Huanggang

Huanggang
黄冈市
Hwangkang
黄冈天际线.jpg
Mount Tashan near Fengshan, Luotian, Huanggang 2.jpg
Li Siguang Memorial Museum in Huangzhou, Huanggang, Hubei, China.JPG
Shopping street in Huangzhou, Huanggang, Hubei.jpg
Clockwise: Huanggang skyline, Li Siguang Memorial Museum, Shopping street in Huangzhou, Mount Tashan near Fengshan.
Location of Huanggang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Huanggang City jurisdiction in Hubei
Huanggang is located in Hubei
Huanggang
Huanggang
Location of downtown Huanggang in Hubei
Coordinates (Huanggang municipal government):30°27′13″N 114°52′21″E / 30.4537°N 114.8724°E / 30.4537; 114.8724Coordinates:30°27′13″N 114°52′21″E / 30.4537°N 114.8724°E / 30.4537; 114.8724
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
Municipal seatHuangzhou District
Area
 • Prefecture-level city17,446.63 km2 (6,736.18 sq mi)
 • Urban
363.23 km2 (140.24 sq mi)
 • Metro
963.44 km2 (371.99 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city5,882,719
 • Density340/km2 (870/sq mi)
 • Urban
456,862
 • Urban density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,152,559
 • Metro density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB-11
Local DialectLower Yangtze Mandarin
Website黄冈市政府门户网站 (Huanggang City Government Web Portal) (in Chinese)
Huanggang
Simplified Chinese黄冈
Traditional Chinese黃岡

Huanggang is a prefecture-level city in easternmost Hubei Province, China. It is situated to the north of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and is bounded in the north by the Dabie Mountains and is named after Mount Huanggang.[1] It borders Henan in the north, Anhui in the east and Jiangxi in the south.

The city's administrative area covers 17,453 square kilometers (6,739 sq mi) and the total population was 5,882,719 as of the 2020 census whom 456,862 resided in the Huangzhou urban district, making it the second most populous city in the province by administrative population, after Wuhan,[3] the provincial capital. the Ezhou – Huanggang built-up (or metro) area was home to 1,152,559 inhabitants comprising (Echeng district and Huangzhou district of Huanggang), and many of its residents work in Wuhan.[3] In 2007, the city is named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.[4]

History

Xugongmai Bronze Fu. Spring and Autumn period. Excavated at Weijia Pavilion Village, Yuwangcheng, Huangzhou.

In 845 BC Marquis Wen (文侯) Huang Meng (黃孟; also known as Huang Zhang / 黃璋) moved the capital of the State of Huang from Yicheng to Huangchuan (present-day Huangchuan, Henan). Huang Xi's descendants ruled State of Huang until 648 BC when it was destroyed by the State of Chu. The Marquis of Huang, Marquis Mu (穆侯) Huang Qisheng (黃企生), fled to the state of Qi. The people of Huang were forced to relocate to Chu. They settled in the region of present-day Hubei province, in a region known as the Jiangxia Prefecture (江夏郡) during the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220). There are many places in this region today that were named after Huang e.g. Huanggang, Huangpi, Huangmei, Huangshi, Huangan, Huangzhou etc. Many of the people of Huang were also relocated to regions south of the Yangtze River. During the reign of Emperor Cheng of Jin, Later Zhao forces inflicted great damage on many Jin cities and bases north of the Yangtze and captured Zhucheng (邾城, in modern Huanggang, Hubei). Huanggang has a history of at least 2,000 years.[1]

Administration

Huanggang administers 12 county-level divisions, including one district, two county-level cities and seven counties:[5][6][1]

Map
#NameChinese (S)
Counties
1Hong'an County红安
2Luotian County罗田
3Yingshan County英山
4Xishui County Xi River浠水
5Qichun County蕲春
6Huangmei County Yellow Plum黄梅
7Tuanfeng County团风
County-level cities
8Wuxue City武穴
9Macheng City麻城
District
10Huangzhou District黄州
Other Areas
11Longganhu Administrative District龙感湖管理区
12Huanggang Economonic Development Area黄冈经济开发区

