Korean era name

Korean era name
Hangul
연호
Hanja
年號
Revised RomanizationYeonho
McCune–ReischauerYŏnho

Korean era names were titles adopted in historical Korea for the purpose of year identification and numbering. Era names were used during the period of Silla, Goguryeo, Balhae, Taebong, Goryeo, Joseon, and the Korean Empire. Various Korean regimes officially adopted the era names of Chinese dynasties.

Era names originated in 140 BCE in China, during the reign of the Emperor Wu of Han.[1][2] Since the middle of the 6th century CE, various Korean regimes started to use era names.[2][3][4]

List of Korean era names

This is a list of era names used by historical regimes on the Korean Peninsula. Several of these regimes officially adopted the era names of China; in such instances, the Chinese renditions of the era names are stated in parentheses.

Goguryeo

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo
(r. 391–413 CE)
Yeonglak
永樂
영락
391–412 CE22 years
King Jangsu of Goguryeo
(r. 413–491 CE)
Yeonsu
延壽
연수
451 CE–?Unknown
Disputed usage
Yeonggang
永康
영강
UnknownUnknownThe 7th year of Yeonggang might be 396 CE, 418 CE, 483 CE, or 551 CE.
Geonheung
建興
건흥
UnknownUnknownThe 5th year of Geonheung might be 476 CE, 536 CE, or 596 CE.
Yeon-ga
延嘉
연가
UnknownUnknownThe 7th year of Yeon-ga might be 479 CE or 539 CE.

