July 20

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2022
July 20 in recent years
  2021 (Tuesday)
  2020 (Monday)
  2019 (Saturday)
  2018 (Friday)
  2017 (Thursday)
  2016 (Wednesday)
  2015 (Monday)
  2014 (Sunday)
  2013 (Saturday)
  2012 (Friday)

July 20 is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 164 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

Births

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1901Vehbi Koç, Turkish businessman and philanthropist, founded Koç Holding (d. 1996)
  • 1901 – Eugenio Lopez Sr., Filipino businessman and founder of the Lopez Group of Companies (d. 1975)
  • 1901 – Heinie Manush, American baseball player and manager (d. 1971)
  • 1902Leonidas Berry, American gastroenterologist (d. 1995)
  • 1905Joseph Levis, American foil fencer (d. 2005)
  • 1909Eric Rowan, South African cricketer (d. 1993)
  • 1910Vilém Tauský, Czech-English conductor and composer (d. 2004)
  • 1911Baqa Jilani, Indian cricketer (d. 1941)
  • 1911 – José Zabala-Santos, Filipino author and illustrator (d. 1985)
  • 1912George Johnston, Australian journalist and author (d. 1970)
  • 1914Dobri Dobrev, Bulgarian philanthropist (d. 2018)
  • 1914 – Charilaos Florakis, Greek politician (d. 2005)
  • 1914 – Ersilio Tonini, Italian cardinal (d. 2013)
  • 1918Cindy Walker, American singer-songwriter and dancer (d. 2006)
  • 1919Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountaineer and explorer (d. 2008)
  • 1919 – Jacquemine Charrott Lodwidge, English writer (d. 2012)
  • 1920Elliot Richardson, American lieutenant and politician, 11th United States Secretary of Defense (d. 1999)
  • 1921Henri Alleg, English-French journalist and author (d. 2013)
  • 1922Alan Stephenson Boyd, American lawyer and politician, 1st United States Secretary of Transportation (d. 2020)
  • 1923Stanisław Albinowski, Polish economist and journalist (d. 2005)
  • 1924Lola Albright, American actress and singer (d. 2017)
  • 1924 – Thomas Berger, American author and playwright (d. 2014)
  • 1924 – Mort Garson, Canadian-American songwriter and composer (d. 2008)
  • 1925Jacques Delors, French economist and politician, 8th President of the European Commission
  • 1925 – Frantz Fanon, French–Algerian psychiatrist and philosopher (d. 1961)
  • 1927Barbara Bergmann, American economist and academic (d. 2015)
  • 1927 – Heather Chasen, English actress (d. 2020)
  • 1927 – Michael Gielen, Austrian conductor and composer (d. 2019)
  • 1927 – Ian P. Howard, English-Canadian psychologist and academic (d. 2013)
  • 1928Józef Czyrek, Polish economist and politician, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs (d. 2013)
  • 1928 – Belaid Abdessalam, Prime Minister of Algeria (d. 2020)
  • 1929Hazel Hawke, Australian social worker and pianist, 23rd Spouse of the Prime Minister of Australia (d. 2013)
  • 1929 – Mike Ilitch, American businessman, co-founded Little Caesars (d. 2017)
  • 1929 – Rajendra Kumar, Pakistani-Indian actor and producer (d. 1999)
  • 1929 – David Tonkin, Australian politician, 38th Premier of South Australia (d. 2000)
  • 1930Giannis Agouris, Greek journalist and author (d. 2006)
  • 1930 – Chuck Daly, American basketball player and coach (d. 2009)
  • 1930 – William H. Goetzmann, American historian and author (d. 2010)
  • 1930 – Sally Ann Howes, English-American singer and actress (d. 2021)[13]
  • 1931Tony Marsh, English race car driver (d. 2009)
  • 1932Nam June Paik, American artist (d. 2006)
  • 1932 – Otto Schily, German lawyer and politician, German Minister of the Interior
  • 1933Buddy Knox, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1999)