Geography

Climate data for Huanggang (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
10.6
(51.1)
15.0
(59.0)
21.7
(71.1)
27.0
(80.6)
29.9
(85.8)
33.1
(91.6)
32.8
(91.0)
28.7
(83.7)
23.1
(73.6)
16.8
(62.2)
10.9
(51.6)
21.5
(70.6)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.4
(39.9)
6.9
(44.4)
10.9
(51.6)
17.3
(63.1)
22.6
(72.7)
26.0
(78.8)
29.2
(84.6)
28.6
(83.5)
24.4
(75.9)
18.7
(65.7)
12.4
(54.3)
6.7
(44.1)
17.3
(63.2)
Average low °C (°F)1.8
(35.2)
4.1
(39.4)
7.8
(46.0)
13.8
(56.8)
18.9
(66.0)
22.8
(73.0)
25.9
(78.6)
25.3
(77.5)
21.1
(70.0)
15.3
(59.5)
9.1
(48.4)
3.6
(38.5)
14.1
(57.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)53.6
(2.11)
72.5
(2.85)
106.4
(4.19)
145.7
(5.74)
166.1
(6.54)
222.2
(8.75)
216.6
(8.53)
143.7
(5.66)
68.2
(2.69)
83.2
(3.28)
60.6
(2.39)
34.9
(1.37)
1,373.7
(54.08)
Average relative humidity (%)79787978778079787676767478
Source: China Meteorological Administration[7]

Cultural heritage

Huanggang is home to several significant cultural sites of historical interest, such as the Buddhist Ancestral Hall of Sakyamuni at Doufang Mountain, Wuzu Temple and its Changchun Nunnery, and Dongpo Red Cliff.

Education

Huanggang Normal University is a full-time institution of higher education located in the city of Huanggang.

Economy

Huanggang has a diversified economy, ranging from bio- and herbal medicine to manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism. Since ancient times, Huanggang has been renowned for local specialties such as the "Qichun Four Treasures" (snake, turtle, bamboo, and moxa), Huangmei "tiaohua" embroidery, and Wuxue "zhangshuiqian" bamboo products. Today, Huanggang at large is recognized for organic vegetables. With its "Guihuaxiang" brand of chestnuts, Luotian is the leading chestnut-growing county in all of China. Yingshan is famous for its "cloud mist" green tea. Qichun, of course, is famous for herbal medicine. Macheng is a national model county for cattle breeding. Huangmei is a major center of freshwater shrimp and fragrant jade rice production. And Hong'an peanut production ranks the first in Hubei Province.

Transportation

Huanggang enjoys an excellent transportation infrastructure. Wuhan airport is 90 kilometers (56 mi) to the west, while Jiujiang Airport in Jiangxi to the east is 160 kilometers (99 mi) away. Being on the Yangtze River, Wuhan main port is located 80 kilometers (50 mi) away, and Huangzhou District has a small bulk-handling port. There is an extensive road network, with three north–south and seven east–west major roads within the main city area. The city also is served by several new expressways, including the north–south "Jingzhu" (Beijing to Zhuhai, Guangdong) expressway and the east–west Wuhan to Shanghai expressway. Huanggang also is on the main north–south "Jingjiu" (Beijing to Hong Kong) and "Jingguang" (Beijing to Guangzhou, Guangdong) railway lines.

Bridges

The Edong Bridge over the Yangtze River

Two bridges connect Huanggang across the Yangtze to the Ezhou on the south bank of the river:

  • Ehuang Bridge, between the main urban area of Huanggang and Ezhou; it carries the China National Highway 106.
  • Edong Bridge carries the G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway and the G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway.

Other river crossings near Huanggang include:

Rail

Huanggang is served by the Beijing–Kowloon Railway, which has several stations within the prefecture-level city. The Huangzhou Station, located within Huangzhou District some 20 km (12 mi) northeast from downtown Huanggang, has the best service of all, with several trains a day to Beijing, Nanchang, and Shenzhen.[8] Huanggang travelers can also use the Huangshi station on the Wuhan–Jiujiang Railway, across the river.

Famous people

Huanggang prefecture is the birthplace of numerous famous Chinese inventors, scientists, and scholars, including:

  • Bi Sheng, the inventor of movable type printing;
  • Cheng Yi, ancient idealist philosopher;
  • Dong Biwu, Acting President of the People's Republic of China, 1972–1975;
  • Li Shizhen, herbalist and author of the ancient medical classic Compendium of Materia Medica;
  • Li Siguang, ethnic Mongol ecologist;
  • Lin Biao, one of the ten marshals in China;[9]
  • Wen Yiduo, patriotic poet;
  • Xiong Shili, a 20th-century Chinese philosopher;
  • Daman Hongren, the 5th Chán (Buddhist) Patriarch in the traditional lineage of Chinese Chan;
  • Xu Fuguan, a Chinese historian and philosopher, notable for Confucian studies;
  • Hu Feng, a Chinese writer and literary and art theorist;
  • Chu Bong-Foo, the inventor of the Cangjie method, the most widely available Chinese input method, and the father of the modern Chinese computing;
  • Huang Kan, a Chinese philologist.