Silla

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
King Beopheung of Silla
(r. 514–540 CE)
Geon-won
建元
건원
536–551 CE16 yearsUsage continued by King Jinheung of Silla upon his ascension to the throne.
King Jinheung of Silla
(r. 540–576 CE)
Gaeguk
開國
개국
551–568 CE18 years
Daechang
大昌
대창
568–571 CE3 years
Hongje
鴻濟
홍제
572–584 CE12 yearsUsage continued by King Jinji of Silla and King Jinpyeong of Silla upon their ascension to the throne.
King Jinpyeong of Silla
(r. 579–632 CE)
Geonbok
建福
건복
584–634 CE51 yearsUsage continued by Queen Seondeok of Silla upon her ascension to the throne.
Queen Seondeok of Silla
(r. 632–647 CE)
Inpyeong
仁平
인평
634–647 CE14 yearsUsage continued by Queen Jindeok of Silla upon her ascension to the throne.
Queen Jindeok of Silla
(r. 647–654 CE)
Taehwa
太和
태화
647–650 CE4 years
Yeonghwi (Yonghui)
永徽
영휘
650–654 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Muyeol of Silla
(r. 654–661 CE)
Yeonghwi (Yonghui)
永徽
영휘
654–655 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hyeongyeong (Xianqing)
顯慶
현경
656–661 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yongsag (Longshuo)
龍朔
용삭
661 CE5 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Munmu of Silla
(r. 661–681 CE)
Yongsak (Longshuo)
龍朔
용삭
661–663 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Indeog (Linde)
麟德
인덕
664–665 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonbong (Qianfeng)
乾封
건봉
666–668 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Chongjang (Zongzhang)
總章
총장
668–670 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hamhyeong (Xianheng)
咸亨
함형
670–674 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Sang-won (Shangyuan)
上元
상원
674–676 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Uibong (Yifeng)
儀鳳
의봉
676–679 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jolo (Tiaolu)
調露
조로
679–680 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeonglyung (Yonglong)
永隆
영륭
680–681 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Sinmun of Silla
(r. 681–692 CE)
Yeonglyung (Yonglong)
永隆
영륭
681 CE3 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaeyo (Kaiyao)
開耀
개요
681–682 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongsun (Yongchun)
永淳
영순
682–683 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hongdo (Hongdao)
弘道
홍도
683 CE1 monthAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Saseong (Sisheng)
嗣聖
사성
684 CE2 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Munmyeong (Wenming)
文明
문명
684 CE10 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Sugong (Chuigong)
垂拱
수공
685–688 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongchang (Yongchang)
永昌
영창
689 CE11 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jaecho (Zaichu)
載初
재초
689–690 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonsu (Tianshou)
天授
천수
690–692 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Yeoui (Ruyi)
如意
여의
692 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
King Hyoso of Silla
(r. 692–702 CE)
Yeoui (Ruyi)
如意
여의
692 CE3 monthsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Jangsu (Changshou)
長壽
장수
692–694 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Yeonjae (Yanzai)
延載
연재
694 CE8 monthsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Jeungseong (Zhengsheng)
證聖
증성
695–696 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Mansetongcheon (Wansuitongtian)
萬歲通天
만세통천
696–697 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Singong (Shengong)
神功
신공
697 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Seonglyeog (Shengli)
聖曆
성력
698–700 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Gusi (Jiushi)
久視
구시
700–701 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Daejok (Dazu)
大足
대족
701 CE10 monthsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Jang-an (Chang'an)
長安
장안
701–702 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
King Seongdeok of Silla
(r. 702–737 CE)
Jang-an (Chang'an)
長安
장안
702–704 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty of China.
Sillyong (Shenlong)
神龍
신룡
705–707 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Wu Zhou dynasty and Tang dynasty of China.
Gyeonglyong (Jinglong)
景龍
경룡
707–710 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Danglyung (Tanglong)
唐隆
당륭
710 CE2 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gyeong-un (Jingyun)
景雲
경운
710–712 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Taegeuk (Taiji)
太極
태극
712 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeonhwa (Yanhe)
延和
연화
712 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaewon (Kaiyuan)
開元
개원
713–737 CE25 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Hyoseong of Silla
(r. 737–742 CE)
Gaewon (Kaiyuan)
開元
개원
737–741 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonbo (Tianbao)
天寶
천보
742 CE5 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongdeok of Silla
(r. 742–765 CE)
Cheonbo (Tianbao)
天寶
천보
742–756 CE15 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jideok (Zhide)
至德
지덕
757–758 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geon-won (Qianyuan)
乾元
건원
758–760 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Sang-won (Shangyuan)
上元
상원
760–761 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Bo-eung (Baoying)
寶應
보응
762–763 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwangdeok (Guangde)
廣德
광덕
764 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongtae (Yongtai)
永泰
영태
765 CE6 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Hyegong of Silla
(r. 765–780 CE)
Yeongtae (Yongtai)
永泰
영태
765–766 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daelyeok (Dali)
大曆
대력