  • 1933 – Cormac McCarthy, American novelist, playwright, and screenwriter
  • 1933 – Rex Williams, English snooker player
  • 1935Peter Palumbo, Baron Palumbo, English businessman and art collector
  • 1936Alistair MacLeod, Canadian novelist and short story writer (d. 2014)
  • 1936 – Barbara Mikulski, American social worker and politician
  • 1938Deniz Baykal, Turkish lawyer and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey
  • 1938 – Roger Hunt, English footballer (d. 2021)
  • 1938 – Tony Oliva, Cuban-American baseball player and coach
  • 1938 – Diana Rigg, English actress (d. 2020)[14]
  • 1938 – Natalie Wood, American actress (d. 1981)
  • 1939Judy Chicago, American feminist artist[15]
  • 1941Don Chuy, American football player (d. 2014)
  • 1941 – Periklis Korovesis, Greek author and journalist (d. 2020)
  • 1941 – Kurt Raab, German actor, screenwriter, and production designer (d. 1988)
  • 1942Pete Hamilton, American race car driver (d. 2017)
  • 1943Chris Amon, New Zealand race car driver (d. 2016)
  • 1943 – Bob McNab, English footballer
  • 1943 – Adrian Păunescu, Romanian poet, journalist, and politician (d. 2010)
  • 1943 – Wendy Richard, English actress (d. 2009)
  • 1944Mel Daniels, American basketball player and coach (d. 2015)
  • 1944 – W. Cary Edwards, American politician (d. 2010)
  • 1944 – Olivier de Kersauson, French sailor
  • 1944 – T. G. Sheppard, American country music singer-songwriter
  • 1945Charles Bowden, American non-fiction author, journalist and essayist (d. 2014)[16]
  • 1945 – Kim Carnes, American singer-songwriter
  • 1945 – Larry Craig, American soldier and politician
  • 1945 – John Lodge, English singer-songwriter, bass player, and producer
  • 1945 – Bo Rein, American football player and coach (d. 1980)
  • 1946Randal Kleiser, American actor, director, and producer
  • 1947Gerd Binnig, German physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1947 – Carlos Santana, Mexican-American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1948Muse Watson, American actor and producer
  • 1950Edward Leigh, English lawyer and politician
  • 1950 – Lucille Lemay, Canadian archer[17]
  • 1951Jeff Rawle, English actor and screenwriter
  • 1953Dave Evans, Welsh-Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1953 – Thomas Friedman, American journalist and author
  • 1953 – Marcia Hines, American-Australian singer and actress
  • 1954Moira Harris, American actress
  • 1954 – Jay Jay French, American guitarist and producer
  • 1955Desmond Douglas, Jamaican-English table tennis player
  • 1955 – René-Daniel Dubois, Canadian actor and playwright
  • 1955 – Jem Finer, English banjo player and songwriter
  • 1956Paul Cook, English drummer
  • 1956 – Thomas N'Kono, Cameroonian footballer
  • 1956 – Jim Prentice, Canadian lawyer and politician, 16th Premier of Alberta (d. 2016)
  • 1958Mick MacNeil, Scottish keyboard player and songwriter
  • 1959Radney Foster, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1960Claudio Langes, Italian race car driver
  • 1960 – Prvoslav Vujčić, Serbian-Canadian poet and philosopher
  • 1960 – Sudesh Berry, Indian actor
  • 1961Óscar Elías Biscet, Cuban physician and activist, founded the Lawton Foundation
  • 1962Carlos Alazraqui, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1962 – Giovanna Amati, Italian race car driver
  • 1962 – Julie Bindel, English journalist, author, and academic
  • 1963Frank Whaley, American actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1964Chris Cornell, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 2017)
  • 1964 – Terri Irwin, American-Australian zoologist and author
