Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on association football

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruption to association football (also known as soccer) across the world, mirroring its impact across all sports. Across the world and to varying degrees, leagues and competitions have been cancelled or postponed.

Club football

By 25 May, 2020 Ýokary Liga,[1][2] Belarusian Premier League and Liga Primera de Nicaragua were the only three known top flight national football leagues not suspended.[3]

Africa

Both the CAF Champions League and CAF Confederation Cup semi-finals were postponed from their original schedules, to be resumed in October 2020.[4]

Asia

(c) Fars Media Corporation, CC BY 4.0
Measure the body temperature of players in Persian Gulf Pro League

In China, the 2020 Chinese Super League was postponed as a result of the virus.[5] In Hong Kong, the 2020 Lunar New Year Cup was cancelled on 23 January 2020 and 2021 Lunar New Year Cup was cancelled on 2 February 2021.[6] Other leagues in Asia were affected, including South Korea's K League 1 and Japan's J1 League.[7][8] The AFC Champions League and AFC Cup was also impacted, a number of group stage and play-off matches being postponed.[9]

According to K League of South Korea announcement, 2020 K League 1 returned on 8 May, changed from original scheduling start from 29 February.

In India, the remaining I-League matches were postponed and the Indian Super League final was played behind closed doors.[10]

Owing to the surge in new COVID-19 cases, the Beijing Municipal Sports Competitions Administration Centre announced on June 15, 2020, the suspension of 2020 CSL season.[11] On 1 July it was announced that the season would start on 25 July.

On 9 July, it was announced that the AFC Cup would return on 23 September and conclude on 12 December, with the group stage matches to be held in centralised venues.[12][13] However, the season was later abandoned on 10 September and was declared void the following day.[14]

In the AFC Champions League, the AFC announced that Qatar would host all West Region matches after restart.[15] Al Wahda were unable to travel to Qatar to play their remaining matches of the group stage due to several team members testing positive for COVID-19.[16] They were considered to have withdrawn from the competition, and all their previous matches were considered "null and void".[17] The same happened with the defending champion Al-Hilal, when they failed to name the required 13 players and were unable to play their final match of the group stage against Shabab Al-Ahli due to them having only 11 players left with the remaining team members testing positive for COVID-19;[18] hence, they were also considered to have withdrawn from the competition, and all their previous matches were considered "null and void", and would not be taken into consideration in determining the final group rankings.[19]

Qatar also hosted all AFC Champions League East Region matches after restart. However, Malaysian club Johor Darul Ta'zim were unable to travel to Qatar to play the final four matches of the group stage due to the COVID-19 pandemic travel restrictions after they were denied permission to travel by the Malaysian government.[20] Their matches were considered "null and void" and would not affect the final group rankings.[21]

In the 2021 AFC Champions League, the three teams from Australia, Sydney FC, Melbourne City and Brisbane Roar, withdrew from the competition after the draw.[22] Moreover, Chinese teams, Guangzhou, Beijing Guoan and Shanghai Port, opted to participate with a mixture of their youth and reserve teams.[23]

Europe

Post-match handshakes replaced by fist and elbow bumps (August 2020)
Seats at the Dripping Pan marked for social distancing
A UEFA Champions League match between FC Krasnodar and Chelsea played in front of a limited-capacity crowd (October 2020)

In Europe, various knockout matches in the Champions League and Europa League were played behind closed doors in February and March 2020.[24][25] On 12 March 2020, UEFA announced that the elite qualification round of the men and women's under-17 and under-19 youth international tournaments had been postponed.[26] The following day, UEFA postponed all fixtures for the following week in the Champions League, Europa League and Youth League.[27] On 17 June UEFA announced that the Champions League would resume in Portugal, and the Europa League in Germany, in August, but all rounds would be single-match affairs, with the exception of the Europa League round of 16 where the first game had already been played.

Many of the domestic European leagues were impacted in February and March 2020. After various fixtures were rescheduled or played behind closed doors, Serie A was postponed on 9 March 2020.[28] On 12 March, La Liga and the Segunda División were suspended for at least two weeks after a Real Madrid basketball player tested positive for the virus, which resulted in Real Madrid's footballers being put in quarantine.[29] The Eredivisie was also suspended (it was officially declared abandoned on 24 April with no champion awarded),[30] while Ligue 1 and the Bundesliga followed suit shortly afterwards (Ligue 1 would eventually end on 27 April after the French Prime Minister ordered all sporting events to be cancelled until 1 September, with Paris Saint-Germain being declared champions).[31][32][33] The Bundesliga eventually returned on 16 May following the suspension of play.

