Henry IV of France

Henry IV
Portrait of Henry IV aged 56
Portrait by Frans Pourbus the Younger, 1610
King of France
Reign2 August 1589 – 14 May 1610
Coronation27 February 1594
Chartres Cathedral
PredecessorHenry III
SuccessorLouis XIII
King of Navarre
Reign9 June 1572 – 14 May 1610
PredecessorJeanne III
SuccessorLouis II
Born13 December 1553
Pau, Kingdom of Navarre
Died14 May 1610(1610-05-14) (aged 56)
Paris, Kingdom of France
Burial1 July 1610
Basilica of St Denis, Paris, France
(m. 1572; annulled 1599)

(m. 1600)
  • Louis XIII of France
  • Elisabeth, Queen of Spain
  • Christine, Duchess of Savoy
  • Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans
  • Gaston, Duke of Orléans
  • Henrietta Maria, Queen of England


  • César, Duke of Vendôme
  • Catherine Henriette, Duchess of Elbeuf
French: Henri de Bourbon
FatherAntoine of Navarre
MotherJeanne III of Navarre
ReligionProtestantism 1553-1595 Roman Catholicism 1595-1610
SignatureHenry IV's signature
Royal styles of
King Henry IV
Par la grâce de Dieu, Roi de France et de Navarre
France moderne.svg
Reference styleHis Most Christian Majesty
Spoken styleYour Most Christian Majesty
Alternative styleSire

Henry IV (French: Henri IV; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1]

The son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme and Jeanne d'Albret, the Queen of Navarre, Henry was baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother. He inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on his mother's death. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. He later led Protestant forces against the royal army.[2]

He and his predecessor Henry III of France were direct descendants of Saint-King Louis IX. Henry III belonged to the House of Valois, descended from Philip III of France, elder son of Saint Louis; Henry IV belonged to the House of Bourbon, descended from Robert, Count of Clermont, younger son of Saint Louis. As Head of the House of Bourbon, Henry was "first prince of the blood". Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law.

He initially kept the Protestant faith (the only French king to do so) and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France's crown as a Protestant. After four years of stalemate, he converted to Catholicism to obtain mastery over his kingdom (reportedly saying, "Paris is well worth a mass"). As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the French Wars of Religion.

Henry was the target of at least 12 assassination attempts, being considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants.[3] Though he faced much opposition during his reign, Henry gained more status after his death.[4] An active ruler, he worked to regularise state finance, promote agriculture, eliminate corruption and encourage education. During his reign,[5] the French colonization of the Americas truly began with the foundation of the colonies of Acadia and Canada at Port-Royal and Quebec, respectively. He is celebrated in the popular song "Vive le roi Henri" (which later became an anthem for the French monarchy during the reigns of his successors) and in Voltaire's Henriade.

Early life

Childhood and adolescence

Henry III of France on his deathbed designating Henry IV of Navarre as his successor (1589)

Henry de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn.[6] His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre (Jeanne d'Albret) and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, King of Navarre.[7] Although baptised as a Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother,[8] who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion. On 9 June 1572, upon his mother's death, the 19-year-old became King of Navarre.[9]

First marriage and Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

At Queen Joan's death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici. The wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572[10] on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral.

On 24 August, the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre began in Paris. Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry's wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict.[9] He named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years.

Wars of Religion

Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Given that Henry of Navarre was the next senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor.[11]

War of the Three Henrys (1587–1589)

  • King Henry III of France, supported by the royalists and the politiques;
  • King Henry of Navarre, heir presumptive to the French throne and leader of the Huguenots, supported by Elizabeth I of England and the Protestant princes of Germany; and
  • Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, leader of the Catholic League, funded and supported by Philip II of Spain.

Salic law barred the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent through only the female line from inheriting. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, and France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henrys (1587–1589).

Henry I, Duke of Guise pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras.[12]

In December 1588, Henry III had Henry I of Guise murdered,[13] along with his brother, Louis, Cardinal de Guise.[14] Henry III thought the removal of the brothers would finally restore his authority. However, the populace was horrified and rose against him. The title of the king was no longer recognized in several cities; his power was limited to Blois, Tours, and the surrounding districts. In the general chaos, Henry III relied on King Henry of Navarre and his Huguenots.