  • 1964 – Sebastiano Rossi, Italian footballer
  • 1964 – Bernd Schneider, German race car driver
  • 1965Jess Walter, American journalist and author
  • 1966Stone Gossard, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1966 – Enrique Peña Nieto, Mexican lawyer and politician, 57th President of Mexico[18]
  • 1967Courtney Taylor-Taylor, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1968Jimmy Carson, American ice hockey player
  • 1968 – Hami Mandıralı, Turkish footballer and manager
  • 1968 – Kool G Rap, American hip-hop artist
  • 1969Josh Holloway, American actor
  • 1969 – Kreso Kovacec, Croatian-German footballer
  • 1969 – Giovanni Lombardi, Italian cyclist
  • 1969 – Joon Park, South Korean-American singer
  • 1969 – Tobi Vail, American singer and guitarist
  • 1971Charles Johnson, American baseball player
  • 1971 – Sandra Oh, Canadian actress
  • 1972Jamie Ainscough, Australian rugby league player
  • 1972 – Jozef Stümpel, Slovak ice hockey player
  • 1972 – Erik Ullenhag, Swedish jurist and politician
  • 1972 – Vitamin C, American singer-songwriter
  • 1973Omar Epps, American actor
  • 1973 – Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway
  • 1973 – Peter Forsberg, Swedish ice hockey player and manager
  • 1973 – Nixon McLean, Caribbean cricketer
  • 1973 – Roberto Orci, Mexican-American screenwriter and producer
  • 1973 – Claudio Reyna, American soccer player
  • 1975Ray Allen, American basketball player and actor
  • 1975 – Judy Greer, American actress and producer
  • 1975 – Erik Hagen, Norwegian footballer
  • 1975 – Birgitta Ohlsson, Swedish journalist and politician, 5th Swedish Minister for European Union Affairs
  • 1975 – Jason Raize, American singer and actor (d.2004)
  • 1975 – Yusuf Şimşek, Turkish footballer and manager
  • 1976Erica Hill, American journalist
  • 1976 – Debashish Mohanty, Indian cricketer and coach
  • 1976 – Andrew Stockdale, Australian singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1976 – Alex Yoong, Malaysian race car driver
  • 1977Kiki Musampa, Congolese footballer
  • 1977 – Yves Niaré, French shot putter (d. 2012)
  • 1977 – Alessandro Santos, Brazilian-Japanese footballer
  • 1978Pavel Datsyuk, Russian ice hockey player
  • 1978 – Will Solomon, American basketball player
  • 1978 – Elliott Yamin, American singer-songwriter
  • 1978 – Ieva Zunda, Latvian runner and hurdler
  • 1979Miklós Fehér, Hungarian footballer (d. 2004)
  • 1979 – Charlotte Hatherley, English singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1979 – David Ortega, Spanish swimmer[19]
  • 1980Tesfaye Bramble, English-Montserratian footballer
  • 1980 – Gisele Bündchen, Brazilian model, fashionista, and businesswoman
  • 1981Viktoria Ladõnskaja, Estonian journalist and politician
  • 1982Antoine Vermette, Canadian ice hockey player[20]
  • 1984Alexi Casilla, Dominican baseball player
  • 1984 – Matt Gilroy, American ice hockey player
  • 1985John Francis Daley, American actor and screenwriter
  • 1985 – Harley Morenstein, Canadian actor and YouTube personality[21]
  • 1985 – David Mundy, Australian footballer
  • 1986Osric Chau, Canadian actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1987Nicola Benedetti, Scottish violinist[22]
  • 1987 – Niall McGinn, Irish footballer
  • 1988Julianne Hough, American singer-songwriter, actress, and dancer
  • 1988 – Stephen Strasburg, American baseball player
  • 1988 – Shahram Mahmoudi, Iranian volleyball player
  • 1989Javier Cortés, Mexican footballer
  • 1989 – Cristian Pasquato, Italian footballer
  • 1990Lars Unnerstall, German footballer