766–779 CE14 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonjung (Jianzhong)
建中
건중
780 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Seondeok of Silla
(r. 780–785 CE)
Geonjung (Jianzhong)
建中
건중
780–783 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Heung-won (Xingyuan)
興元
흥원
784 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
785 CE1 monthAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Wonseong of Silla
(r. 785–798 CE)
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
785–798 CE14 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Soseong of Silla
(r. 798–800 CE)
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
799–800 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Aejang of Silla
(r. 800–809 CE)
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
800–805 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yeongjeong (Yongzhen)
永貞
영정
805 CE5 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Wonhwa (Yuanhe)
元和
원화
806–809 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heondeok of Silla
(r. 809–826 CE)
Wonhwa (Yuanhe)
元和
원화
809–820 CE12 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Jang-gyeong (Changqing)
長慶
장경
821–824 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Bolyeok (Baoli)
寶曆
보력
825–826 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heungdeok of Silla
(r. 826–836 CE)
Bolyeog (Baoli)
寶曆
보력
826–827 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daehwa (Dahe)
大和
대화
827–835 CE9 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
836 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Huigang of Silla
(r. 836–838 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
836–838 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Minae of Silla
(r. 838–839 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
838–839 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Sinmu of Silla
(r. 839 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
839 CE7 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Munseong of Silla
(r. 839–857 CE)
Gaeseong (Kaicheng)
開成
개성
839–840 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hoechang (Huichang)
會昌
회창
841–846 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daejung (Dazhong)
大中
대중
847–857 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heonan of Silla
(r. 857–861 CE)
Daejung (Dazhong)
大中
대중
857–860 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Hamtong (Xiantong)
咸通
함통
860–861 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongmun of Silla
(r. 861–875 CE)
Hamtong (Xiantong)
咸通
함통
861–875 CE15 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonbu (Qianfu)
乾符
건부
875 CE6 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Heongang of Silla
(r. 875–886 CE)
Geonbu (Qianfu)
乾符
건부
875–879 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwangmyeong (Guangming)
廣明
광명
880–882 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Junghwa (Zhonghe)
中和
중화
882–886 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwang-gye (Guangqi)
光啓
광계
886 CE2 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Jeonggang of Silla
(r. 886–887 CE)
Gwang-gye (Guangqi)
光啓
광계
886–887 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Queen Jinseong of Silla
(r. 887–897 CE)
Gwang-gye (Guangqi)
光啓
광계
887–888 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Mundeok (Wende)
文德
문덕
888 CE11 monthsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Yong-gi (Longji)
龍紀
광계
889 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Daesun (Dashun)
大順
대순
890–892 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gyeongbok (Jingfu)
景福
경복
893 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Geonnyeong (Qianning)
乾寧
건녕
894–897 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
King Hyogong of Silla
(r. 897–912 CE)
Geonnyeong (Qianning)
乾寧
건녕
897–898 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gwanghwa (Guanghua)
光化
광화
898–901 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonbok (Tianfu)
天復
천복
901–904 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Cheon-u (Tianyou)
天祐
천우
904–907 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Tang dynasty of China.
Gaepyeong (Kaiping)
開平
개평
907–911 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Geonhwa (Qianhua)
乾化
건화
911–912 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
King Sindeok of Silla
(r. 912–917 CE)
Geonhwa (Qianhua)
乾化
건화
912–913 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Bonglyeok (Fengli)
鳳曆
봉력
913 CE2 monthsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Geonhwa (Qianhua)
乾化
건화
913–915 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Jeongmyeong (Zhenming)
貞明
정명
915–917 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongmyeong of Silla
(r. 917–924 CE)
Jeongmyeong (Zhenming)
貞明
정명
917–921 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Yongdeok (Zhenming)
龍德
용덕
921–923 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Liang dynasty of China.
Dong-gwang (Tongguang)
同光
동광
923–924 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongae of Silla
(r. 924–927 CE)
Dong-gwang (Tongguang)
同光
동광
924–926 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonseong (Tiancheng)
天成
천성
926–927 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
King Gyeongsun of Silla
(r. 927–935 CE)
Cheonseong (Tiancheng)
天成
천성
927–930 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Jangheung (Changxing)
長興
장흥
930–933 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Eungsun (Yingshun)
應順
응순
934 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheongtae (Qingtai)
淸泰
청태
934–935 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.