The two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Henry III acknowledged the King of Navarre as a true subject and Frenchman, not a fanatic Huguenot aiming for the destruction of Catholics. Catholic royalist nobles also rallied to the king's standard. With this combined force, the two kings marched to Paris. The morale of the city was low, and even the Spanish ambassador believed the city could not hold out longer than a fortnight. However, Henry III was assassinated shortly thereafter, on 2 August 1589, by a monk.[15]

Succession (1589–1594)

Henry IV at the Battle of Arques
Henry IV at the Battle of Ivry, by Peter Paul Rubens

When Henry III died, Henry of Navarre nominally became king of France. The Catholic League, however, strengthened by support from outside the country—especially from Spain—was strong enough to prevent a universal recognition of his new title. The Pope excommunicated Henry and declared him devoid of any right to inherit the crown.[16] Most of the Catholic nobles who had joined Henry III for the siege of Paris also refused to recognize the claim of Henry of Navarre, and abandoned him. He set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by English money and German troops. Henry's Catholic uncle Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon was proclaimed king by the League, but the Cardinal was Henry's prisoner at the time.[17] Henry was victorious at the Battle of Arques and the Battle of Ivry, but failed to take Paris after besieging it in 1590.[18]

Henry IV, as Hercules, vanquishing the Lernaean Hydra (i.e. the Catholic League), by Toussaint Dubreuil, c. 1600

When Cardinal de Bourbon died in 1590, the League could not agree on a new candidate. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, the daughter of Philip II of Spain, whose mother Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry II of France.[19] In the religious fervor of the time, the Infanta was recognized to be a suitable candidate, provided that she marry a suitable husband. The French overwhelmingly rejected Philip's first choice, Archduke Ernest of Austria, the Emperor's brother, also a member of the House of Habsburg. In case of such opposition, Philip indicated that princes of the House of Lorraine would be acceptable to him: the Duke of Guise; a son of the Duke of Lorraine; and the son of the Duke of Mayenne. The Spanish ambassadors selected the Duke of Guise, to the joy of the League. However, at that moment of seeming victory, the envy of the Duke of Mayenne was aroused, and he blocked the proposed election of a king.

Jeton with portrait of King Henry IV, made in Nuremberg (Germany) by Hans Laufer

The Parlement of Paris also upheld the Salic law. They argued that if the French accepted natural hereditary succession, as proposed by the Spaniards, and accepted a woman as their queen, then the ancient claims of the English kings would be confirmed, and the monarchy of centuries past would be nothing but an illegality.[20] The Parlement admonished Mayenne, as lieutenant-general, that the kings of France had resisted the interference of the pope in political matters, and that he should not raise a foreign prince or princess to the throne of France under the pretext of religion. Mayenne was angered that he had not been consulted prior to this admonishment, but yielded, since their aim was not contrary to his present views.

Despite these setbacks for the League, Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.

Conversion to Catholicism: "Paris is well worth a Mass" (1593)
Entrance of Henry IV in Paris, 22 March 1594, with 1,500 cuirassiers

On 25 July 1593, with the encouragement of his mistress, Gabrielle d'Estrées, Henry permanently renounced Protestantism and converted to Catholicism in order to secure his hold on the French crown, thereby earning the resentment of the Huguenots and his former ally Queen Elizabeth I of England. He was said to have declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a mass"),[21][22][23] although there is some doubt whether he said this, or whether the statement was attributed to him by his contemporaries.[24][25] His acceptance of Catholicism secured the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects.

Coronation and recognition (1594–95)

Since Reims, traditional coronation place of French kings, was still occupied by the Catholic League, Henry was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594.[26] Pope Clement VIII lifted excommunication from Henry on 17 September 1595.[27] He did not forget his former Calvinist coreligionists, however, and was known for his religious tolerance. In 1598 he issued the Edict of Nantes, which granted circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots.[28]


Henri IV on Horseback Trampling his Enemy. Bronze, circa 1615–1620. From France, probably Paris. Victoria and Albert Museum, London

During his reign, Henry IV worked through the minister Maximilien de Béthune, Duke of Sully, to regularize state finance, promote agriculture, drain swamps, undertake public works, and encourage education. He established the Collège Royal Henri-le-Grand in La Flèche (today the Prytanée Militaire de la Flèche). He and Sully protected forests from further devastation, built a system of tree-lined highways, and constructed bridges and canals. He had a 1200-metre canal built in the park at the Château Fontainebleau (which may be fished today) and ordered the planting of pines, elms, and fruit trees.

