July 4

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July 4 in recent years
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  2017 (Tuesday)
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  2014 (Friday)
  2013 (Thursday)
  2012 (Wednesday)

July 4 is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 180 days remain until the end of the year.

The Aphelion, the point in the year when the Earth is farthest from the Sun, occurs around this date.

Events

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

Births

Pre-1600

  • 68Salonina Matidia, Roman daughter of Ulpia Marciana (d. 119)[6]
  • 1095Usama ibn Munqidh, Muslim poet, author and faris (Knight) (d. 1188)[7]
  • 1330Ashikaga Yoshiakira, Japanese shōgun (d. 1367)
  • 1477Johannes Aventinus, Bavarian historian and philologist (d. 1534)
  • 1546Murad III, Ottoman sultan (d. 1595)

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1902Meyer Lansky, American gangster (d. 1983)
  • 1902 – George Murphy, American actor and politician (d. 1992)
  • 1903Flor Peeters, Belgian organist, composer, and educator (d. 1986)
  • 1904Angela Baddeley, English actress (d. 1976)
  • 1905Irving Johnson, American sailor and author (d. 1991)
  • 1905 – Robert Hankey, 2nd Baron Hankey, British diplomat and public servant (d. 1996)
  • 1905 – Lionel Trilling, American critic, essayist, short story writer, and educator (d. 1975)
  • 1906Vincent Schaefer, American chemist and meteorologist (d. 1993)
  • 1907John Anderson, American discus thrower (d. 1948)
  • 1907 – Howard Taubman, American author and critic (d. 1996)
  • 1909Alec Templeton, Welsh composer, pianist and satirist (d. 1963)
  • 1910Robert K. Merton, American sociologist and scholar (d. 2003)
  • 1910 – Gloria Stuart, American actress (d. 2010)
  • 1911Bruce Hamilton, Australian public servant (d. 1989)
  • 1911 – Mitch Miller, American singer and producer (d. 2010)
  • 1911 – Elizabeth Peratrovich, Alaskan-American civil rights activist (d. 1958)[12]
  • 1914Nuccio Bertone, Italian automobile designer (d. 1997)
  • 1915Timmie Rogers, American actor and singer-songwriter (d. 2006)
  • 1916Iva Toguri D'Aquino, American typist and broadcaster (d. 2006)
  • 1918Eppie Lederer, American journalist and radio host (d. 2002)
  • 1918 – Johnnie Parsons, American race car driver (d. 1984)
  • 1918 – King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV of Tonga, (d. 2006)
  • 1918 – Alec Bedser, English cricketer (d. 2010)
  • 1918 – Eric Bedser, English cricketer (d. 2006)
  • 1918 – Pauline Phillips, American journalist and radio host, created Dear Abby (d. 2013)
  • 1920Norm Drucker, American basketball player and referee (d. 2015)
  • 1920 – Leona Helmsley, American businesswoman (d. 2007)
  • 1920 – Fritz Wilde, German footballer and manager (d. 1977)
  • 1920 – Paul Bannai, American politician (d. 2019)
  • 1921Gérard Debreu, French economist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2004)
  • 1921 – Nasser Sharifi, Iranian sports shooter
  • 1921 – Metropolitan Mikhail of Asyut (d. 2014)
  • 1921 – Philip Rose, American actor, playwright, and producer (d. 2011)
  • 1921 – Tibor Varga, Hungarian violinist and conductor (d. 2003)
  • 1922R. James Harvey, American politician (d. 2019)
  • 1923Rudolf Friedrich, Swiss lawyer and politician (d. 2013)
  • 1924Eva Marie Saint, American actress
  • 1924 – Delia Fiallo, Cuban author and screenwriter (d. 2021)
  • 1925Ciril Zlobec, Slovene poet, writer, translator, journalist and politician (d. 2018[13])
  • 1925 – Dorothy Head Knode, American tennis player[14] (d. 2015)
  • 1926Alfredo Di Stéfano, Argentinian-Spanish footballer and coach (d. 2014)
  • 1926 – Lake Underwood, American race car driver and businessman (d. 2008)
  • 1927Gina Lollobrigida, Italian actress and photographer
  • 1927 – Neil Simon, American playwright and screenwriter (d. 2018)[15]
  • 1928Giampiero Boniperti, Italian footballer and politician (d. 2021)
  • 1928 – Teofisto Guingona Jr., Filipino politician; 11th Vice President of the Philippines
  • 1928 – Jassem Alwan, Syrian Army Officer (d. 2018)
  • 1928 – Shan Ratnam, Sri Lankan physician and academic (d. 2001)
  • 1928 – Chuck Tanner, American baseball player and manager (d. 2011)
  • 1929Al Davis, American football player, coach, and manager (d. 2011)