Other regimes contemporaneous with Silla

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
Kim Heon-chang
(r. 822 CE)
Gyeong-un
慶雲
경운
822–825 CE4 yearsUsage continued by Kim Beop-mun upon his ascension to the throne.

Balhae

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
King Mu of Balhae
(r. 719–737 CE)
Inan
仁安
인안
720–737 CE18 yearsUsage might be from 718 CE to 737 CE, for a total length of 20 years; or from 719 CE to 737 CE, for a total length of 19 years.
King Mun of Balhae
(r. 737–793 CE)
Daeheung
大興
대흥
738–794 CE57 yearsUsage might be from 737 CE to 774 CE, then from 786 CE to 793 CE, for a total length of 45 years; or from 737 CE to 774 CE, then from 785 CE to 793 CE, for a total length of 46 years.
Boryeok
寶曆
보력
774–785 CE12 yearsUsage might be from 774 CE to 786 CE, for a total length of 13 years. Subsequently, reverted to Daeheung (大興; 대흥).
King Seong of Balhae
(r. 793–794 CE)
Jungheung
中興
중흥
794 CE1 year
King Gang of Balhae
(r. 794–809 CE)
Jeongnyeok
正曆
정력
795–809 CE15 yearsUsage might be from 794 CE to 808 CE, for a total length of 15 years; or from 795 CE to 807 CE, for a total length of 13 years.
King Jeong of Balhae
(r. 809–812 CE)
Yeongdeok
永德
영덕
810–812 CE3 yearsUsage might be from 808 CE to 812 CE, for a total length of 5 years; or from 808 CE to 811 CE, for a total length of 4 years.
King Hui of Balhae
(r. 812–817 CE)
Jujak
朱雀
주작
813–817 CE5 yearsUsage might be from 812 CE to 817 CE, for a total length of 6 years; or from 812 CE to 816 CE, for a total length of 5 years.
King Gan of Balhae
(r. 817–818 CE)
Taesi
太始
태시
818 CE1 yearUsage might be from 813 CE to 817 CE, for a total length of 5 years; or from 817 CE to 818 CE, for a total length of 2 years.
King Seon of Balhae
(r. 818–830 CE)
Geonheung
建興
건흥
819–830 CE12 yearsUsage might be from 818 CE to 830 CE, for a total length of 13 years.
Dae Ijin
(r. 830–857 CE)
Hamhwa
咸和
함화
831–857 CE27 years

Later Baekje

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
Gyeon Hwon
(r. 892–935 CE)
Jeonggae
正開
정개
900–936 CE37 yearsUsage continued by Gyeon Singeom upon his ascension to the throne.