Itinerary of François Pyrard de Laval, (1601–1611)

The King restored Paris as a great city, with the Pont Neuf, which still stands today, constructed over the river Seine to connect the Right and Left Banks of the city. Henry IV also had the Place Royale built (since 1800 known as Place des Vosges), and added the Grande Galerie to the Louvre Palace. More than 400 metres long and thirty-five metres wide, this huge addition was built along the bank of the Seine River. At the time it was the longest edifice of its kind in the world. King Henry IV, a promoter of the arts by all classes of people, invited hundreds of artists and craftsmen to live and work on the building's lower floors. This tradition continued for another two hundred years, until Emperor Napoleon I banned it. The art and architecture of his reign have become known as the "Henry IV style" since that time.

King Henry's vision extended beyond France, and he financed several expeditions of Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts and Samuel de Champlain[2] to North America. France laid claim to New France (now Canada).[29]

International relations under Henry IV

Engraving of Henry IV
Demi-écu coin of Henry IV, Saint Lô (1589)

During the reign of Henry IV, rivalry continued among France, the Habsburg rulers of Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire for the mastery of Western Europe. The conflict was not resolved until after the Thirty Years' War.

Spain and Italy

During Henry's struggle for the crown, Spain had been the principal backer of the Catholic League, and it tried to thwart Henry. Under the Duke of Parma, an army from the Spanish Netherlands intervened in 1590 against Henry and foiled his siege of Paris. Another Spanish army helped the nobles opposing Henry to win the Battle of Craon against his troops in 1592.

After Henry's coronation, the war continued because there was an official tug-of-war between the French and Spanish states, but after victory at the Siege of Amiens in September 1597 the Peace of Vervins was signed in 1598. This enabled him to turn his attention to Savoy, with which he also had been fighting. Their conflicts were settled in the Treaty of Lyon of 1601, which mandated territorial exchanges between France and the Duchy of Savoy.


In 1609 Henry's intervention helped to settle the War of the Jülich Succession through diplomatic means.

It was widely believed that in 1610 Henry was preparing to go to war against the Holy Roman Empire. The preparations were terminated by his assassination, however, and the subsequent rapprochement with Spain under the regency of Marie de' Medici.

Ottoman Empire

Bilingual Franco-Turkish translation of the 1604 Franco-Ottoman Capitulations between Sultan Ahmed I and Henry IV of France, published by François Savary de Brèves (1615)[30]

Even before Henry's accession to the French throne, the French Huguenots were in contact with Aragonese Moriscos in plans against the Habsburg government of Spain in the 1570s.[31] Around 1575, plans were made for a combined attack of Aragonese Moriscos and Huguenots from Béarn under Henry against Spanish Aragon, in agreement with the king of Algiers and the Ottoman Empire, but this project floundered with the arrival of John of Austria in Aragon and the disarmament of the Moriscos.[32][33] In 1576, a three-pronged fleet from Constantinople was planned to disembark between Murcia and Valencia while the French Huguenots would invade from the north and the Moriscos accomplish their uprising, but the Ottoman fleet failed to arrive.[32] After his crowning, Henry continued the policy of a Franco-Ottoman alliance and received an embassy from Sultan Mehmed III in 1601.[34][35] In 1604, a "Peace Treaty and Capitulation" was signed between Henry IV and the Ottoman Sultan Ahmet I. It granted numerous advantages to France in the Ottoman Empire.[35]

In 1606–07, Henry IV sent Arnoult de Lisle as Ambassador to Morocco to obtain the observance of past friendship treaties. An embassy was sent to Tunisia in 1608 led by François Savary de Brèves.[36]

East Asia

During the reign of Henry IV, various enterprises were set up to develop trade with faraway lands. In December 1600, a company was formed through the association of Saint-Malo, Laval, and Vitré to trade with the Moluccas and Japan.[37] Two ships, the Croissant and the Corbin, were sent around the Cape of Good Hope in May 1601. The Corbin was wrecked in the Maldives, leading to the adventure of François Pyrard de Laval, who managed to return to France in 1611.[37][38] The Croissant, carrying François Martin de Vitré, reached Ceylon and traded with Aceh in Sumatra, but was captured by the Dutch on the return leg at Cape Finisterre.[37][38] François Martin de Vitré was the first Frenchman to write an account of travels to the Far East in 1604, at the request of Henry IV, and from that time numerous accounts on Asia would be published.[39]

From 1604 to 1609, following the return of François Martin de Vitré, Henry attempted to set up a French East India Company on the model of England and the Netherlands.[38][39][40] On 1 June 1604, he issued letters patent to Dieppe merchants to form the Dieppe Company, giving them exclusive rights to Asian trade for 15 years. No ships were sent, however, until 1616.[37] In 1609, another adventurer, Pierre-Olivier Malherbe, returned from a circumnavigation of the globe and informed Henry of his adventures.[39] He had visited China and India, and had an encounter with Akbar.[39]


Henry IV, Musée des Augustins

Henry was nicknamed "the Great" (Henri le Grand), and in France is also called le bon roi Henri ("the good king Henry") or le vert galant ("The Green Gallant", for his numerous mistresses).[2][41] In English he is most often referred to as Henry of Navarre.