  • 1929 – Bill Tuttle, American baseball player (d. 1998)
  • 1930George Steinbrenner, American businessman (d. 2010)
  • 1931Stephen Boyd, Northern Ireland-born American actor (d. 1977)
  • 1931 – Rick Casares, American football player and soldier (d. 2013)
  • 1931 – Sébastien Japrisot, French author, director, and screenwriter (d. 2003)
  • 1931 – Peter Richardson, English cricketer (d. 2017)
  • 1932Aurèle Vandendriessche, Belgian runner
  • 1934Yvonne B. Miller, American academic and politician (d. 2012)
  • 1934 – Colin Welland, English actor and screenwriter (d. 2015)
  • 1935Paul Scoon, Grenadian politician, 2nd Governor-General of Grenada (d. 2013)
  • 1936Zdzisława Donat, Polish soprano and actress
  • 1937Thomas Nagel, American philosopher and academic
  • 1937 – Queen Sonja of Norway
  • 1937 – Richard Rhodes, American journalist and historian
  • 1937 – Eric Walters, Australian journalist (d. 2010)
  • 1938Steven Rose, English biologist and academic
  • 1938 – Bill Withers, American singer-songwriter and producer (d. 2020)
  • 1940Pat Stapleton, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2020)
  • 1941Sam Farr, American politician
  • 1941 – Tomaž Šalamun, Croatian-Slovenian poet and academic (d. 2014)
  • 1941 – Pavel Sedláček, Czech singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1941 – Brian Willson, American soldier, lawyer, and activist
  • 1942Hal Lanier, American baseball player, coach, and manager
  • 1942 – Floyd Little, American football player and coach (d. 2021)[16]
  • 1942 – Stefan Meller, French-Polish academic and politician, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs (d. 2008)
  • 1942 – Prince Michael of Kent
  • 1942 – Peter Rowan, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1943Conny Bauer, German trombonist
  • 1943 – Emerson Boozer, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1943 – Adam Hart-Davis, English historian, author, and photographer
  • 1943 – Geraldo Rivera, American lawyer, journalist, and author[17]
  • 1943 – Fred Wesley, American jazz and funk trombonist[18]
  • 1943 – Alan Wilson, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1970)
  • 1945Andre Spitzer, Romanian-Israeli fencer and coach (d. 1972)
  • 1946Ron Kovic, American author and activist
  • 1946 – Michael Milken, American businessman and philanthropist
  • 1947Lembit Ulfsak, Estonian actor and director (d. 2017)
  • 1948René Arnoux, French race car driver
  • 1948 – Tommy Körberg, Swedish singer and actor
  • 1948 – Jeremy Spencer, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1950Philip Craven, English basketball player and swimmer
  • 1950 – David Jensen, Canadian-English radio and television host
  • 1951John Alexander, Australian tennis player and politician
  • 1951 – Ralph Johnson, American R&B drummer and percussionist
  • 1951 – Vladimir Tismăneanu, Romanian-American political scientist, sociologist, and academic
  • 1951 – Kathleen Kennedy Townsend, American lawyer and politician, 6th Lieutenant Governor of Maryland
  • 1952Álvaro Uribe, Colombian lawyer and politician, 39th President of Colombia
  • 1952 – Carol MacReady, English actress
  • 1952 – John Waite, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1952 – Paul Rogat Loeb, American author and activist
  • 1953Francis Maude, English lawyer and politician, Minister for the Cabinet Office
  • 1954Jim Beattie, American baseball player, coach, and manager
  • 1954 – Morganna, American model, actress, and dancer
  • 1954 – Devendra Kumar Joshi, 21st Chief of Naval Staff of the Indian Navy
  • 1955Eero Heinäluoma, Finnish politician[19]
  • 1955 – Kevin Nichols, Australian cyclist
  • 1956Robert Sinclair MacKay, British academic and educator
  • 1957Rein Lang, Estonian politician and diplomat, 25th Estonian Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • 1958Vera Leth, Greenlandic Ombudsman
  • 1958 – Kirk Pengilly, Australian guitarist, saxophonist, and songwriter
  • 1958 – Carl Valentine, English-Canadian footballer, coach, and manager
  • 1959Victoria Abril, Spanish actress and singer
  • 1960Roland Ratzenberger, Austrian race car driver (d. 1994)
  • 1961Richard Garriott, English-American video game designer, created the Ultima series
  • 1962Pam Shriver, American tennis player and sportscaster
