. ^ a b Maidment, Paul (28 January 2010). "China's Li Delivers A Polished Future". Forbes. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  10. ^ Li, Keqiang. "Davos Annual Meeting 2010 – Special Address by Li Keqiang". World Economic Forum. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2010.
  11. ^ Li, Keqiang. 关于调整经济结构促进持续发展的几个问题 [Questions Concerning Changes to China's Economic Structure]. Qiushi. Archived from the original on 4 June 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  12. ^ Xinhua News Agency (11 October 2010). "China's vice premier urges accelerating industrialization, urbanization". Xinhuanet. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
  13. ^ Wang, Yue. "This Chinese Policeman Built The World's Top Gay Dating App, Now He Wants More International Users". Archived from the original on 15 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  14. ^ Horton, Nick. "Chinese businesses eye purchasing power of LGBT community". Archived from the original on 16 October 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  15. ^ a b c "China confirms Li Keqiang as premier". BBC. 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2013.
  16. ^ "Li Keqiang named Chinese premier, government's second most powerful post". CNN. 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  17. ^ "Who's Who in China's New Government Leadership Lineup". Bloomberg. 16 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 March 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  18. ^ DING QINGFEN (26 March 2013). "Premier Li Keqiang focuses on consumption". China Daily. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  19. ^ "Li Keqiang". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
  20. ^ "China alters vice premier selection, paving way for Xi loyalists". Nikkei Asia.
  21. ^ "Keqiang ker-ching: How China's next prime minister keeps tabs on its economy". The Economist. 9 December 2010. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015.
  22. ^ "Likonomics: what's not to like". The Economist. 1 July 2013. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
  23. ^ Chen, George (7 April 2014). "Forget 'Likonomics', it's all about economic stimulus in China again". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  24. ^ 学者称李克强style为专家治国 [Scholars say Li Keqiang style is an expert] (in Chinese). Duowei News. 21 July 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015.
  25. ^ "Chinese premier visits India". Al Jazeera English. 19 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  26. ^ "Chinese PM vows to build trust with India". Al Jazeera English. 19 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 August 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Chinese premier hopes for more fruits in friendship with Pakistan". Xinhuane. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 15 August 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
  28. ^ Li visits four countries Archived 25 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine China Daily
  29. ^ McMaster, Herbert Raymond (17 April 2020). "How China Sees the World". The Atlantic. The Atlantic. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  30. ^ "Archived copy" 李克强:证明"你妈是你妈"是天大笑话. Duowei News. 6 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ a b "Archived copy" 李克强屡斥"奇葩"证明 简政放权再推进. Chinanews. 12 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2015.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  32. ^ Atkinson, Simon (15 October 2018). "Why the ballpoint pen has eluded China". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  33. ^ State-owned Taiyuan Iron and Steel (Group) Co plans to mass-produce these ballpoint pen tips and replace imports in two years, company officials said on Tuesday.
  34. ^ 习刘张起草三中 李克强未参与引争议 [Xi Liu Zhang drafted three middle schools Li Keqiang did not participate in the dispute]. Duowei News (in Chinese). 17 November 2013. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015.
  35. ^ "Xi Jinping to lead national security commission". China Daily. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  36. ^ "Li Keqiang endorsed as China's premier; military leaders confirmed". 18 March 2018. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  37. ^ Reuters (11 March 2022). "Chinese premier Li confirms he will step down next March". Reuters. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  38. ^ "Chinese premier stresses curbing viral pneumonia epidemic". China Daily. Beijing: Xinhua News Agency. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  39. ^ "China to extend Spring Festival holiday to contain coronavirus outbreak". Xinhua News Agency. Beijing. 26 January 2020.
  40. ^ "Chinese Premier Li visits Wuhan, epicenter of virus outbreak". Reuters. Beijing. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  41. ^ Li Keqiang's Wife and In-laws Archived 22 January 2013 at Duowei Monthly