Henry was the target of numerous assassination attempts, including one by Pierre Barrière in August 1593,[42] and another by Jean Châtel in December 1594.[43]

He was finally killed in Paris on 14 May 1610 by a Catholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed him in the Rue de la Ferronnerie. Henry's coach was stopped by traffic congestion associated with the Queen's coronation ceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats.[44][45] Hercule de Rohan, duc de Montbazon, was with him when he was killed; Montbazon was wounded, but survived. Henry was buried at the Saint Denis Basilica.

His widow, Marie de' Medici, served as regent for their nine-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.[46]


Henri IV, Marie de' Medici and family

In 1614, four years after Henry IV's death, a statue was erected in his honour on the Pont Neuf. During the early phase of the French Revolution when it aimed to create a constitutional monarchy rather than a republic, Henry IV was held up as an ideal that King Louis XVI was urged to emulate. When the Revolution radicalized and came to reject monarchy altogether, Henry IV's statue was torn down along with other royal monuments. It was nevertheless the first to be rebuilt, in 1818, and it still stands on the Pont Neuf today.[47]

A cult of personality surrounding Henry IV emerged during the Bourbon Restoration. The restored Bourbons were keen to play down the controversial reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, and instead lauded the reign of Henry IV.[48] The song Marche Henri IV ("Long Live Henry IV") was popular during the Restoration.[49] In addition, when Princess Caroline of Naples and Sicily (a descendant of his) gave birth to a male heir to the throne of France seven months after the assassination of her husband Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, by a Republican fanatic, the boy was conspicuously named Henri in reference to his forefather Henry IV. The boy was also baptised with a spoon of Jurançon wine and some garlic, as is traditional in Béarn and Navarre. This imitated the quaint manner in which Henry IV had been baptised in Pau.

Henry serves as a loose inspiration for the character Ferdinand, King of Navarre, in William Shakespeare's 1590s play Love's Labour's Lost.[50]

The first edition of Henry IV's biography, Histoire du Roy Henry le Grand, was published in Amsterdam in 1661.[51] It was written by Hardouin de Péréfixe de Beaumont, successively bishop of Rhodez and archbishop of Paris, primarily for the edification of Louis XIV, grandson of Henry IV. A translation into English was made by James Dauncey for another grandson, King Charles II of England. An English edition was published at London in 1663.[52]

On September 14, 1788, when anti-tax riots broke out during the incipient French Revolution, rioters demanded from those travelling through money for fireworks, and anyone riding in a carriage was forced to dismount to salute Henry IV.[53]



Patrilineal descent

Patrilineal descent

Henry's patriline was his line of descent in the male line, that is, from father to son only.

Patrilineal descent governs membership and succession in many royal and noble houses. Henry was a scion of the House of Bourbon, which was a branch of the Capetian dynasty, which sprang from the Robertians.

Henry's patriline ran through the house of Bourbon-Vendôme (Counts and then Dukes of Vendôme), descended from a younger son of the Count of Marche, descended from a younger son of the Duke of Bourbon, whose father was a younger son of Louis IX. Louis was the direct descendant of Hugh Capet, who became King of France in 987 and made the crown hereditary. Hugh was the heir of the "Robertian" house, Counts of Worms, descended from Robert of Hesbaye.

This line has continued to the present day, more than 1,200 years in all, through kings of France, Navarre, France again, Spain, Portugal, and the Two Sicilies, dukes of Parma, grand dukes of Luxembourg, princes of Orléans, and emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest royal patrilines in Europe.