  • 1991Chiyoshōma Fujio, Mongolian sumo wrestler
  • 1991 – Ryan James, Australian rugby league player
  • 1991 – Kira Kazantsev, Miss America 2015
  • 1991 – Philipp Reiter, German mountaineer and runner
  • 1991 – Tawan Vihokratana, Thai actor, host, and model[23]
  • 1993Steven Adams, New Zealand basketball player[24]
  • 1993 – Nick Cousins, Canadian ice hockey player[25]
  • 1995Moses Leota, New Zealand rugby league player[26]
  • 1996Ben Simmons, Australian basketball player[27]
  • 1999Pop Smoke, American rapper and singer (d. 2020)

Deaths

Pre-1600

  • 518Amantius, Byzantine grand chamberlain and Monophysite martyr
  • 833Ansegisus, Frankish abbot and saint
  • 985Boniface VII, antipope of Rome[28]
  • 1031Robert II, king of France (b. 972)
  • 1156Toba, emperor of Japan (b. 1103)
  • 1320Oshin, king of Armenia (b. 1282)
  • 1332Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, regent of Scotland
  • 1387Robert IV, French nobleman (b. 1356)
  • 1398Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, Welsh nobleman (b. 1374)
  • 1405Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, fourth son of King Robert II of Scotland (approximate, b. 1343)[29]
  • 1453Enguerrand de Monstrelet, French historian and author (b. 1400)
  • 1454John II, king of Castile and León (b. 1405)
  • 1514György Dózsa, Transylvanian peasant revolt leader (b. 1470)
  • 1524Claude, queen consort of France (b. 1499)
  • 1526García Jofre de Loaísa, Spanish explorer (b. 1490)
  • 1600William More, English courtier (b. 1520)

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1901William Cosmo Monkhouse, English poet and critic (b. 1840)
  • 1903Leo XIII, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1810)
  • 1908Demetrius Vikelas, Greek businessman and author (b. 1835)
  • 1908 – Karl Bernhard Zoeppritz, German geophysicist and seismologist (b. 1881)
  • 1910Anderson Dawson, Australian politician, 14th Premier of Queensland (b. 1863)
  • 1917Ignaz Sowinski, Galician architect (b. 1858)[31]
  • 1922Andrey Markov, Russian mathematician and theorist (b. 1856)
  • 1923Pancho Villa, Mexican general and politician, Governor of Chihuahua (b. 1878)
  • 1926Felix Dzerzhinsky, Russian educator and politician (b. 1877)
  • 1927Ferdinand I, king of Romania (b. 1865)
  • 1928Kostas Karyotakis, Greek poet and author (b. 1896)
  • 1932René Bazin, French author and academic (b. 1853)
  • 1937Olga Hahn-Neurath, Austrian mathematician and philosopher from the Vienna Circle (b. 1882)
  • 1937 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist and engineer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1874)
  • 1941Lew Fields, American actor and producer (b. 1867)
  • 1944Ludwig Beck, German general (b. 1880)
  • 1944Mildred Harris, American actress (b. 1901) [32]
  • 1945Paul Valéry, French author and poet (b. 1871)
  • 1951Abdullah I, king of Jordan (b. 1882)
  • 1953Dumarsais Estimé, Haitian lawyer and politician, 33rd President of Haiti (b. 1900)
  • 1953 – Jan Struther, English author and hymn-writer (b. 1901)
  • 1955Calouste Gulbenkian, Armenian businessman and philanthropist (b. 1869)
  • 1956James Alexander Calder, Canadian educator and politician, Canadian Minister of Militia and Defence (b. 1868)
  • 1959William D. Leahy, American admiral and diplomat, United States Ambassador to France (b. 1875)
  • 1965Batukeshwar Dutt, Indian activist (b. 1910)
  • 1968Bray Hammond, American historian and author (b. 1886)
  • 1970Iain Macleod, English journalist and politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (b. 1913)
  • 1972Geeta Dutt, Indian singer and actress (b. 1930)
