Islamic Consultative Assembly

Islamic Consultative Assembly

مجلس شورای اسلامی

Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī
11th term
Coat of arms or logo
Logo
Type
Type
History
Founded16 November 1906 (1906-11-16)
14 March 1980 (current form)
Preceded byNational Consultative Assembly
Leadership
Speaker
Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf
since 28 May 2020
First Vice
Ali Nikzad
since 25 May 2021
Second Vice
Abdolreza Mesri
since 25 May 2021
Structure
Seats290[1]
Iranparliament.svg
Political groups
  •   Principlists (221)
  •   Independents (38)
  •   Reformists (20)
    •   MDP (5)
    •   ECP (2)
    •   Coalition for Iran (1)
  •   Minorities (5)
  •   Vacant (6)
Length of term
4 years[1]
Elections
Qualified majority two-round system[1]
Last election
21 February and 11 September 2020
Next election
2024
Meeting place
مجلس شورای اسلامی ایران.jpg
Islamic Consultative Assembly
Baharestan
Tehran
Iran
Website
http://www.Majlis.ir
http://en.parliran.ir/
Constitution
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی, romanizedMajles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles (Arabicised spelling Majlis), is the national legislative body of Iran. The Parliament currently consists of 290 representatives, an increase from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election. The most recent election took place on 21 February 2020 and the new parliament convened on 28 May 2020.[2]

History

Islamic Republic of Iran

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Senate of Iran was abolished and was effectively replaced by the Guardian Council thus the Iranian legislature remained bicameral. In the 1989 revision of the constitution, the National Consultative Assembly became the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

The Parliament of Iran has had six chairmen since the Iranian Revolution. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was the first chairman, from 1980 to 1989. Then came Mehdi Karroubi (1989–1992), Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri (1992–2000), Mehdi Karroubi (2000–2004), Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel (2004–2008), Ali Larijani (2008–2020) and Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf since 2020.

Over its history the Parliament is said to have evolved from being "a debating chamber for notables," to "a club for the shah's placemen" during the Pahlavi era, to a body dominated by members of "the propertied middle class" under the Islamic Republic.[3][4]

2017 attack

On 7 June 2017, there was shooting at the Iranian parliament and at the shrine of Ayatollah Khomeini.[5] Gunmen opened fire at the Iranian Parliament and the mausoleum of religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini in Tehran. The attack on the mausoleum reportedly left 17 persons dead and more than 30 people injured. The parliament was attacked by four gunmen which left seven to eight people injured. Both attacks took place around the same time and appear to have been coordinated.

Functions

The Islamic Consultative Assembly can legislate laws on all issues within the limits of the Constitution.[6] The Assembly cannot, for instance, enact laws contrary to the canons and principles of the official religion of the country (Islam) or to the Constitution.[7]

Government bills are presented to the Islamic Consultative Assembly after receiving the approval of the Council of Ministers.[8]

The Islamic Consultative Assembly has the right to investigate and examine all the affairs of the country.[9]

International treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements must be approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[10]

Receiving and issuing national or international loans or grants by the government must be ratified by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[11]

The President must obtain, for the Council of Ministers, after being formed and before all other business, a vote of confidence from the Assembly.[12]

Whenever at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly pose a question to the President, or any one member of the Assembly poses a question to a minister on a subject relating to their duties, the President or the minister is obliged to attend the Assembly and answer the question.[13]

All legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be sent to the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council must review it within a maximum of ten days from its receipt with a view to ensuring its compatibility with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution. If it finds the legislation incompatible, it will return it to the Assembly for review. Otherwise the legislation will be deemed enforceable.[14]

Membership

Composition of the parliament by province

Currently, there are 290 members of Parliament, fourteen of whom represent non-Muslim religious minorities (4.8%), and are popularly elected for four-year terms. About 8% of the Parliament are women, while the global average is 13%.[15] The Parliament can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers through no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office. Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the Parliament also may introduce legislation. Deputies also may propose amendments to bills being debated. The Parliament also drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget.

All People's House of Iran candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. Candidates must pledge in writing that they are committed, in theory and in practice, to the Iranian constitution.

Constituencies

The Parliament currently has 207 constituencies, including a total of 5 reserved seats for the religious minorities recognized by the constitution. The rest of 202 constituencies are territorial and coincide with 1 or more of Iran's 368 Shahrestans. The largest electoral districts are:

  • Tehran, Rey, Shemiranat, Eslamshahr and Pardis (30 seats)
  • Tabriz, Osku and Azarshahr (6 seats)
  • Mashhad and Kalat (5 seats)
  • Isfahan (5 seats)
  • Shiraz (4 seats)
  • Ahvaz, Bavi, Hamidieh and Karoun (3 seats)
  • Ardabil, Nir, Namin and Sareyn (3 seats)
  • Kermanshah (3 seats)
  • Qom (3 seats)
  • Urmia (3 seats)

Leadership

Members of Parliament elect their speaker and deputy speakers during the first session of Parliament for a one-year term. Every year, almost always in May, elections for new speakers are held in which incumbents may be re-elected.

The current Speaker of Parliament is Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, with First Deputy Speaker Ali Nikzad and Second Deputy Speaker Abdolreza Mesri.