On 10 March, the Premier League match between Manchester City and Arsenal, due to be played the next day, was postponed after a number of Arsenal players made close contact with Olympiacos owner Evangelos Marinakis, who had tested positive for coronavirus, when the two teams had met in the Europa League 13 days earlier.[34] Arsenal manager Mikel Arteta tested positive for the disease, prompting the team's Premier League match against Brighton & Hove Albion for that weekend to also be postponed.[35] As of 13 March, there has been at least one recorded case of the disease affecting a player in the aforementioned leagues; Serie A footballers Daniele Rugani and Manolo Gabbiadini, 2. Bundesliga footballer Timo Hübers, and Premier League footballer Callum Hudson-Odoi.[36][37] Rugani tested positive while being asymptomatic.[38] On 13 March, English elite football was suspended until early April, including the Premier League, English Football League, FA Women's Super League and FA Women's Championship.[39]

By 19 March, the Belarusian Premier League was the only active top flight in all 55 UEFA member associations.[40]

On 5 May 2020, Scottish Professional Football League (SPFL) chief executive Neil Doncaster summarised the situation in his country during a video conference involving the Scottish Football Association, Scottish Rugby and others in respect of the COVID-19 pandemic; he stated that "gate receipts make up a far higher proportion of our income than in England, which benefits from huge TV deals, so until we get back to playing in front of crowds, our game will remain in grave peril."[41]

In June 2020, chairman of Premier League football side Tottenham Hotspur, Daniel Levy, revealed that the club has taken a loan of £175 million from the Bank of England. The chairman said that money has been taken to tackle with the gripping effects of coronavirus pandemic on the club.[42]

On June 30, 2020, Premier League chief executive Richard Masters announced £1,000,000 as aid for next seasons of the Women's Super League and Championship to mitigate the effect of coronavirus.[43]

Wigan Athletic fell into administration on 1 July after being negatively affected by the pandemic lockdown.[44] By appointing Paul Stanley, Gerald Krasner and Dean Watson from Begbies Traynor, it became the first professional club in England to call up administrators since the pandemic had begun.[45] In addition, many small English football clubs were affected by the pandemic as they rely on ticket sales for revenue.[46]

The Bundesliga became the first major European league to return following the pandemic on 16 May. In the subsequent weeks, many other leagues followed suit. La Liga returned on 11 June, the Premier League on 17 June, and Serie A on 20 June.

On 19 June 2020, FC Rostov lost 1–10 against PFC Sochi in the 2019–20 Russian Premier League, as they fielded their junior team, after six players of the senior team have been infected with COVID-19; hence, the whole team was quarantined.[47]

The 2019–20 UEFA Champions League was resumed in August in Lisbon, Portugal, playing only one single tie in each round.[48]

In the 2020–21 UEFA Champions League preliminary round, Kosovar club Drita's match against Linfield in Nyon, Switzerland was called off, due to two players from Drita testing positive for COVID-19 and the whole team being put into quarantine by the Swiss authorities; eventually, Linfield was awarded a 3–0 win.[49] In the first qualifying round of the same competition, Faroese club was awarded a 3–0 win over Slovan Bratislava, in which the match was initially postponed after one staff member from the latter tested positive for COVID-19,[50] followed by a player from this same team,[51] eventually the whole team was put into quarantine by the Faroese authorities,[51] and KÍ were subsequently awarded a technical victory.[52]

In September 2020, a German team, SG Ripdorf/Molzen ll, lost 37–0 against SV Holdenstedt ll in 3. Kreisklasse. SV Holdenstedt II who came into contact in a previous game with someone who tested positive for COVID-19, refused to reschedule the match; hence, SG Ripdorf/Molzen ll competed with only seven men for fear of infection and did not offer any resistance.[53][54]

On 4 October 2020, Italian club Napoli decided not to travel to Turin to play a Serie A match against Juventus, as two of their players tested positive for COVID-19 along with a staff member. Later on, Juventus were awarded a 3–0 win, and Napoli were deducted 1 point by the Disciplinary Commission as punishment for violating the COVID-19 protocol and not attending the match.[55]

In the 2020–21 UEFA Nations League, two matches, Romania v Norway and Switzerland v Ukraine, were cancelled due to positive tests in the teams.