  1. Robert II of Worms and Rheingau (Robert of Hesbaye), 770–807
  2. Robert III of Worms and Rheingau, 808–834
  3. Robert IV the Strong, 820–866
  4. Robert I of France, 866–923
  5. Hugh the Great, 895–956
  6. Hugh Capet, 941–996
  7. Robert II of France, 972–1031
  8. Henry I of France, 1008–1060
  9. Philip I of France, 1053–1108
  10. Louis VI of France, 1081–1137
  11. Louis VII of France, 1120–1180
  12. Philip II of France, 1165–1223
  13. Louis VIII of France, 1187–1226
  14. Louis IX of France, 1215–1270
  15. Robert, Count of Clermont, 1256–1317
  16. Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, 1279–1342
  17. James I, Count of La Marche, 1319–1362
  18. John I, Count of La Marche, 1344–1393
  19. Louis, Count of Vendôme, 1376–1446
  20. Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme, 1428–1478
  21. François, Count of Vendôme, 1470–1495
  22. Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, 1489–1537
  23. Antoine, King of Navarre, Duke of Vendôme, 1518–1562
  24. Henry IV, King of France and Navarre, 1553–1610


Historians have made the assertion that Henry IV was a convinced Calvinist, only changing his formal religious allegiance to adjust, suit or achieve his political goals.

Henry IV was baptized a Catholic on 5 January 1554. He was raised Reformed by his mother Jeanne III of Navarre. In 1572, after the massacre of French Calvinists, he was forced by Catherine de' Medici and other powerful Catholic royalty to convert. In 1576, as he managed to escape from Paris, he abjured Catholicism and returned to Calvinism. In 1593, in order to gain recognition as King of France, he converted again to Catholicism. Although a formal Catholic, he valued his Calvinist upbringing and was tolerant toward the Huguenots until his death in 1610, and issued the Edict of Nantes which granted many concessions to them.

Marriages and legitimate children

On 18 August 1572, Henry married his second cousin Margaret of Valois; their childless marriage was annulled in 1599. His subsequent marriage to Marie de' Medici on 17 December 1600 produced six children:

Louis XIII, King of France27 September 160114 May 1643Married Anne of Austria in 1615
Elisabeth, Queen of Spain22 November 16026 October 1644Married Philip IV, King of Spain, in 1615
Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy10 February 160627 December 1663Married Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, in 1619
Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans16 April 160717 November 1611
Gaston, Duke of Orléans25 April 16082 February 1660Married (1) Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier, in 1626
Married (2) Marguerite of Lorraine in 1632
Henrietta Maria, Queen of England, Queen of Scots, and Queen of Ireland25 November 160910 September 1669Married Charles I, King of England, King of Scots and King of Ireland, in 1625

Second marriage

Henry IV and Marie de' Medici

Henry's first marriage was not a happy one, and the couple remained childless. Henry and Margaret separated even before Henry acceded to the throne in August 1589; Margaret retired to the Château d'Usson in the Auvergne and lived there for many years. After Henry became king of France, it was of the utmost importance that he provide an heir to the crown to avoid the problem of a disputed succession.

Henry favoured the idea of obtaining an annulment of his marriage to Margaret and taking his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées as his bride; after all, she had already borne him three children. Henry's councillors strongly opposed this idea, but the matter was resolved unexpectedly by Gabrielle's sudden death in the early hours of 10 April 1599, after she had given birth to a premature and stillborn son. His marriage to Margaret was annulled in 1599, and Henry married Marie de' Medici, daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Archduchess Joanna of Austria, in 1600.[55]

For the royal entry of Marie into Avignon on 19 November 1600, the citizens bestowed on Henry the title of the Hercule Gaulois ("Gallic Hercules"), justifying the extravagant flattery with a genealogy that traced the origin of the House of Navarre to a nephew of Hercules' son Hispalus.[56]


The arms of Henry IV changed throughout his lifetime:


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  39. ^ a b c d Lach, Donald F; Van Kley, Edwin J (15 December 1998). Asia in the Making of Europe. p. 393. ISBN 9780226467658. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  40. ^ A history of modern India, 1480–1950, Claude Markovits p. 144: The account of the experiences of François Martin de Vitré "incited the king to create a company in the image of that of the United Provinces"
  41. ^ l'Académie française: Dictionnaire de la langue française (Institut de France. 6th edition. 1835): 'C'est un vert galant' se dit d'un homme vif, alerte, qui aime beaucoup les femmes et qui s'empresse à leur plaire. É.Littré: Dictionnaire Française (Hachette. 1863): Hommme vif, alerte, vigoreux et particulièrement empressé auprès de femmes. Grand Larousse de la Langue Française (Paris. 1973): Homme entreprenant auprès de femmes. And see Discussion under the heading Vert Galant – A look at the Dictionaries
  42. ^ Baird, Vol. 2, p. 367
  43. ^ Baird, Vol. 2, p. 368
  44. ^ de l'Estoile, Pierre. Journal du règne de Henri IV. Paris: Gallimard, 1960. p. 84
  45. ^ Knecht, Robert J. "The Murder of le roi Henri". History Today, May 2010.
  46. ^ Moote, A. Lloyd. Louis XIII, the Just. University of California Press, Ltd., 1989. p. 41
  47. ^ Thompson, Victoria E. (2012). "The Creation, Destruction and Recreation of Henri IV: Seeing Popular Sovereignty in the Statue of a King". History and Memory. 24 (2): 5–40. doi:10.2979/histmemo.24.2.5. ISSN 0935-560X.
  48. ^ Jones, Kimberly A. (1993). "Henri IV and the Decorative Arts of the Bourbon Restoration, 1814-1830: A Study in Politics and Popular Taste". Studies in the Decorative Arts. 1 (1): 2–21. ISSN 1069-8825.
  49. ^ ""Vive Henri IV!"" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  50. ^ G.R. Hibbard (editor), Love's Labour's Lost (Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 49
  51. ^ PEREFIXE, Hardouin de Beaumont (1664). Histoire du Roy Henry le Grand (Third Elzevier ed.). Amsterdam: Daniel Elzevier.
  52. ^ "The life of henry the fourth of france, Translated from the French of Perefix, by m. le moine, One of his most Christian Majesty's Gentlemen in Ordinary by PEREFIXE DE BEAUMONT, Paul Philippe Hardouin de]: (1785) | Antiquates Ltd - ABA, ILAB". www.abebooks.com. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  53. ^ Peter Kropotkin (1909). "Chapter 5". The Great French Revolution, 1789-1793. Translated by N. F. Dryhurst. New York: Vanguard Printings. Three weeks later, September 14, 1788, when the retirement of Lamoignon became known, the riotings were renewed. The mob rushed to set fire to the houses of the two ministers, Lamoignon and Brienne, as well as to that of Dubois. The troops were called out, and in the Rue Mélée and the Rue de Grenelle there was a horrible slaughter of poor folk who could not defend themselves. Dubois fled from Paris. "The people themselves would execute justice," said Les deux amis de la liberté. Later still, in October 1788, when the parlement that had been banished to Troyes was recalled, "the clerks and the populace" illuminated the Place Dauphine for several evenings in succession. They demanded money from the passersby to expend on fireworks, and forced gentlemen to alight from their carriages to salute the statue of Henri Quatre.
  54. ^ Neil D. Thompson and Charles M. Hansen, The Ancestry of Charles II, King of England (American Society of Genealogists, 2012).
  55. ^ Vincent J. Pitts, Henri IV of France, his Reign and Age, (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009), 229.
  56. ^ The official account, Labyrinthe royal... quoted in Jean Seznec, The Survival of the Pagan Gods, (B.F. Sessions, tr., 1995) p. 26


  • Baird, Henry M. (1886). The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 volumes). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Vol. 2 (copies [5] 1 & [6] 2) at Google Books.
  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. (1995). France in the Sixteenth Century. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-62088-5.
  • de La Croix, Rene; de Castries, Duc (1979). The Lives of the Kings & Queens of France. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-50734-7.
  • Dupuy, Trevor N.; Johnson, Curt & Bongard, David L. (1995). The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. Castle Books. ISBN 978-0-7858-0437-6.
  • Holt, Mack P. (2005). The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83872-6.
  • Knecht, R.J. (1998). Catherine de' Medici. London; New York: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-08241-0.
  • ——— (2002). The French Religious Wars, 1562–1598. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84176-395-8.
  • ——— (2001). The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483–1610. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-22729-8.
  • Merlin, Paolo (2010). A 400 anni dai Trattati di Bruzolo. Gli equilibri europei prima e dopo i Trattati. Susa: Segusium (association).
  • Moote, A. Lloyd (1991). Louis XIII, the Just. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07546-7.
  • Urzainqui, Tomas; Esarte, Pello; García Manzanal, Alberto; Sagredo, Iñaki; Sagredo, Iñaki; Del Castillo, Eneko; Monjo, Emilio; Ruiz de Pablos, Francisco; Guerra Viscarret, Pello; Lartiga, Halip; Lavin, Josu; Ercilla, Manuel (2013). La Conquista de Navarra y la Reforma Europea. Pamplona-Iruña: Pamiela. ISBN 978-84-7681-803-9.