  • 1963Henri Leconte, French tennis player and sportscaster
  • 1963 – Laureano Márquez, Spanish-Venezuelan political scientist and journalist
  • 1963 – José Oquendo, Puerto Rican-American baseball player and coach
  • 1963 – Sonia Pierre, Haitian-Dominican human rights activist (d. 2011)[20]
  • 1964Cle Kooiman, American soccer player and manager
  • 1964 – Elie Saab, Lebanese fashion designer
  • 1964 – Edi Rama, Albanian politician
  • 1964 – Mark Slaughter, American singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1964 – Mark Whiting, American actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1965Harvey Grant, American basketball player and coach
  • 1965 – Horace Grant, American basketball player and coach
  • 1965 – Kiriakos Karataidis, Greek footballer and manager
  • 1965 – Gérard Watkins, English actor and playwright
  • 1966Ronni Ancona, Scottish actress and screenwriter
  • 1966 – Minas Hantzidis, German-Greek footballer
  • 1966 – Lee Reherman, American actor (d. 2016)
  • 1967Vinny Castilla, Mexican baseball player and manager
  • 1967 – Sébastien Deleigne, French athlete
  • 1969Al Golden, American football player and coach
  • 1969 – Todd Marinovich, American football player and coach
  • 1969 – Wilfred Mugeyi, Zimbabwean footballer and coach
  • 1972Stephen Giles, Canadian canoe racer and engineer
  • 1972 – Mike Knuble, Canadian-American ice hockey player and coach
  • 1973Keiko Ihara, Japanese race car driver
  • 1973 – Gackt, Japanese musician, singer, songwriter, record producer and actor
  • 1973 – Michael Johnson, English-Jamaican footballer and manager
  • 1973 – Anjelika Krylova, Russian ice dancer and coach
  • 1973 – Jan Magnussen, Danish race car driver
  • 1973 – Tony Popovic, Australian footballer and manager
  • 1974Jill Craybas, American tennis player
  • 1974 – La'Roi Glover, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1974 – Adrian Griffin, American basketball player and coach
  • 1976Daijiro Kato, Japanese motorcycle racer (d. 2003)
  • 1976 – Yevgeniya Medvedeva, Russian skier
  • 1978Marcos Daniel, Brazilian tennis player
  • 1978 – Émile Mpenza, Belgian footballer
  • 1979Siim Kabrits, Estonian politician[21]
  • 1979 – Josh McCown, American football player
  • 1979 – Renny Vega, Venezuelan footballer
  • 1980Kwame Steede, Bermudan footballer
  • 1981Dedé, Angolan footballer
  • 1981 – Brock Berlin, American football player
  • 1981 – Christoph Preuß, German footballer
  • 1981 – Francisco Cruceta, Dominican baseball player
  • 1981 – Will Smith, American football player (d. 2016)
  • 1982Vladimir Boisa, Georgian basketball player
  • 1982 – Vladimir Gusev, Russian cyclist
  • 1982 – Jeff Lima, New Zealand rugby league player
  • 1982 – Michael "The Situation" Sorrentino, American model, author and television personality[22]
  • 1983Melanie Fiona, Canadian singer-songwriter[23]
  • 1983 – Amantle Montsho, Botswanan sprinter
  • 1983 – Miguel Pinto, Chilean footballer
  • 1983 – Amol Rajan, Indian-English journalist
  • 1983 – Mattia Serafini, Italian footballer
  • 1984Jin Akanishi, Japanese singer-songwriter
  • 1984 – Miguel Santos Soares, Timorese footballer
  • 1985 – Kane Tenace, Australian footballer
  • 1985 – Dimitrios Mavroeidis, Greek basketball player
  • 1985 – Wason Rentería, Colombian footballer
  • 1986Ömer Aşık, Turkish basketball player
  • 1986 – Nguyen Ngoc Duy, Vietnamese footballer
  • 1986 – Rafael Arévalo, Salvadoran tennis player
  • 1986 – Willem Janssen, Dutch footballer
  • 1986 – Terrance Knighton, American football player
  • 1986 – Marte Elden, Norwegian skier
  • 1987Wude Ayalew, Ethiopian runner
  • 1987 – Guram Kashia, Georgian footballer
  • 1988Angelique Boyer, French-Mexican actress
  • 1989Benjamin Büchel, Liechtensteiner footballer
  • 1990Jake Gardiner, American ice hockey player
  • 1990 – Richard Mpong, Ghanaian footballer
  • 1990 – Naoki Yamada, Japanese footballer
  • 1990 – Ihar Yasinski, Belarusian footballer
  • 1992Ángel Romero, Paraguayan footballer
  • 1992 – Óscar Romero, Paraguayan footballer
  • 1993Tom Barkhuizen, English footballer
  • 1995Post Malone, American rapper, singer, songwriter and record producer [24]
  • 1999Moa Kikuchi, Japanese musician [25]
  • 2003Polina Bogusevich, Russian singer[26]