In January 2021, Arsenal received a £120m loan from the Bank of England to help offset the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.[56]

In December 2021, at least two matches in the 2021–22 UEFA Champions League - Red Bull Leipzig vs. Manchester City F.C. and Bayern Munich vs. F.C. Barcelona - were played behind closed doors due to the German government imposing a lockdown; therefore, spectators were once again banned from attending games.

North America

An FC Cincinnati match during the 2020 Major League Soccer season played without fans (August 2020)

On 12 March 2020, the CONCACAF Champions League was suspended with immediate effect.[57] All other CONCACAF competitions scheduled for the next month were also suspended.[58] On 10 November, it was announced that the competition would resume in December and be played in Orlando with single-leg, neutral venue matches.[59]

Also on 12 March, the National Women's Soccer League (NWSL), whose season was not scheduled to start until 18 April, canceled its preseason matches,[60] and also imposed a moratorium on team training that initially ran through 22 March.[61]

On 12 March, Major League Soccer was suspended for 30 days.[62] On 19 March, Major League Soccer's suspension was extended to a target return date of 10 May.[63] On 14 April, MLS announced that it was "extremely unlikely based on the guidance of federal and local public health authorities" that they would meet this target, and stated that "our goal remains to play as many games as possible, and while we currently have enough dates to play the entire season, we recognize at this time that it may become difficult to do so."[64] The 2020 U.S. Open Cup, 2020 Leagues Cup, 2020 Campeones Cup and 2020 MLS All-Star Game were also all cancelled.[65][66]

On 20 March, the Canadian Premier League announced a postponement of their season which was scheduled to start on 11 April.[67]

The 2019–20 Major Arena Soccer League season was terminated early, effective 12 March.[68]

The USL Championship suspended the 2020 season on 12 March, for at least 30 days.[69]

The National Independent Soccer Association suspended the Spring portion of its 2019–20 season on 12 March for at least 30 days.[70] On 27 April, following a second suspension of play, NISA announced it would cancel the rest of its 2020 Spring season.[71][72]

Match week 10 of Liga MX, Women's Liga MX, and Ascenso MX took place but as of 15 March, club owners and league executives had then taken a decision to postpone all Mexican football activity until further notice.[73] As of 22 May, Mexican football executives announce the termination of the remainder of the current Clausura 2020 championship.[74]

On 10 June, Major League Soccer announced a return to action on 8 July with a mini-tournament, called the MLS is Back Tournament at the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex at Walt Disney World near Orlando, Florida, with all group stage matches counting towards the regular season standings.[75] The regular season was then resumed with fewer fixtures and reduced or no attendance allowed, with the playoffs beginning in November.[76] Canadian teams in the league had to play the remainder of their fixtures in the United States, due to travel restrictions between the borders.[77] This would later continue through the 2021 season after travel restrictions continued to remain in effect.[78]

On 24 July, Liga MX inaugurated the 2020–21 Liga MX season, also known as Torneo Guard1anes 2020. The season was dedicated to Mexico's frontline healthcare and medical staff. Mazatlán F.C. debuted in Liga MX, replacing the dissolved Monarcas Morelia.[79]

On 29 July, the Canadian Premier League announced a return to play on 13 August with a modified format called "The Island Games" to determine a 2020 champion. These games were played behind closed doors at the University of Prince Edward Island in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. The shortened season ended in September with the Finals.[80]

South America

On 12 March 2020, CONMEBOL announced that the Copa Libertadores would be temporarily suspended.[81] In addition, the Copa Sudamericana have been suspended after first round due to the COVID-19 pandemic, to be resumed on 27 October 2020, with the final rescheduled to be played in late January 2021.[82]

On 15 March, all top-tier football in Brazil was suspended until April.[83]