Further reading

  • Baumgartner, Frederic J. (1995). France in the Sixteenth Century. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-62088-5.
  • Briggs, Robin (1977). Early Modern France, 1560–1715. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-289040-5.
  • Bryson, David M. (1999). Queen Jeanne and the Promised Land: Dynasty, Homeland, Religion and Violence in Sixteenth-century France. Leiden; Boston, MA: Brill Academic. ISBN 978-90-04-11378-7.
  • Buisseret, David (1990). Henry IV, King of France. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-04-445635-3.
  • Cameron, Keith, ed. (1989). From Valois to Bourbon: Dynasty, State & Society in Early Modern France. Exeter: University of Exeter. ISBN 978-0-85989-310-7.
  • Finley-Croswhite, S. Annette (1999). Henry IV and the Towns: The Pursuit of Legitimacy in French Urban Society, 1589–1610. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62017-8.
  • Frieda, Leonie (2005). Catherine de Medici. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-7538-2039-1.
  • Greengrass, Mark (1984). France in the Age of Henri IV: The Struggle for Stability. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-49251-6.
  • Holt, Mack P. (2005). The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83872-6.
  • Lee, Maurice J. (1970). James I & Henri IV: An Essay in English Foreign Policy, 1603–1610. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-00084-3.
  • Lloyd, Howell A. (1983). The State, France, and the Sixteenth Century. London: George Allen and Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-940066-5.
  • Lockyer, Roger (1974). Habsburg and Bourbon Europe, 1470–1720. Harlow, UK: Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-35029-8.
  • Love, Ronald S. (2001). Blood and Religion: The Conscience of Henri IV, 1553–1593. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-2124-7.
  • Major, J. Russell (1997). From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy: French Kings, Nobles & Estates. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5631-0.
  • Mousnier, Roland (1973). The Assassination of Henry IV: The Tyrannicide Problem and the Consolidation of the French Absolute Monarchy in the Early Seventeenth Century. Translated by Joan Spencer. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-684-13357-7.
  • Pettegree, Andrew (2002). Europe in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-20704-7.
  • Pitts, Vincent J. (2009). Henri IV of France: His Reign and Age. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9027-7.
  • Salmon, J.H.M. (1975). Society in Crisis: France in the Sixteenth Century. London: Ernest Benn. ISBN 978-0-510-26351-5.
  • Sutherland, N.M. (1973). The Massacre of St. Bartholomew and the European Conflict, 1559–1572. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-13629-4.
  • ——— (1980). The Huguenot Struggle for Recognition. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-02328-2.
  • ——— (1984). Princes, Politics and Religion, 1547–1589. London: Hambledon Press. ISBN 978-0-907628-44-6.
  • ——— (2002). Henry IV of France and the Politics of Religion, 1572–1596. 2 volumes. Bristol: Elm Bank. ISBN 978-1-84150-846-7.
  • Wolfe, Michael (1993). The Conversion of Henri IV: Politics, Power, and Religious Belief in Early Modern France. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.ISBN 0-674-17031-8
  • George Chapman (1559?–1634), The Conspiracy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron (1608), éd. John Margeson (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988)
  • Alexandre Dumas, La Reine Margot (Queen Margot) (1845)
  • Heinrich Mann, Die Jugend des Königs Henry Quatre (1935); Die Vollendung des Königs Henry Quatre (1938) (in German)
  • M. de Rozoy, Henri IV, Drame lyrique (1774) (in French)

External links

Media files used on this page

Henri IV demi ecu Saint Lo 1589.jpg
Assassination of Henry IV by Gaspar Bouttats.jpg

Assassination of Henry IV (Henry IV, King of France; François Ravaillac), by Gaspar Bouttats, given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1931. See source website for additional information.