Deaths

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1901Johannes Schmidt, German linguist and academic (b. 1843)
  • 1902Vivekananda, Indian monk and saint (b. 1863)
  • 1905Élisée Reclus, French geographer and author (b. 1830)
  • 1910Melville Fuller, American lawyer and jurist, Chief Justice of the United States (b. 1833)[28]
  • 1910 – Giovanni Schiaparelli, Italian astronomer and historian (b. 1835)
  • 1916Alan Seeger, American soldier and poet (b. 1888)
  • 1922Lothar von Richthofen, German lieutenant and pilot (b. 1894)
  • 1926Pier Giorgio Frassati, Italian activist and saint (b. 1901)
  • 1934Marie Curie, French-Polish physicist and chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1867)[29]
  • 1938Otto Bauer, Austrian philosopher and politician, Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs (b. 1881)
  • 1938 – Suzanne Lenglen, French tennis player (b. 1899)
  • 1941Antoni Łomnicki, Polish mathematician and academic (b. 1881)
  • 1943Władysław Sikorski, Polish general and politician, 9th Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Poland (b. 1881)
  • 1946Taffy O'Callaghan, Welsh footballer and coach (b. 1906)
  • 1948Monteiro Lobato, Brazilian journalist and author (b. 1882)
  • 1949François Brandt, Dutch rower and engineer (b. 1874)
  • 1963Bernard Freyberg, 1st Baron Freyberg, New Zealand general and politician, 7th Governor-General of New Zealand (b. 1889)
  • 1963 – Clyde Kennard, American activist and martyr (b. 1927)
  • 1963 – Pingali Venkayya, Indian activist, designed the Flag of India (b. 1876)
  • 1964Gaby Morlay, French actress and singer (b. 1893)
  • 1969Henri Decoin, French director and screenwriter (b. 1890)
  • 1970Barnett Newman, American painter and illustrator (b. 1905)
  • 1970 – Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, American sailor and businessman (b. 1884)
  • 1971August Derleth, American anthologist and author (b. 1909)
  • 1971 – Thomas C. Hart, American admiral and politician (b. 1877)
  • 1974Georgette Heyer, English author (b. 1902)
  • 1974 – André Randall, French actor (b. 1892)
  • 1976Yonatan Netanyahu, Israeli colonel (b. 1946)
  • 1976 – Antoni Słonimski, Polish poet and playwright (b. 1895)
  • 1977Gersh Budker, Ukrainian physicist and academic (b. 1918)
  • 1979Lee Wai Tong, Chinese footballer and manager (b. 1905)
  • 1980Maurice Grevisse, Belgian linguist and author (b. 1895)
  • 1984Jimmie Spheeris, American singer-songwriter (b. 1949)
  • 1986Paul-Gilbert Langevin, French musicologist, critique musical and physicist (b. 1933)
  • 1986 – Flor Peeters, Belgian organist and composer (b. 1903)
  • 1986 – Oscar Zariski, Belarusian-American mathematician and academic (b. 1899)
  • 1988Adrian Adonis, American wrestler (b. 1954)
  • 1990Olive Ann Burns, American journalist and author (b. 1924)
  • 1991Victor Chang, Chinese-Australian surgeon and physician (b. 1936)
  • 1991 – Art Sansom, American cartoonist (b. 1920)
  • 1992Astor Piazzolla, Argentinian bandoneon player and composer (b. 1921)
  • 1993Bona Arsenault, Canadian historian, genealogist, and politician (b. 1903)
  • 1994Joey Marella, American wrestling referee (b. 1964)
  • 1995Eva Gabor, Hungarian-American actress and singer (b. 1919)