Taebong

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
Gung Ye
(r. 901–918 CE)
Mutae
武泰
무태
904–905 CE2 years
Seongchaek
聖冊
성책
905–911 CE7 years
Sudeokmanse
水德萬歲
수덕만세
911–914 CE4 years
Jeonggae
政開
정개
914–918 CE5 years

Goryeo

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
King Taejo of Goryeo
(r. 918–943 CE)
Cheonsu
天授
천수
918–933 CE16 years
Jangheung (Changxing)
長興
장흥
933 CE10 monthsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Eungsun (Yingshun)
應順
응순
934 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheongtae (Qingtai)
淸泰
청태
934–938 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Tang dynasty of China.
Cheonbok (Tianfu)
天福
천복
938–943 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
King Hyejong of Goryeo
(r. 943–945 CE)
Cheonbok (Tianfu)
天福
천복
944 CE7 monthsAdopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
Gaeun (Kaiyun)
開運
개운
944–945 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
King Jeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 945–949 CE)
Gaeun (Kaiyun)
開運
개운
946–948 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Jin dynasty of China.
Geon-u (Qianyou)
乾祐
건우
948–949 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Han dynasty of China.
King Gwangjong of Goryeo
(r. 949–975 CE)
Gwangdeok
光德
광덕
949–952 CE4 years
Gwangsun (Guangshun)
廣順
광순
952–954 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Zhou dynasty of China.
Hyeondeok (Xiande)
顯德
현덕
954–960 CE7 yearsAdopted the era name of the Later Zhou dynasty of China.
Junpung
峻豊
준풍
960–963 CE4 years
Geondeok (Qiande)
乾德
건덕
963–968 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Gaebo (Kaibao)
開寶
개보
968–975 CE8 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
King Gyeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 975–981 CE)
Gaebo (Kaibao)
開寶
개보
976 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Taepyeongheung-gug (Taipingxingguo)
太平興國
태평흥국
976–981 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
King Seongjong of Goryeo
(r. 981–997 CE)
Taepyeongheung-gug (Taipingxingguo)
太平興國
태평흥국
982–984 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Onghui (Yongxi)
雍熙
옹희
984–987 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Dangong (Duangong)
端拱
단공
988–989 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Sunhwa (Chunhua)
淳化
순화
990–994 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Tonghwa (Tonghe)
統和
통화
994–997 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Mokjong of Goryeo
(r. 997–1009 CE)
Tonghwa (Tonghe)
統和
통화
998–1009 CE12 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Hyeonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1009–1031 CE)
Tonghwa (Tonghe)
統和
통화
1010–1012 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Gaetae (Kaitai)
開泰
개태
1012–1015 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Daejungsangbu (Dazhongxiangfu)
大中祥符
대중상부
1016 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Cheonhui (Tianxi)
天禧
천희
1017–1022 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Geonheung (Qianxing)
乾興
건흥
1022 CE3 monthsAdopted the era name of the Northern Song dynasty of China.
Taepyeong (Taiping)
太平
태평
1022–1031 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Deokjong of Goryeo
(r. 1031–1034 CE)
Taepyeong (Taiping)
太平
태평
1032–1034 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Jeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 1034–1046 CE)
Taepyeong (Taiping)
太平
태평
1035–1038 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Junghui (Chongxi)
重熙
태평
1038–1046 CE9 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Munjong of Goryeo
(r. 1046–1083 CE)
Junghui (Chongxi)
重熙
태평
1047–1055 CE9 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Cheongnyeong (Qingning)
淸寧
청녕
1055–1064 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Ham-ong (Xianyong)
咸雍
함옹
1065–1074 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Daegang (Dakang)
大康
대강
1075–1082 CE8 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Sunjong of Goryeo
(r. 1083 CE)
Daegang (Dakang)
大康
대강
1083 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Seonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1083–1094 CE)
Daegang (Dakang)
大康
대강
1084 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Daean (Da'an)
大安
대안
1085–1094 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Heonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1094–1095 CE)
Suchang (Shouchang)
壽昌
수창
1095 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Sukjong of Goryeo
(r. 1095–1105 CE)
Suchang (Shouchang)
壽昌
수창
1096–1101 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Geontong (Qiantong)
乾統
건통
1101–1105 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Yejong of Goryeo
(r. 1105–1122 CE)
Geontong (Qiantong)
乾統
건통
1106–1110 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
Cheongyeong (Tianqing)
天慶
천경
1111–1116 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Liao dynasty of China.
King Injong of Goryeo
(r. 1122–1146 CE)
Hwangtong (Huangtong)
皇統
황통
1141–1146 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Uijong of Goryeo
(r. 1146–1170 CE)
Hwangtong (Huangtong)
皇統
황통
1147–1149 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Cheondeok (Tiande)
天德
천덕
1149–1153 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jeong-won (Zhenyuan)
貞元
정원
1153–1156 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jeonglyung (Zhenglong)
正隆
정륭
1156–1161 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Daejeong (Dading)
大定
대정
1161–1170 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Myeongjong of Goryeo
(r. 1170–1197 CE)
Daejeong (Dading)
大定
대정
1171–1189 CE19 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Myeongchang (Mingchang)
明昌
명창
1190–1196 CE7 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Seung-an (Cheng'an)
承安
승안
1196–1197 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Sinjong of Goryeo
(r. 1197–1204 CE)
Seung-an (Cheng'an)
承安
승안
1198–1200 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Taehwa (Taihe)
泰和
태화
1201–1204 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Huijong of Goryeo
(r. 1204–1211 CE)
Taehwa (Taihe)
泰和
태화
1205–1208 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Daean (Da'an)
大安
대안
1209–1211 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Gangjong of Goryeo
(r. 1211–1213 CE)
Sung-gyeong (Chongqing)
崇慶
숭경
1212–1213 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jinyeong (Zhining)
至寧
지녕
1213 CE5 monthsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
Jeong-u (Zhenyou)
貞祐
정우
1213 CE3 monthsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Gojong of Goryeo
(r. 1213–1259 CE)
Jeong-u (Zhenyou)
貞祐
정우
1214–1224 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Jin dynasty of China.
King Wonjong of Goryeo
(r. 1260–1274 CE)
Jungtong (Zhongtong)
中統
중통
1260–1264 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1264–1274 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungnyeol of Goryeo
(r. 1274–1308 CE)
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1275–1294 CE20 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Wonjeong (Yuanzhen)
元貞
원정
1295–1297 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Daedeok (Dade)
大德
대덕
1297–1307 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jidae (Zhida)
至大
지대
1308 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungseon of Goryeo
(r. 1308–1313 CE)
Jidae (Zhida)
至大
지대
1309–1311 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Hwang-gyeong (Huangqing)
皇慶
황경
1312–1313 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungsuk of Goryeo
(r. 1313–1330 CE; first reign)
Yeon-u (Yanyou)
延祐
연우
1314–1320 CE7 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jichi (Zhizhi)
至治
지치
1321–1323 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Taejeong (Taiding)
泰定
태정
1324–1328 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Chihwa (Zhihe)
致和
치화
1328 CE8 monthsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Cheonsun (Tianshun)
天順
천순
1328 CE1 monthAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Cheollyeok (Tianli)
天曆
천력
1328–1330 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jisun (Zhishun)
至順
지순
1330 CE8 monthsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chunghye of Goryeo
(r. 1330–1332 CE; first reign)
Jisun (Zhishun)
至順
지순
1331–1332 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungsuk of Goryeo
(r. 1332–1339 CE; second reign)
Jisun (Zhishun)
至順
지순
1332–1333 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Wontong (Yuantong)
元統
원통
1333–1335 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1335–1339 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chunghye of Goryeo
(r. 1339–1344 CE; second reign)
Jiwon (Zhiyuan)
至元
지원
1340 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1341–1344 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungmok of Goryeo
(r. 1344–1348 CE)
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1345–1348 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Chungjeong of Goryeo
(r. 1349–1351 CE)
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1349–1351 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty of China.
King Gongmin of Goryeo
(r. 1351–1374 CE)
Jijeong (Zhizheng)
至正
지정
1352–1369 CE18 yearsAdopted the era name of the Yuan dynasty and Northern Yuan dynasty of China.
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1370–1374 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Wang U
(r. 1374–1388 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1375–1377 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Seongwang (Xuanguang)
宣光
선광
1377–1378 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Northern Yuan dynasty of China.
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1378–1388 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Wang Chang
(r. 1388–1389 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1388–1389 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Gongyang of Goryeo
(r. 1389–1392 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1389–1392 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.