Committees

  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Energy
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Economy
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on National Security and Foreign Policy
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Health and Medicare
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Civil
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Cultural
  • Iranian Parliament Judicial and Legal Commission
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Article Ninety of the Constitution
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Education and Research
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on planning, budget and calculations
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Social
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Industries and Mines
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Agriculture, water and natural resources
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Council and Internal affairs
  • Iranian Parliament Commission on Codification internal regulations

Current composition

The last elections of Parliament of Iran were held on 26 March 2016 with a second round will be held in April in those 71 districts where no candidate received 25% or more of the votes cast. More than 12,000 candidates registered but leaving about 6,200 candidates to run for the 290 seats representing the 31 provinces. The results indicate that the results would make a hung parliament with reformists having a plurality.

TermComposition
3rd
LeftRight
4th
LeftRight
5th
Hezbollah AssemblyInd.Hezbollah
6th
2nd of KhordadInd.Minority
7th
Imam's LineHarmonyTransform.Principlists
8th
Imam's LinePrinciplistsIslamic Revolution
9th
Ind.Followers of WilayatPrinciplists
10th
HopeWilayi Ind.Wilayi
11th
Ind.Islamic Revolution

Building

After 1979, the Parliament convened at the building that used to house the Senate of Iran. A new building for the Assembly was constructed at Baharestan Square in central Tehran, near the old Iranian Parliament building that had been used from 1906 to 1979. After several debates, the move was finally approved in 2004. The first session of the Parliament in the new building was held on 16 November 2004.

The old building is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 100 rial banknote.[16]

See also

List of Iran's parliament representatives
  • List of Iran's parliament representatives (11th term)
  • List of Iran's parliament representatives (10th term)
  • List of Iran's parliament representatives (9th term)
  • List of Iran's parliament representatives (8th term)
  • List of Iran's parliament representatives (7th term)
  • List of Iran's parliament representatives (6th term)
Subordinate organizations

References

  1. ^ a b c d Nohlen, Dieter; Grotz, Florian; Hartmann, Christof (2001). "Iran". Elections in Asia: A Data Handbook. Vol. I. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-19-924958-X.
  2. ^ "Parliamentary Elections Set for Feb. 2020". Financial Tribune. 27 February 2019.
  3. ^ Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p. 179
  4. ^ Islamic Majles, Ashnai-ye Ba Majles-e Showra-ye Islami, Vol.ii (Guide to the Islamic Majles, Tehran, 1992, p. 205
  5. ^ "Iran shootings: Parliament and Khomeini shrine attacked". BBC News. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  6. ^ Article 71 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28), Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran wipo.int (accessed 2017-02-25)
  7. ^ Article 72 of the Constitution of Iran
  8. ^ Article 74 of the Constitution of Iran
  9. ^ Article 76 of the Constitution of Iran
  10. ^ Article 77 of the Constitution of Iran
  11. ^ Article 80 of the Constitution of Iran
  12. ^ Article 87 of the Constitution of Iran
  13. ^ Article 88 of the Constitution of Iran
  14. ^ Article 94 of the Constitution of Iran
  15. ^ "On Women's Day, struggle for equality remains". Kyiv Post. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012.
  16. ^ Central Bank of Iran. Banknotes & Coins: 100 Rials. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009.

 This article incorporates text from the Constitution of Iran, which is in the public domain.

External links

Videos

Coordinates:35°41′30.28″N 51°26′04″E / 35.6917444°N 51.43444°E / 35.6917444; 51.43444

Media files used on this page

Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Parliamenttehran.jpg
Author/Creator: Wvk, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Parliament building Tehran, Iran
Islamic Parliament of Iran Seal.svg
Official seal of Islamic Parliament of Islamic Republic of Iran
مجلس شورای اسلامی ایران.jpg
Author/Creator: Hamed Malekpour, Licence: CC BY 4.0
مجلس شورای اسلامی ایران
نمای جبهه غربی مجلس.jpg
Author/Creator: Ataramesh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID
صد ریال - سری ششم جمهوری (پشت).jpg
Author/Creator: YavarPS, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
صد ریال - سری شانزدهم جمهوری (پشت)
Flag of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.svg
Flag of the Islamic Consultative Assembly
Palais du Senat iranien (1970).jpg
The second building of the Iranian Parliament
Kingdom of Iran 10000 Rials Banknote 1978 - Second Pahlavi King (reverse).png
Author/Creator: Kingdom of Iran Central Bank, Licence: CC0
Kingdom of Iran 10000 Rials Banknote 1978 - Second Pahlavi King (reverse)
Iranparliament.svg
Author/Creator: XZora, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
iranparliament
Iran parliament composition by province en.svg
Author/Creator: Jooja, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
For total seats of 285 (or formally 290)
Emblem of Iran.svg
State emblem of the Islamic Republic of Iran. U+262B, stylized version of Arabic script of Allah (الله, with the central lam shaped to look like a sword.) The emblem is also an overlaid rendering of La Ilaha Illa Allah (There is only one God and that is 'Allah'). The exact shape of the emblem and an algorithmic ruler-and-compass construction is described in the national Iranian standard at IRANIAN ISLAMIC REPUBLIC FLAG, ISIRI 1, 1371, 3rd edition, March 1993 in Persian. The emblem was designed by Hamid Nadimi, and was officially approved by Ayatollah Khomeini on May 9, 1980.