Academic research analyzes and compares the safe return protocols of major football leagues and associations to those of the Brazilian Championship, as well as to survey the numbers of COVID-19 outbreaks in clubs that competed in the 2020 Brazilian Championship Series A. The documentary research was carried out through the analysis of articles published on open-source football league and federation websites. National and international return protocols were verified, as well as the documenting of isolated cases and outbreaks of COVID-19 in the Brazilian Championship. In the Brazilian Championship, the return to play occurred at a time when COVID-19 case numbers were rising, a fact that, together with the decentralization of the match cities, was likely linked to the number of positive cases.[84]

Oceania

In New Zealand, the three main competitions, the New Zealand Football Championship, the Chatham Cup and the Kate Sheppard Cup were all cancelled by New Zealand Football. The 2019–20 New Zealand Football Championship season was concluded after 18 weeks, with Auckland City declared the winner.[85] On 23 April, both the national Men's and Women's knock-out cups were cancelled a week before the preliminary rounds were due to kick off.[86] It was the first time the Chatham Cup had been cancelled since the end of World War II.[86] On 15 January 2021, FIFA announced that Auckland City had withdrawn from the 2020 FIFA Club World Cup, due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related quarantine measures required by the New Zealand authorities.[87] On 4 June 2021, the OFC announced that the 2021 OFC Champions League had been cancelled, and no champions would be awarded for the second season in a row.[88]

International football

On 13 March 2020, FIFA announced that clubs did not have to release players to their national teams during the international windows of March and April 2020, while players also had the option to decline a call-up without any consequences. FIFA also recommended that all international matches during these windows be postponed, though the final decision was left to the competition organisers or member associations for friendly matches.[89]

On 9 March 2020, the Oceania Football Confederation announced that all tournaments were postponed until May 2020.[90]

FIFA World Cup qualification

The qualifiers for the 2022 FIFA World Cup was disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, it was announced that Asian qualifier matches due to take place in March and June 2020 were postponed to later dates.[91] The South American qualifiers due to take place in March 2020 were also postponed to later dates.[92]

Olympic qualification

Play-off matches between South Korea and China in the 2020 AFC Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament were also postponed.[93]

Continental tournaments

On 17 March 2020, the CAF announced that the 2020 African Nations Championship had been postponed to a later date due to the pandemic.[94] On 30 June CAF announced that the tournament would be held in January 2021.

On 10 September 2020, the AFC announced that the 2020 AFC Solidarity Cup would be cancelled.[95]

Concerns were raised regarding UEFA Euro 2020, being held in twelve host cities across Europe, and the potential impact of the coronavirus on players, staff and tournament visitors.[96] UEFA president Aleksander Čeferin said the organisation was confident that the situation could be dealt with, while general secretary Theodore Theodoridis stated that UEFA was maintaining contact with the World Health Organization and national governments regarding the coronavirus.[97] UEFA announced that a videoconference would be held on 17 March with representatives of its 55 member associations, along with a FIFPro representative and the boards of the European Club Association and European Leagues, to discuss the response to the outbreak for domestic and European competitions, including Euro 2020.[98] The tournament was moved by 12 months.[99] As a result, UEFA Women's Euro 2021 was similarly moved back 12 months, due to the original dates clashing with the rearranged Euro 2020 and 2020 Summer Olympics dates.[100]

On 17 March, CONMEBOL announced that the 2020 edition of Copa América was postponed to 2021.[101]

On 21 April 2020, the Oceania Football Confederation announced that due to the pandemic and the difficulty in rescheduling to another date in the FIFA International Match Calendar, the 2020 OFC Nations Cup would be cancelled.[102]

The 2022 AFC Women's Asian Cup was marred with COVID-19 cases among many of its participating teams. Most affected were host India who were forced to withdraw from the tournament due to too many players rendered unavailable either due to COVID-19 or injuries.[103]

Youth tournaments

On 3 April 2020, FIFA announced that the 2020 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup, scheduled to be held in Panama and Costa Rica in August, and the 2020 FIFA U-17 Women's World Cup, scheduled to be held in India in November, would be postponed and rescheduled.[104]

Collegiate soccer

Two National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I members announced that they had eliminated their men's soccer teams effective immediately. First, on 14 April, the University of Cincinnati shuttered its team, citing "profound challenges and widespread uncertainty" resulting from the pandemic.[105] Then, on 26 May, Appalachian State University dropped three men's teams, including soccer, "in response to the financial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic".[106]