  • 1995 – Bob Ross, American painter and television host (b. 1942)
  • 1997Charles Kuralt, American journalist (b. 1934)
  • 1997 – John Zachary Young, English zoologist and neurophysiologist (b. 1907)
  • 1999Leo Garel, American illustrator and educator (b. 1917)
  • 2000Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, Polish journalist and author (b. 1919)
  • 2002Gerald Bales, Canadian organist and composer (b. 1919)
  • 2002 – Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American general (b. 1912)
  • 2003Larry Burkett, American author and radio host (b. 1939)
  • 2003 – André Claveau, French singer (b. 1915)
  • 2003 – Barry White, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (b. 1944)
  • 2004Jean-Marie Auberson, Swiss violinist and conductor (b. 1920)
  • 2005Cliff Goupille, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1915)
  • 2005 – Hank Stram, American football player and coach (b. 1923)
  • 2007Bill Pinkney, American singer (b. 1925)
  • 2008Thomas M. Disch, American author and poet (b. 1940)
  • 2008 – Jesse Helms, American politician (b. 1921)
  • 2008 – Evelyn Keyes, American actress (b. 1916)
  • 2008 – Terrence Kiel, American football player (b. 1980)
  • 2008 – Charles Wheeler, German-English soldier and journalist (b. 1923)
  • 2009Brenda Joyce, American actress (b. 1917)
  • 2009 – Allen Klein, American businessman and talent agent, founded ABKCO Records (b. 1931)
  • 2009 – Drake Levin, American guitarist (b. 1946)
  • 2009 – Steve McNair, American football player (b. 1973)
  • 2009 – Lasse Strömstedt, Swedish author and actor (b. 1935)
  • 2009 – Jean-Baptiste Tati Loutard, Congolese poet and politician (b. 1938)
  • 2010Robert Neil Butler, American physician and author (b. 1927)
  • 2012Hiren Bhattacharyya, Indian poet and author (b. 1932)
  • 2012 – Jimmy Bivins, American boxer (b. 1919)
  • 2012 – Jeong Min-hyeong, South Korean footballer (b. 1987)
  • 2012 – Eric Sykes, English actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1923)
  • 2013Onllwyn Brace, Welsh rugby player and sportscaster (b. 1932)
  • 2013 – Jack Crompton, English footballer and manager (b. 1921)
  • 2013 – James Fulton, American dermatologist and academic (b. 1940)
  • 2013 – Charles A. Hines, American general (b. 1935)
  • 2013 – Bernie Nolan, Irish singer (b. 1960)
  • 2014Giorgio Faletti, Italian author, screenwriter, and actor (b. 1950)
  • 2014 – C. J. Henderson, American author and critic (b. 1951)
  • 2014 – Earl Robinson, American baseball player (b. 1936)
  • 2014 – Richard Mellon Scaife, American businessman (b. 1932)
  • 2015Nedelcho Beronov, Bulgarian judge and politician (b. 1928)
  • 2015 – William Conrad Gibbons, American historian, author, and academic (b. 1926)
  • 2016Abbas Kiarostami, Iranian film director, screenwriter, poet, and photographer (b. 1940)
  • 2017John Blackwell, American R&B, funk, and jazz drummer (b. 1973)
  • 2017 – Daniil Granin, Soviet and Russian author (b. 1919)
  • 2017 – Gene Conley, American MLB player and NBA player (b. 1930)[30]
  • 2018Henri Dirickx, Belgian footballer (b. 1927)
  • 2018 – Robby Müller, Dutch cinematographer (b. 1940)
  • 2021 – Harmoko, Indonesian politician, former parliament speaker and government minister (b. 1939)[31]