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Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Flag of Israel.svg
Flag of Israel. Shows a Magen David (“Shield of David”) between two stripes. The Shield of David is a traditional Jewish symbol. The stripes symbolize a Jewish prayer shawl (tallit).
Flag of Laos.svg
Flag of Laos
Flag of Maldives.svg
Flag of Maldives. The colours used are Pantone 186 C for red and Pantone 348 C for green.
Flag of Syria.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Albania.svg
Flag of Albania
Flag of Austria.svg
Flag of Austria with the red in the Austrian national colours which was official ordered within the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) in the characteristic “Pantone 032 C” (since May 2018 the Red is ordered in the characteristic “Pantone 186 C”.)
Flag of Croatia.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Greece.svg
Flag of Greece (since 1978) and Naval Ensign of Greece (since 1828)
Flag of Iceland.svg
The Flag of Iceland.
  • Horizontal aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:14;
  • Vertical aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:7.
Flag of Ireland.svg
Note that the green portion of the flag was designed to represent the majority Catholic residents of the island, the orange side the minority Protestant and the white middle part peace and harmony between them.
Flag of Italy.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Montenegro.svg
Flag of the Republic of Montenegro (adopted on 13 July 2004) - RGB colours, official 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag (Government of Montenegro) and Coat of arms (Government of Montenegro).
Flag of Portugal.svg
Flag of Portugal, created by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), officially adopted by Portuguese government in June 30th 1911 (in use since about November 1910). Color shades matching the RGB values officially reccomended here. (PMS values should be used for direct ink or textile; CMYK for 4-color offset printing on paper; this is an image for screen display, RGB should be used.)
Flag of Russia.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Slovenia.svg
The flag of Slovenia.
"The construction sheet for the coat of arms and flag of the Republic of Slovenia
is issued in the Official Gazette Uradni list Republike Slovenije #67, 27 October 1994
as the addendum to the Law on the coat of arms and flag."
Flag of South Ossetia.svg
Flag of South Ossetia
Flag of Fiji.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Nauru.svg
The national flag of Nauru. Official Pantone colours are: PMS 280 blue, PMS 123 yellow.
Flag of Japan.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
SARS-CoV-2 (Wikimedia colors).svg
Author/Creator: Geraki, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
SARS-CoV-2 logo in Wikimedia colors
Dmitry Medvedev and Li Keqiang 20191101 (cropped).jpg
(c), CC BY 4.0
Dmitry Medvedev meets with Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China Li Keqiang
Premier Li Keqiang.jpg
Author/Creator: Minister-president Rutte, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Premier Li Keqiang ontvangt minister-president Rutte in de Grote Hal van het Volk. Rutte is in China voor een officieel bezoek. Hij wordt hierbij vergezeld door minister Ploumen en een delegatie van het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven.
Dilma Rousseff e o primeiro-ministro chinês Li Keqiang.jpg
Author/Creator: Marcelo Camargo/Agência Brasil, Licence: CC BY 3.0 br
Dilma e primeiro-ministro chinês Li Keqiang durante assinatura de atos.
Vladimir Putin and Li Keqiang (2018-11-15) 02.jpg
(c), CC BY 4.0
Встреча Президента Российской Федерации Владимира Путина с Премьером Государственного Совета КНР Ли Кэцяном
Chinese Premiere Li Greets Secretary Kerry in Beijing (12517506424).jpg
Chinese Premiere Li Keqiang greets U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry at a meeting at the Ziguangge Purple Chamber at the Zhongnanhai Leadership Compound in Beijing, China on February 14, 2014. [State Department photo/ Public Domain]
Zhang Gaoli in 2014.jpg
Vice Premier of China Zhang Gaoli, whose portfolio includes environmental issues, shakes hands with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry before a meeting about climate change and other topics at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, China, on November 11, 2014.
Han Zheng (2018-09-18) 01.jpg
(c), CC BY 4.0
Первый заместитель Премьера Государственного совета Китайской Народной Республики Хань Чжэн во время встречи с Президентом Российской Федерации Владимиром Путиным
12th East Asia Summit (2).jpg
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte chats with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and People's Republic of China Li Keqiang prior to the start of the 12th East Asia Summit at the Philippine International Convention Center on November 14, 2017. REY BANIQUET/PRESIDENTIAL PHOTO
Korea President Park PrimeMinister LiKeqiang 20130628 01.jpg
(c) / Korean Culture and Information Service (Photographer name), CC BY-SA 2.0
President Park Geun-hye’s state visit to China

Photo=Cheong Wa Dae

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박근혜 대통령 중국 국빈방문


韩国总统朴槿惠 将对中国进行国事访问

韩国总统朴槿惠访华 打开中韩未来新篇章


韩总统朴槿惠访华 为韩中关系设定新的未来愿景
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China.svg
National emblem of the People's Republic of China
Li Keqiang (cropped).jpg
Author/Creator: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Licence: OGL v1.0
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg meeting Li Keqiang, Vice Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China in London, 10 January 2011.
Vice Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China (5347479772).jpg
Author/Creator: Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Licence: OGL v1.0
Li Keqiang, Vice Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China speaking at the China-Britain Business Council Banquet, 11 January 2011.
Li Keqiang, Chinese and foreign press conference.jpg
Sommet éco franco-chinois-2022.jpg
Author/Creator: Pablo Tupin-Noriega, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Li Keqiang at Sommet économique franco-chinois