Heir apparent

An heir apparent,[note 1] often shortened to heir, is a person who is first in an order of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person;[note 2] a person who is first in the order of succession but can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir is known as heir presumptive.

Today these terms most commonly describe heirs to hereditary titles (e.g. titles of nobility) or offices, especially when only inheritable by a single person. Most monarchies refer to the heir apparent of their thrones with the descriptive term of crown prince or crown princess, but they may also be accorded with a more specific substantive title:[note 3] such as Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, Duke of Brabant in Belgium, Prince of Asturias in Spain (also granted to heirs presumptive), or the Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom; former titles include Dauphin in the Kingdom of France, and Tsesarevich in Imperial Russia.

The term is also used metaphorically to indicate an expected successor to any position of power, e.g. a political or corporate leader.

This article primarily describes the term heir apparent in a hereditary system regulated by laws of primogeniture—it may be less applicable to cases where a monarch has a say in naming the heir (performed either while alive, e.g. crowning the heir as a rex iunior, or through the monarch's will).

Heir apparent versus heir presumptive

Throngs before the Imperial Palace in Japan awaiting the appearance of the Crown Prince Hirohito for the recent proclamation of his official recognition as the heir apparent to the Japanese Imperial ThroneNew York Times, 1916.

In a hereditary system governed by some form of primogeniture, an heir apparent is easily identifiable as the person whose position as first in the line of succession to a title or office is secure, regardless of future births. An heir presumptive, by contrast, can always be "bumped down" in the succession by the birth of somebody more closely related in a legal sense (according to that form of primogeniture) to the current title-holder.

The clearest example occurs in the case of a childless bearer of a hereditary title that can only be inherited by one person. If at any time the title bearer were to produce children, those children would rank ahead of any person who had formerly been heir presumptive.

Many legal systems assume childbirth is always possible regardless of age or health. In such circumstances a person may be, in a practical sense, the heir apparent but still, legally speaking, heir presumptive. Indeed, when Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle King William IV, the wording of the proclamation even gave as a caveat:

...saving the rights of any issue of his late Majesty King William IV, which may be born of his late Majesty's consort.

This provided for the possibility that William's wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, was pregnant at the moment of his death, since such a posthumous child, regardless of its sex, would have displaced Victoria from the throne.[1] Adelaide was 44 at the time, so pregnancy was possible even if unlikely.

Daughters in male-preference primogeniture

Daughters (and their lines) may inherit titles that descend according to male-preference primogeniture, but only in default of sons (and their heirs). That is, both female and male offspring have the right to a place somewhere in the order of succession, but when it comes to what that place is, a female will rank behind her brothers regardless of their ages or her age.

Thus, normally, even an only daughter will not be heir apparent, since at any time a brother might be born who, though younger, would assume that position. Hence, she is an heir presumptive. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was heir presumptive during the reign of her father, King George VI, because at any stage up to nine to ten months after his death, George could have fathered a legitimate son.

However, a granddaughter could for example be heir apparent if she were the only daughter of the deceased eldest son of the sovereign (e.g. Queen Elizabeth II would have been heir apparent to George V if her oldest uncle and father both had died before their father).

Women as heirs apparent

In a system of absolute primogeniture that disregards gender, female heirs apparent occur. As succession to titles, positions, or offices in the past most often favoured males, females considered to be an heir apparent were rare. Absolute primogeniture was not practised by any modern monarchy for succession to their thrones until the late twentieth century, with Sweden being the first to adopt absolute primogeniture in 1980 and other Western European monarchies following suit.

Since the adoption of absolute primogeniture by contemporary Western European monarchies, examples of female heirs apparent include Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, and Princess Elisabeth of Belgium; they are, respectively, the oldest children of Kings Carl XVI Gustaf, Willem-Alexander, and Philippe. Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway is heir apparent to her father, who is heir apparent to the Norwegian throne, and Victoria herself has a female heir apparent in her oldest child, Princess Estelle. Victoria was not heir apparent from birth (in 1977), but gained the status in 1980 following a change in the Swedish Act of Succession. Her younger brother Carl Philip (born 1979) was thus heir apparent for a few months (and is a rare example of an heir apparent losing this status without a death occurring).

In 2015, pursuant to the 2011 Perth Agreement, the Commonwealth realms changed the rules of succession to the 16 thrones of Elizabeth II to absolute primogeniture, except for male heirs born before the Perth Agreement. The effects are not likely to be felt for many years; the first two heirs at the time of the agreement (Charles, Prince of Wales, later Charles III, and his son William, Prince of Wales) were already eldest born children, and in 2013 William's first-born son Prince George of Wales became the next apparent successor.

In one special case, however, England and Scotland had a female heir apparent. The Revolution settlement that established William and Mary as joint monarchs in 1689 only gave the power to continue the succession through issue to Mary II, elder daughter of the previous king, James II. William, by contrast, was to reign for life only, and his (hypothetical) children by a wife other than Mary would be placed in his original place (as Mary's first cousin) in the line of succession—after Mary's younger sister Anne. Thus, although after Mary's death William continued to reign, he had no power to beget direct heirs,[2] and Anne became the heir apparent for the remainder of William's reign. She eventually succeeded him as Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.