Other regimes contemporaneous with Goryeo

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
Myocheong
(r. 1135 CE)
Cheongae
天開
천개
1135 CE1 year

Joseon

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
King Taejo of Joseon
(r. 1392–1398 CE)
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1392–1398 CE7 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Jeongjong of Joseon
(r. 1398–1400 CE)
Geonmun (Jianwen)
建文
건문
1399–1400 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Taejong of Joseon
(r. 1400–1418 CE)
Geonmun (Jianwen)
建文
건문
1401–1402 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Hongmu (Hongwu)
洪武
홍무
1402 CE7 monthsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yeonglak (Yongle)
永樂
영락
1403–1418 CE16 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Sejong of Joseon
(r. 1418–1450 CE)
Yeongrak (Yongle)
永樂
영락
1419–1424 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Honghui (Hongxi)
洪熙
홍희
1425 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Seondeok (Xuande)
宣德
선덕
1426–1435 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Jeongtong (Zhengtong)
正統
정통
1436–1449 CE14 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1450 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Munjong of Joseon
(r. 1450–1452 CE)
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1451–1452 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Danjong of Joseon
(r. 1452–1455 CE)
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1453–1455 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Sejo of Joseon
(r. 1455–1468 CE)
Gyeongtae (Jingtai)
景泰
경태
1455–1457 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Cheonsun (Tianshun)
天順
천순
1457–1464 CE8 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Seonghwa (Chenghua)
成化
성화
1465–1468 CE4 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Yejong of Joseon
(r. 1468–1469 CE)
Seonghwa (Chenghua)
成化
성화
1469 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Seongjong of Joseon
(r. 1469–1494 CE)
Seonghwa (Chenghua)
成化
성화
1470–1487 CE18 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Hongchi (Hongzhi)
弘治
홍치
1488–1494 CE7 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yi Yung
(r. 1494–1506 CE)
Hongchi (Hongzhi)
弘治
홍치
1495–1505 CE11 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Jeongdeok (Zhengde)
正德
정덕
1506 CE9 monthsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Jungjong of Joseon
(r. 1506–1544 CE)
Jeongdeok (Zhengde)
正德
정덕
1506–1521 CE16 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Gajeong (Jiajing)
嘉靖
가정
1522–1544 CE23 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Injong of Joseon
(r. 1544–1545 CE)
Gajeong (Jiajing)
嘉靖
가정
1545 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Myeongjong of Joseon
(r. 1545–1567 CE)
Gajeong (Jiajing)
嘉靖
가정
1546–1566 CE21 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yung-gyeong (Longqing)
隆慶
융경
1567 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Seonjo of Joseon
(r. 1567–1608 CE)
Yung-gyeong (Longqing)
隆慶
융경
1568–1572 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Mallyeok (Wanli)
萬曆
만력
1573–1608 CE36 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Yi Hon
(r. 1608–1623 CE)
Mallyeok (Wanli)
萬曆
만력
1609–1620 CE12 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Taechang (Taichang)
泰昌
태창
1620–1621 CE4 monthsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Cheongye (Tianqi)
天啓
천계
1621–1623 CE3 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
King Injo of Joseon
(r. 1623–1649 CE)
Cheongye (Tianqi)
天啓
천계
1623–1627 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China.
Sungjeong (Chongzhen)
崇禎
숭정
1628–1637 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Ming dynasty of China. Usage continued informally within the Joseon royal court after 1637 CE well into the 19th century CE.[5]
Sungdeok (Chongde)
崇德
숭덕
1537–1643 CE7 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Sunchi (Shunzhi)
順治
순치
1644–1649 CE6 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Hyojong of Joseon
(r. 1649–1659 CE)
Sunchi (Shunzhi)
順治
순치
1650–1659 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Hyeonjong of Joseon
(r. 1659–1674 CE)
Sunchi (Shunzhi)
順治
순치
1660–1661 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Ganghui (Kangxi)
康熙
강희
1662–1674 CE13 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Sukjong of Joseon
(r. 1674–1720 CE)
Ganghui (Kangxi)
康熙
강희
1675–1720 CE46 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Gyeongjong of Joseon
(r. 1720–1724 CE)
Ganghui (Kangxi)
康熙
강희
1721–1722 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Ongjeong (Yongzheng)
雍正
옹정
1723–1724 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Yeongjo of Joseon
(r. 1724–1776 CE)
Ongjeong (Yongzheng)
雍正
옹정
1725–1735 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Geollyung (Qianlong)
乾隆
건륭
1736–1776 CE41 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Jeongjo of Joseon
(r. 1776–1800 CE)
Geollyung (Qianlong)
乾隆
건륭
1777–1795 CE19 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Gagyeong (Jiaqing)
嘉慶
가경
1796–1800 CE5 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Sunjo of Joseon
(r. 1800–1834 CE)
Gagyeong (Jiaqing)
嘉慶
가경
1801–1820 CE20 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Dogwang (Daoguang)
道光
도광
1821–1834 CE14 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Heonjong of Joseon
(r. 1834–1849 CE)
Dogwang (Daoguang)
道光
도광
1835–1849 CE15 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Cheoljong of Joseon
(r. 1849–1864 CE)
Dogwang (Daoguang)
道光
도광
1850 CE1 yearAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Hampung (Xianfeng)
咸豊
함풍
1851–1861 CE11 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Dongchi (Tongzhi)
同治
동치
1862–1863 CE2 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
King Gojong of Joseon
(r. 1864–1897 CE; as King of Joseon)
Dongchi (Tongzhi)
同治
동치
1864–1874 CE10 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Gwangseo (Guangxu)
光緖
광서
1875–1894 CE20 yearsAdopted the era name of the Qing dynasty of China.
Gaeguk
開國
개국
1894–1895 CE2 yearsThe 1st year of Gaeguk was officially taken to be 1392 CE; 1894 CE was therefore the 503rd year of Gaeguk.
Geon-yang
建陽
건양
1896–1897 CE2 years