  • 1973Bruce Lee, American actor and martial artist (b. 1940)
  • 1973 – Robert Smithson, American photographer and sculptor (b. 1938)
  • 1974Allen Jenkins, American actor and singer (b. 1900)
  • 1974 – Kamal Dasgupta, Bengali music director, composer and folk artist. (b. 1912)
  • 1976Joseph Rochefort, American captain and cryptanalyst (b. 1900)
  • 1977Gary Kellgren, American record producer, co-founded Record Plant (b. 1939)
  • 1980Maria Martinez, San Ildefonso Pueblo (Native American) potter (b. 1887)
  • 1981Kostas Choumis, Greek-Romanian footballer (b. 1913)
  • 1983Frank Reynolds, American soldier and journalist (b. 1923)
  • 1987Richard Egan, American soldier and actor (b. 1921)
  • 1989Forrest H. Anderson, American judge and politician, 17th Governor of Montana (b. 1913)
  • 1990Herbert Turner Jenkins, American police officer (b. 1907)
  • 1993Vince Foster, American lawyer and political figure (b. 1945)
  • 1994Paul Delvaux, Belgian painter (b. 1897)
  • 1997M. E. H. Maharoof, Sri Lankan politician (b. 1939)
  • 1998June Byers, American wrestler (b. 1922)
  • 1999Sandra Gould, American actress (b. 1916)
  • 2002Michalis Kritikopoulos, Greek footballer (b. 1946)
  • 2003Nicolas Freeling, English author (b. 1927)
  • 2004Lala Mara, Fijian politician (b. 1931)
  • 2004 – Valdemaras Martinkėnas, Lithuanian footballer and coach (b. 1965)
  • 2005James Doohan, Canadian-American actor (b. 1920)
  • 2005 – Finn Gustavsen, Norwegian journalist and politician (b. 1926)
  • 2005 – Kayo Hatta, American director and cinematographer (b. 1958)
  • 2006Ted Grant, South African-English theorist and activist (b. 1913)
  • 2006 – Gérard Oury, French actor, director, and producer (b. 1919)
  • 2007Tammy Faye Messner, American Christian evangelist and talk show host (b. 1942)
  • 2008Artie Traum, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer (b. 1943)
  • 2008 – Dinko Šakić, Croatian concentration camp commander (b. 1921)[33]
  • 2009Vedat Okyar, Turkish footballer (b. 1945)
  • 2009 – Mark Rosenzweig, American psychologist and academic (b. 1922)
  • 2011Lucian Freud, German-English painter and illustrator (b. 1922)
  • 2012Alastair Burnet, English journalist (b. 1928)
  • 2012 – Jack Davis, American hurdler (b. 1930)
  • 2012 – José Hermano Saraiva, Portuguese historian, jurist, and politician, Portuguese Minister of Education (b. 1919)
  • 2013Pierre Fabre, French pharmacist and businessman, founded Laboratoires Pierre Fabre (b. 1926)
  • 2013 – Khurshed Alam Khan, Indian politician, 2nd Governor of Goa (b. 1919)
  • 2013 – Augustus Rowe, Canadian physician and politician (b. 1920)
  • 2013 – Helen Thomas, American journalist and author (b. 1920)[34]
  • 2014Victor G. Atiyeh, American businessman and politician, 32nd Governor of Oregon (b. 1923)
  • 2014 – Constantin Lucaci, Romanian sculptor and educator (b. 1923)
  • 2014 – Bob McNamara, American football player (b. 1931)
  • 2014 – Klaus Schmidt, German archaeologist and academic (b. 1953)
  • 2015Wayne Carson, American singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1943)
  • 2015 – Fred Else, English footballer and manager (b. 1933)
  • 2015 – Dieter Moebius, Swiss-German keyboard player and producer (b. 1944)
  • 2016Radu Beligan, Romanian actor, director, and essayist (b. 1918)
  • 2017Chester Bennington, American singer (b. 1976)
  • 2020Michael Brooks, political commentator (b. 1983)[35]

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ A.H. Virkkunen (1953). Oulun kaupungin historia I (in Finnish). Kirjola Oy. p. 130–131.
  2. ^ Aimo Halila (1953). Oulun kaupungin historia II (in Finnish). Kirjola Oy. p. 71.