  • The Atlantic 10 Men's Soccer Tournament, for the 2020 season only, will be reduced from eight teams to four, to minimize travel and contamination.[107]
  • The Big East Conference divided into two divisions, the "East" and "Midwest" divisions to minimize travel and to regionalize conference play.[108]
  • The Big South Conference Men's Soccer Tournament, for the 2020 season only, will be reduced from six teams to four, to minimize travel and contamination.[109]
  • The Big West Conference cancelled the entirety of the league's 2020 season.[110]
  • The Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference, announced that the men's soccer season will begin on September 11, rather than August 28.[111]
  • The Mid-American Conference discontinued its men's and women's soccer tournaments.[112]
  • The Southern Conference Men's Soccer Tournament, for the 2020 season only, will be reduced from six teams to four, to minimize travel and contamination.[113]

List of affected events

Leagues

List of affected top-flight football leagues:

Curtailed

LeagueCountrySeasonStart dateCancellation dateChampions (if awarded)Source
Liga Panameña de Fútbol PanamaApertura 202025 January 202017 March 2020None[114]
New Zealand Football Championship New Zealand2019–201 November 201918 March 2020Auckland City[85]
Primera División de El Salvador El SalvadorClausura 202018 January 202020 March 2020None[115]
Liga Nacional de Guatemala GuatemalaClausura 202017 January 202025 March 2020None[116]
Super League Vrouwenvoetbal Belgium2019–2023 August 201927 March 2020RSC Anderlecht[117]
Mauritian Premier League Mauritius2019–2022 November 20196 April 2020None[118]
Czech First Division (women) Czech Republic2019–2017 August 20197 April 2020Slavia Praha[119]
Premier League of Belize Belize2019–20 C11 January 202018 April 2020None[120]
I-League India2019–2030 November 201918 April 2020Mohun Bagan[121]
Eredivisie Netherlands2019–202 August 201924 April 2020None[122]
Eredivisie Vrouwen Netherlands2019–2023 August 201924 April 2020None[123]
Primera División Argentina2019–2026 July 201928 April 2020Boca Juniors[124]
Ligue 1 France2019–209 August 201928 April 2020Paris Saint-Germain[125]
Division 1 Féminine France2019–2024 August 201928 April 2020Olympique Lyonnais[126]
Luxembourg National Division Luxembourg2019–203 August 201928 April 2020None[127]
Liga Nacional HondurasClausura 202010 January 202029 April 2020None[128]
Girabola Angola2019–20November 201930 April 2020None[129]
Gibraltar National League Gibraltar2019–2012 August 20191 May 2020None[130]
Guinée Championnat National Guinea2019–20October 20191 May 2020None[131]
Kenya Premier League Kenya2019–2020191 May 2020Gor Mahia[132]
Niger Premier League Niger2019–2020194 May 2020None[133]
Burkinabé Premier League Burkina Faso2019–2016 August 20195 May 2020None[134]
Congo Premier League Republic of the Congo2019–205 October 20195 May 2020AS Otohô[135]
Ethiopian Premier League Ethiopia2019–20November 20195 May 2020None[136]
Liberian First Division Liberia202029 December 20194 May 2020None[137]
Primera División (women) Spain2019–207 September 20196 May 2020Barcelona[138]
Elite One Cameroon2020202012 May 2020PWD Bamenda[139]
Linafoot Democratic Republic of the Congo2019–2015 August 201913 May 2020TP Mazembe[140]
Jupiler Pro League Belgium2019–2026 July 201915 May 2020Club Brugge[141]
Cypriot First Division Cyprus2019–2023 August 201915 May 2020None[142]
National Premier League Jamaica2019–201 September 201915 May 2020None[143]
Venezuelan Primera División Venezuela202030 January 202015 May 2020None[144]
Tahiti Ligue 1 Tahiti2019–2027 September 201916 May 2020Pirae[145]
Bangladesh Premier League Bangladesh202013 February 202017 May 2020None[146]
Maltese Premier League Malta2019–2023 August 201918 May 2020Floriana[147]
Scottish Premiership Scotland2019–203 August 201918 May 2020Celtic[148]
Cymru Premier Wales2019–2016 August 201919 May 2020Connah's Quay Nomads[149]
Uganda Premier League Uganda2019–20201920 May 2020Vipers
FUFA Women Super League Uganda2019–20201920 May 2020None[150]
GFA League First Division The Gambia2019–206 December 201921 May 2020None
South Sudan Football Championship South Sudan202020 February 202021 May 2020None
Liga MX MexicoClausura 202010 January 202022 May 2020None[151]
Liga MX Femenil MexicoClausura 20204 January 202022 May 2020None[151]
Rwanda Premier League Rwanda2019–204 October 201922 May 2020APR
FA Women's Super League England2019–207 September 201925 May 2020Chelsea[152]
Togolese Championnat National Togo2019–206 October 201926 May 2020ASKO Kara[153]
Lebanese Premier League Lebanon2019–2020 September 201928 May 2020None[154]
Premijer liga Bosnia and Herzegovina2019–2020 July 20191 June 2020Sarajevo[155]
Iraqi Premier League Iraq2019–2018 September 20193 June 2020None[156]
Macedonian First Football League North Macedonia2019–2011 August 20194 June 2020Vardar[157]
Serie A (women) Italy2019–2014 September 20198 June 2020Juventus[158]
Botswana Premier League Botswana2019–2031 August 201915 June 2020Jwaneng Galaxy[159]
UAE Pro League United Arab Emirates2019–2019 September 201918 June 2020None[160]
Benin Premier League Benin2019–206 October 201929 June 2020None[161]
Ghana Premier League Ghana2019–2028 December 201930 June 2020None[162]
Senegal Premier League Senegal2019–207 December 20199 July 2020None[163]
Nigeria Professional Football League Nigeria2019–203 November 201910 July 2020None[164]
Sierra Leone National Premier League Sierra Leone2019–204 December 201915 July 2020None[165]
Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1 Algeria2019–2015 August 201929 July 2020CR Belouizdad[166]