Korean Empire

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
Emperor Gojong of Korea
(r. 1897–1907 CE; as Emperor of Korean Empire)
Gwangmu
光武
광무
1897–1907 CE11 years
Emperor Sunjong of Korea
(r. 1907–1910 CE)
Yunghui
隆熙
융희
1907–1910 CE4 years

Korea under Japanese rule

The Japanese renditions of the era names are stated in parentheses.

Era namePeriod of useLength of useRemark
Myeongchi (Meiji)
明治
명치
1910–1912 CE3 yearsEra name of the Emperor Meiji. 1910 CE was the 43rd year of Meiji.
Daejeong (Taishō)
大正
대정
1912–1926 CE15 yearsEra name of the Emperor Taishō.
Sohwa (Shōwa)
昭和
소화
1926–1945 CE20 yearsEra name of the Emperor Shōwa.

Modern era systems

Republic of Korea

  1. Daehan minguk (대한민국, 大韓民國 "Great Korean Republic" : 1948)
  2. Dangun-giwon (단군기원, 檀君紀元 "First Age of Lord Dangun" : 1948–1961)
  3. Seoryeok-giwon (서력기원, 西曆紀元 "Age of Seoryeok", i.e. Age of the Western calendar, 1962-)

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

  1. Juche (주체, 主體 : 1912-)

The North Korean government and associated organizations use a variation of the Gregorian calendar with a Juche year based on April 15, 1912 CE, the date of birth of Kim Il-sung, as year 1. There is no Juche year 0. The calendar was introduced in 1997. Months are unchanged from those in the standard Gregorian calendar. In many instances, the Juche year is given after the CE year, for example, 9 January 2022 Juche 111. But in North Korean publications, the Juche year is usually placed before the corresponding CE year, as in Juche 111 (2022).

See also

References

  1. ^ Lü, Zongli (2003). Power of the words: Chen prophecy in Chinese politics, AD 265-618. ISBN 9783906769561.
  2. ^ a b Sogner, Sølvi (2001). Making Sense of Global History: The 19th International Congress of the Historical Sciences, Oslo 2000, Commemorative Volume. ISBN 9788215001067.
  3. ^ "International Congress of Historical Sciences". International Congress of Historical Sciences. 19. 2000. ISBN 9788299561419. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Ancient tradition carries forward with Japan's new era". Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  5. ^ Kim Haboush, JaHyun (2005), "Contesting Chinese Time, Nationalizing Temporal Space: Temporal Inscription in Late Chosǒn Korea", in Lynn A. Struve (ed.), Time, Temporality, and Imperial Transition, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, pp. 115–141, ISBN 0-8248-2827-5.

Bibliography