As well, Huanggang is famous for producing military and political leaders. Hong'an County is known as the "County of Generals" in that more than 400 Chinese army generals have been born there, a total far greater than for any other county in all of China. In addition, former military leader and President of China, Li Xiannian (1909–1992), was born in Hong'an. The family of Taiwanese author Kuo Cheng came from Huanggang.[10]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d 辭海第六版 [Cihai (Sixth Edition)]. Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. September 2009. p. 957. ISBN 9787532628599.
  2. ^ "China: Húbĕi (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. ^ a b 湖北黄冈9个县市确诊病例全部“清零”. Xinhua. 2020-03-14. Retrieved 2020-03-21.
  4. ^ "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan Loudi Official Government. 2012-03-28. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  5. ^ 黄冈概况 (in Simplified Chinese). Huanggang People's Government. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 现辖七县(红安、罗田、英山、浠水、蕲春、黄梅、团风)、二市(武穴、麻城),黄州区、龙感湖管理区和黄冈经济开发区,{...}
  6. ^ 黄冈市历史沿革 [Historical Development of Huanggang City] (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 2010年第六次人口普查,黄冈市常住总人口6162069人,其中:黄州区366769人,团风县338609人,红安县602148人,罗田县544650人,英山县357296人,浠水县872649人,蕲春县727805人,黄梅县858806人,麻城市849090人,武穴市644247人。
  7. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2020-04-15.
  8. ^ 黄州列车时刻表 [Huangzhou Station Schedule]., as compared to that for the neighboring stations: 浠水,蕲春,武穴
  9. ^ Lin 164
  10. ^ 郭箏 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). National Museum of Taiwan Literature. Retrieved 22 October 2019. 籍貫: 湖北黃岡

Bibliography

  • Lin Biao. "Lin Piao: Master Strategist". In Snow, Helen Foster (Ed.). The Chinese Communists: Sketches and Autobiographies of the Old Guard. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwoods Publishing Company. 1972.ISBN 0-8371-6321-8

External links

Media files used on this page

Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg
Author/Creator: Dan Polansky based on work currently attributed to Wikimedia Foundation but originally created by Smurrayinchester, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A logo derived from File:WiktionaryEn.svg, a logo showing a 3 x 3 matrix of variously rotated tiles with a letter or character on each tile. The derivation consisted in removing the tiles that form the background of each of the shown characters. File:WiktionaryEn.svg is under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike, created by Smurrayinchester, and attributed to Wikimedia Foundation. This is the version without the wordmark.
China prefectural-level divisions and administrative divisions (PRoC claim).png
Map of China, shows provinces, prefecture-level divisions, etc.
Xugongmai Bronze Fu.jpg
Author/Creator: Antolavoasio, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Xugongmai Bronze Fu (许公买青铜簠). Spring and Autumn period. Excavated at Weijia Pavilion Village, Yuwang, Huangzhou (黄州禹王城韦家凉亭村). First Grade Cultural Relic.
Shopping street in Huangzhou, Huanggang, Hubei.jpg
Author/Creator: そらみみ, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
湖北省黄岡市黄州区・商店街
Location of Huanggang Prefecture within Hubei (China).png
Author/Creator: Croquant, Licence: CC BY 3.0

Location of Huanggang Prefecture (yellow) within Hubei Province of China

Map drawn in december 2007 using various sources, mainly :

Administrative Division Huanggang.png
Author/Creator: Chk2011, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
administrative division of Huanggang City, Hubei, China
Mount Tashan near Fengshan, Luotian, Huanggang 2.jpg
Author/Creator: そらみみ, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
湖北省黄岡市羅田県鳳山鎮附近の塔山
E’dong Yangtze River Bridge.JPG
Author/Creator: Glabb, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Edong Bridge in Huangshi, Hubei, China (The file name is non-standard pinyin: 五 隔音符號 Syllable-dividing Mark a, o, e 開頭的音節連接在其他音節後面的時候, 如果音節的界限發生混淆,用隔音符號(')http://www.moe.edu.cn/ewebeditor/uploadfile/2015/03/02/20150302165814246.pdf
黄冈天际线.jpg
Author/Creator: 刘心宇, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Skeline of Huanggang