This set of images was gathered by User:Dcoetzee from the National Portrait Gallery, London website using a special tool. All images in this batch have a known author, but have been manually examined for strong evidence that the author was dead before 1939, such as approximate death dates, birth dates, floruit dates, and publication dates.
Henry III on his deathbed designating Henri de Navarre as his successor.jpg
France moderne.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne)
Arms of the French Republic.svg
The arms of the French Republic (non-official)
Henry IV of France as he lay in state after his murder in the year 1610, engraving after Quesnel - Gallica 2010 (adjusted).jpg
Caption: "The most high puissant and excellent Prince Henry the Great, King of France, and Navarre, &c. &c. as he lay in state after his murder, anno 1610. Engraved by R. Dunkarton from a rare print engraved by J. Briot, after Quesnel. London: Published by S. Woodburn, 112 St. Martin's Lane. Proof"
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg
(c) Sodacan, CC BY-SA 3.0
Grand Coat of Arms of France and Navarre: from 1589 to 1790. From the ascension of Henry III of Navarre as Henry IV of France (first King of the House of Bourbon) to the changing of Louis XVI's title as King of France and Navarre to King of the French. (heraldry and coat of arms having been abolished in France 1790).
  • The Coat of Arms contains two escutcheons; per pale: “Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or” for the France and “Gules, a cross, saltire, (double) orle of chains, all linked, or'” for Navarre.
  • The escutcheons are surrounded first by the chain of the Order of Saint Michael and by the chain of the Order of the Holy Spirit, both were known as the ordres du roi.
  • Atop the escutcheons is the Royal crown on top of an opened gold helmet, with blue mantling.
  • The two supporters are two angels, acting as heralds for the two realms. The dexter angel carries a standard with the arms of France, and wearing a tabard with the same arms. The sinister angel also carries a standard and wears a tabard, but that of Navarre. Both are standing on puffs of cloud.
  • Above is a pavilion armoyé with the Royal Crown of France. From it is a royal blue mantle with a semis of fleurs-de-lis or
  • On top of the crown flies the banner of France.
  • The motto is written in gold on a blue ribbon: “MONTJOIE SAINT DENIS” the war cry of France, Saint Denis was also the abbey where the oriflamme was kept. [1]
Arms of France and Navarre (1589-1790).svg
Author/Creator: Heralder, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of France and Navarre, 1589-1790.
France Nuremberg King Henri IV jeton Hans Laufer.jpg
Author/Creator: Numisantica, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0 nl
Nuremberg, jeton by Hans Laufer of Henri IV, King of France.
Obverse: Bust of Henri IV to left; :H:LAVFER: in exergue; legend between two rosettes: VVLTV.QVO.GOELVM.
Reverse: Crowned double headed imperial eagle between two pillars; legend: VENI.VIDI.DEVS.VICIT and rosette.
Entrance of Henry IV in Paris 22 March 1594.jpg
Entry of King Henry IV into Paris on March 22, 1594 through the Porte Neuve near the Louvre, at the foot of the fr: tour du Bois. Dressed in a breastplate and wearing a hat with plumes, the king and his soldiers drive out the Spaniards who were occupying the city. Engraving (burin and etching) extracted from volume V of Monuments of the French monarchy by Bernard de Montfaucon (1733).
François Ravaillac.jpg
Portrait de François Ravaillac, en buste, de 3/4 dirigé à gauche, dans une bordure ovale sur laquelle on lit : Franciscus Ravaillart de Angoulême Henrici IIII Francorum regis Parracida sicariorum coryphae. Estampe anonyme, gravée par Crispin de Passe.
Savary Franco Ottoman Capitulations 1615.jpg
Pierre Firens - Le Roi Est Mort continues at the Palace of Versailles - 1610.jpg
Portrait of the Deceased King Henry the Great IV in His Deathbed.

"Le Roi Est Mort continues at the Palace of Versailles (Avenue Rockefeller at Avenue de Paris, Versailles, France) through February 21".

Château de Versailles.
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Navarre.svg
Author/Creator: Tom Lemmens, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Navarre (Commonly used before the 17th Century)
Itinéraire de Pyrard de Laval.JPG
Map showing the travel of Pyrard de Laval (reproduction of a 1679 map).
Henri de Boubon Roi de Navarre.svg
Author/Creator: Fauntleroy, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Blason d'Henri de Bourbon-Vendôme Roi de Navarre (futur Henri IV de France).
Henri IV on Horseback Trampling his Enemy. Bronze, circa 1615-1620 CE. From France, probably Paris. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London.jpg
Author/Creator: Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Henri IV on Horseback Trampling his Enemy. Bronze, circa 1615-1620 CE. From France, probably Paris. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London. Henri IV was given by Dr. w:Walter Leo Hildburgh FSA. The crouching warrior was purchased with funds with the assistance of the Art Fund.
Médaille en argent d'Henri IV et Marie de Médicis.jpg
Author/Creator: Cgb, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Buste affrontés d’Henri IV, le buste drâpé et de Marie de Médicis avec un large col en dentelle ( médaille frappée en 1605)
Signature of Henry IV of France.svg
Signature of Henry IV of France