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ Weyler, Karen A. (2012). "Chapter 11: John Neal and the Early Discourse of American Women's Rights". In Watts, Edward; Carlson, David J. (eds.). John Neal and Nineteenth Century American Literature and Culture. Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-1-61148-420-5.
  2. ^ Sears, Donald A. (1978). John Neal. Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. p. 98. ISBN 080-5-7723-08.
  3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev Tu-154M RA-85845 Burdakovka". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2019-07-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-123B 9XR-IS Bangui". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2021-07-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ Wilson, Jim. "NASA - STS-121 Launch and Landing". www.nasa.gov.
  6. ^ CIL VI, 02080
  7. ^ According to Ibn Khallikan he was born on 27 Jumada al-Thani, 488 AH and died 23 Ramadan 584 AH. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, trans. William MacGuckin, Baron de Slane, vol. 1 (Paris: 1842), p. 179. The Gregorian calendar dates are from Cobb, Usama ibn Munqidh, p. 4.
  8. ^ "Oscar I | king of Sweden and Norway". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  9. ^ Todd, Deborah; Angelo, Joseph (2003). A to Z of Scientists in Space and Astronomy. New York: Facts of File. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-81604-639-3.
  10. ^ Thomas Longboat's CEF Attestation Paper, at Library and Archives Canada
  11. ^ Institution of Civil Engineers (1955). "Obituary. Hubert Cecil Booth. 1871–1955". ICE Proceedings. Thomas Telford Publishing. 4 (4): 631–632. doi:10.1680/iicep.1955.11412.
  12. ^ Weingroff, Richard F. "Who Is Elizabeth Peratrovich? The Story Behind the Country's First Anti-Discrimination Law". www.fhwa.dot.gov. U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  13. ^ "STA: Poet Ciril Zlobec dies, aged 93". english.sta.si. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  14. ^ "Dorothy KNODE". ITF Tennis. International Tennis Federation. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  15. ^ "Neil Simon obituary". the Guardian. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  16. ^ "July 4: Happy birthday, Floyd Little". denverbroncos.com. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  17. ^ "Geraldo Rivera Biography". Biography.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
  18. ^ Ankeny, Jason. "AllMusic Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  19. ^ Kansanedustajat: Eero Heinäluoma – Eduskunta (in Finnish)
  20. ^ Franco-Soto, Ana (2016). "Pierre, Sonia (1963–2011)". In Knight, Franklin W.; Gates, Jr, Henry Louis (eds.). Dictionary of Caribbean and Afro–Latin American Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-93580-2.  – via Oxford University Press's Reference Online (subscription required)
  21. ^ "Kandidaat nr 167 - SIIM KABRITS". Estonian Electoral Committee.
  22. ^ "The Situation". UsMagazine.com. Archived from the original on September 16, 2017. Retrieved April 8, 2018.
  23. ^ Chisling, Matthew. "Melanie Fiona > Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
  24. ^ "Post Malone | Biography & History". AllMusic.
  25. ^ "アミューズ オフィシャル ウェブサイト - AMUSE OFFICIAL WEBSITE -". アミューズ オフィシャル ウェブサイト - AMUSE OFFICIAL WEBSITE -.
  26. ^ Herbert, Emily (13 October 2017). "Russia: Who Is Polina Bogusevich?". Eurovoix.
  27. ^ "BBC - History - John Adams". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  28. ^ Orth, John V. (2005). "Fuller, Melville Weston". The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195176612.001.0001. ISBN 9780195176612. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  29. ^ "BBC - History - Marie Curie". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  30. ^ "Famous Deaths on July 4". On This Day. Retrieved 2020-08-25.
  31. ^ Annisa Rizky Fadhila (5 July 2021). "Cerita Keluarga soal Harmoko Terpapar COVID-19 dan Riwayat Penyakitnya". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 July 2021.

External links