  3. ^ Chasiotis, Ioannis (1975). "Η κάμψη της Οθωμανικής δυνάμεως" [The decline of Ottoman power]. Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους, Τόμος ΙΑ′: Ο ελληνισμός υπό ξένη κυριαρχία, 1669–1821 [History of the Greek Nation, Volume XI: Hellenism under foreign rule, 1669–1821] (in Greek). Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon. pp. 8–51.
  4. ^ "Treaty with the Senecas, Shawnees and Wyandots (1831) - Ohio History Central". www.ohiohistorycentral.org. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  5. ^ Legrand, Jacques (1987). Chronicle of the 20th Century. Ecam Publication. p. 16. ISBN 0-942191-01-3.
  6. ^ Kananen, Anitta (March 2006). "Suomi valitsi maailman ensimmäiset naiskansanedustajat" (in Finnish). University of Jyväskylä. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  7. ^ Lang, Kenneth R. (3 March 2011). The Cambridge Guide to the Solar System. Cambridge University Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-139-49417-5.
  8. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Aircraft accident Fokker F-27 Friendship 600RF 6O-SAY Balad Plane crash claims 49 in Somalia". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2021-04-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "More Kurdish Cities Liberated As Syrian Army Withdraws from Area". Rudaw. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  10. ^ Lister, Charles R. (2015). The Syrian Jihad: Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and the Evolution of an Insurgency. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 96–97. ISBN 9780190462475.
  11. ^ "Jeff Bezos blasts into space on own rocket: 'Best day ever!'". Associated Press. 20 July 2021.
  12. ^ "Innocent IX | pope". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  13. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (22 December 2021). "Sally Ann Howes, Star of 'Chitty Chitty Bang Bang,' Dies at 91". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  14. ^ "Obituary: Dame Diana Rigg". BBC News. 10 September 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  15. ^ "Judy Chicago". Britannica Presents 100 Women Trailblazers. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  16. ^ Library of Congress Name Authority File
  17. ^ "Lucille LEMAY - Olympic Archery | Canada". International Olympic Committee. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Enrique Peña Nieto" (in Spanish). Busca Biografias. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  19. ^ "Olympedia – David Ortega". www.olympedia.org. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  20. ^ "Antoine Vermette Stats and News". NHL.com. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  21. ^ Harley Morenstein (2016-07-20). MY BIRTHDAY VLOG!!! (YouTube video). Archived from the original on 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2020-02-29. What's up, guys, July 20th, so it's my birthday, uh, I'm now 31 years old.
  22. ^ "Benedetti is youngest new entry in Who's Who book". www.scotsman.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  23. ^ "ประวัติ "เต ตะวัน" หนุ่มรักการถ่ายภาพ เด็กกิจกรรมจากรั้วจุฬาฯ" (in Thai). Sanook.com. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  24. ^ "10 Things to Know about Steven Adams". www.penguin.co.nz. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  25. ^ "Nick Cousins Stat and News". National Hockey League. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  26. ^ "Moses Leota". National Rugby League. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  27. ^ "Ben Simmons hears the talk, but his process is not a public experiment". ESPN.com. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Boniface VII". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  29. ^ Grant, Alexander. "Stewart, Alexander, first earl of Buchan (c. 1345 – 1405)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26451. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  30. ^ Shattock, Joanne (1993). The Oxford Guide to British Women Writers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 225. ISBN 978-0-19214-176-7.
  31. ^ "Ignaz Stanislaus Sowinski" (in German). Architekturzentrum Wien. Retrieved Nov 30, 2020.
  32. ^ "Mildred Harris Dies In West". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. July 21, 1944. Retrieved 2021-11-29. ... actress in the silent film days, and first wife of Comedian Charles Spencer Chaplin, died yesterday of pneumonia which followed a major abdominal operation....
  33. ^ Martin, Douglas (23 July 2008). "Dinko Sakic, Who Led WWII Death Camp, Dies at 86". The New York Times.
  34. ^ "Helen Thomas Fast Facts". CNN. 5 May 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  35. ^ Sunkara, Bhaskar (July 20, 2020). "Remembering Our Friend and Comrade Michael Brooks". Jacobin. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

External links