Postponed

LeagueCountrySeasonOriginal schedulePostponedResumedSource
Ýokary Liga Turkmenistan20206 March 2020 (start date)23 March 202019 April 2020[167]
K League 1 South Korea202029 February – 4 October 202024 February 20208 May 2020[168]
Faroe Islands Premier League Faroe Islands20208 March 2020 – 7 November 20208 March 20209 May 2020[169]
Bundesliga Germany2019–2016 August 2019 – 27 June 202013 March 202016 May 2020[170]
Liga FPD Costa RicaClausura 202011 January 2020 – 17 or 31 May 202018 March 202019 May 2020[171]
Meistriliiga Estonia20206 March 2020 – 7 November 20208 March 202019 May 2020[172]
Nemzeti Bajnokság I Hungary2019–2021 July 2019 – May 202016 March 202017 May 2020[173]
Burundi Premier League Burundi2019–2010 August 2019 – April 20205 April 202021 May 2020[174]
Czech First League Czech Republic2019–2012 July 2019 – May 202012 March 202025 May 2020[175]
Syrian Premier League Syria2019–2020 October 2019 – May 20209 March 202028 May 2020[176]
Danish Superliga Denmark2019–2012 July 2019 – 24 May 202012 March 202029 May 2020[177]
Frauen-Bundesliga Germany2019–2017 August 2019 – 17 May 202016 March 202029 May 2020[178]
Ekstraklasa Poland2019–2012 July 2019 – 17 May 202013 March 202029 May 2020[174]
A Lyga Lithuania20208 March 2020 – 7 November 202012 March 202030 May 2020[179]
SuperLiga Serbia2019–2019 July 2019 – May 202015 March 202030 May 2020[180]
Ukrainian Premier League Ukraine2019–2028 July 2019 – May 202017 March 202030 May 2020[181]
Israeli Premier League Israel2019–2024 August 2019 – May 202012 March 202030 May 2020[182]
Montenegrin First League Montenegro2019–203 August 2019 – May 202013 March 20201 June 2020[183]
Austrian Football Bundesliga Austria2019–2026 July 2019 – 7 March 202018 March 20202 June 2020[184]
Kategoria Superiore Albania2019–2023 August 2019 – May 202012 March 20203 June 2020[185]
Primeira Liga Portugal2019–209 August 2019 – 17 May 202012 March 20203 June 2020[186]
First Professional Football League Bulgaria2019–2012 July 2019 – May 202013 March 20205 June 2020[187]
Slovenian PrvaLiga Slovenia2019–2013 July 2019 – 15 May 202012 March 20205 June 2020[188]
V.League 1 Vietnam20206 March 2020 (start date)16 March 2020 (first suspension)
26 July 2020 (second suspension)
5 June 2020 (first resumption)
9 October 2020 (second resumption)
[189][190]
Croatian First Football League Croatia2019–2019 July 2019 – May 202012 March 20206 June 2020[191]
Super League Greece Greece2019–2024 August 2019 – May 202013 March 20206 June 2020[192]
La Liga Spain2019–2016 August 2019 – 24 May 202012 March 202011 June 2020[193]
Liga I Romania2019–2012 July 2019 – June 202012 March 202012 June 2020[194]
Süper Lig Turkey2019–2016 August 2019 – May 202019 March 202012 June 2020[195]
Slovak First Football League Slovakia2019–2020 July 2019 – 24 May 202012 March 202013 June 2020[196]
Allsvenskan Sweden20204 April 2020 – 8 November 202019 March 202014 June 2020[197]
Eliteserien Norway20204 April 2020 – 29 November 202012 March 202016 June 2020[198]
Premier League England2019–209 August 2019 – 17 May 202013 March 202017 June 2020[199]
Russian Premier League Russia2019–2012 July 2019 – May 202017 March 202019 June 2020[200]
League of Ireland Republic of Ireland202014 February 2020 – 30 October 202012 March 202031 July 2020[201][202]
Swiss Super League  Switzerland2019–2019 July 2019 – May 202028 February 202019 June 2020[203]
Serie A Italy2019–2025 August 2019 – 24 May 20209 March 202020 June 2020[204]
Persian Gulf Pro League Iran2019–2023 August 2019 – May 202011 March 202024 June 2020[205]
Veikkausliiga Finland20203 April 2020 – 1 September 202013 March 20201 July 2020[206]
Kazakhstan Premier League Kazakhstan20207 March 2020 (start date)16 March 20201 July 2020 (first resumption)
18 August 2020 (second resumption)
[207]
J1 League Japan202021 February – 5 December 202025 February 20204 July 2020[208]
Major League Soccer United States
 Canada
202029 February – 7 November 202012 March 20208 July 2020[209]
Nadeshiko League Japan20202 May 2020 (start date)March 202018 July 2020[210]
Paraguayan Primera División Paraguay202017 January 2020 (start date)13 March 202021 July 2020[211]
Qatar Stars League Qatar2019–2021 August 2019 – April 202016 March 202024 July 2020[212]
Chinese Super League China202022 February 2020 – 31 October 202030 January 202025 July 2020[213]
Botola Morocco2019–2014 September 2019 – May 202014 March 202027 July 2020[214]
Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1 Tunisia2019–2024 August 2019 – June 202016 March 20201 August 2020[215]
Saudi Professional League Saudi Arabia2019–2022 August 2019 – May 202015 March 20204 August 2020[216]
Egyptian Premier League Egypt2019–2021 September 2019 – May 202014 March 20209 August 2020[217]
Canadian Premier League Canada202011 April 2020 – 4 October 202020 March 202013 August 2020[218]
Philippines Football League Philippines2020May 2020 (start date)13 March 202025 October 2020[219]

Cancelled

LeagueCountrySeasonOriginal scheduleCancellation dateSource
Philippines Football League Philippines202121 August 2021 (start date)22 October 2021[220][221][222]

Tournaments

Cancelled

TournamentHost countryOriginal scheduleCancellation dateSource
2020 OFC Nations Cup New Zealand6–20 June 202021 April 2020[102]
2020 AFC Solidarity CupN/A30 November - 13 December 202010 September 2020[95]
2020 AFC CupN/A10 February – 7 November 202010 September 2020[14]

References

 This article incorporates text by Leonardo José Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Pedro da Gama Roberto de Albuquerque, Gabriel de Almeida Vasconcellos, Rodrigo Mendonça do Nascimento, Nadine Tonelli Cavalari, Daniel Range, Andressa Fontes Guimarães-Mataruna, and Bianca Ortiz-Silva available under the CC BY 4.0 license.

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Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain (genetic variant) of the coronavirus that caused Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first identified in Wuhan, China, during December 2019

Each separate locus (amorphous blob) is an atom of:

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  orange: glucose (glycan)
  turquoise : S (spike) glycoprotein
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Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
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