Displacement of heirs apparent

The position of an heir apparent is normally unshakable: it can be assumed they will inherit. Sometimes, however, extraordinary events—such as the death or the deposition of the parent—intervene.

People who lost heir apparent status

  • Al-Mufawwid on 30 April 892, al-Muwaffad was removed from the succession (heir apparent) completely,[3] and when al-Mu'tamid died in October 892, he was succeeded by Al-Mu'tadid.[4]
  • Parliament deposed James Francis Edward Stuart, the infant son of King James II & VII (of England and Scotland respectively) whom James II was raising as a Catholic, as the King's legal heir apparent—declaring that James had, de facto, abdicated—and offered the throne to James II's elder daughter, the young prince's much older Protestant half-sister, Mary (along with her husband, Prince William of Orange). When the exiled King James died in 1701, his Jacobite supporters proclaimed the exiled Prince James Francis Edward as King James III of England and James VIII of Scotland; but neither he nor his descendants were ever successful in their bids for the throne.
  • Crown Prince Gustav (later known as Gustav, Prince of Vasa), son of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, lost his place when his father was deposed and replaced by Gustav IV Adolf's aged uncle, the Duke Carl, who became Charles XIII of Sweden in 1809. The aged King Charles XIII did not have surviving sons, and Prince Gustav was the only living male of the whole dynasty (besides his deposed father), but the prince was never regarded as heir of Charles XIII, although there were factions in the Riksdag and elsewhere in Sweden who desired to preserve him, and, in the subsequent constitutional elections, supported his election as his grand-uncle's successor. Instead, the government proceeded to have a new crown prince elected (which was the proper constitutional action, if no male heir was left in the dynasty), and the Riksdag elected first August, Prince of Augustenborg, and then, after August's death, the Prince of Ponte Corvo (Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, who acceded as Charles XIV John in 1818). The two lines united later, when Charles XIV John's great-grandson Crown Prince Gustaf (who acceded as Gustaf V in 1907) married Gustav IV Adolf's great-granddaughter Victoria of Baden, who became Crown Princess of Sweden. Thus, from Gustav VI Adolf onwards, the kings of Sweden are direct descendants of both Gustav IV Adolf and his son's replacement as crown prince, Charles XIV John.
  • Prince Carl Philip of Sweden, at his birth in 1979, was heir apparent to the throne of Sweden. Less than eight months later, a change in that country's succession laws instituted absolute primogeniture, and Carl Philip was supplanted as heir apparent by his elder sister Victoria.
  • Muqrin bin Abdulaziz became Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia in January 2015 upon the death of his half-brother King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the accession of another half-brother, Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, to the Saudi throne. In April of that year, Salman removed Muqrin as Crown Prince, replacing him with their nephew Muhammad bin Nayef. Muhammad bin Nayef himself was later replaced as Crown Prince by the king's son Mohammad bin Salman.

Breaching legal qualification of heirs apparent

In some jurisdictions, an heir apparent can automatically lose that status by breaching certain constitutional rules. Today, for example:

  • A British heir apparent would lose this status if he or she became a Catholic. This is the only religion-based restriction on the heir-apparent. (Previously, marrying a Catholic also equated to losing this status, however, in October 2011, the governments of the then-16 Commonwealth realms—now 15, of which King Charles III is monarch—agreed to remove the restriction on marriage to a Catholic. All of the Commonwealth realms subsequently passed legislation to implement the change, which fully took effect in March 2015.)
  • Swedish Crown Princes and Crown Princesses would lose heir apparent status, according to the Act of Succession, if they married without approval of the monarch and the Government, abandoned the "pure Evangelical faith", or accepted another throne without the approval of the Riksdag.
  • Dutch Princes and Princesses of Orange would lose status as heir to the throne if they married without the approval of the States-General, or simply renounced the right.
  • Spanish Princes and Princesses of Asturias would lose status if they married against the express prohibition of the monarch and the Cortes.
  • Belgian Dukes and Duchesses of Brabant would lose heir apparent status if they married without the consent of the monarch, or became monarch of another country.
  • Danish Crown Princes and Princesses would lose status if they married without the permission of the monarch. When the monarch grants permission for a dynast to enter marriage, he may set conditions that must be met for the dynasts and/or their children to gain or maintain a place in the line of succession; this also applies for Crown Princes and Princesses.

Current heirs apparent

CountryPictureName of heir apparentTitleDate of birth (age)Relation to monarch
 BahrainPrince Salman bin Hamad al Khalifa at the Pentagon May 10 2012.jpgSalman bin Hamad Al KhalifaCrown Prince of Bahrain (1969-10-21) October 21, 1969eldest son
 BelgiumPrinses Elisabeth op 21 juli 2017.pngElisabethPrincess,
Duchess of Brabant
(2001-10-25) October 25, 2001eldest child
 BhutanRoyal Prince of Bhutan (cropped).jpgJigme Namgyel WangchuckDragon Prince of Bhutan,
Druk Gyalsey of Bhutan
(2016-02-05) February 5, 2016elder child
 BruneiAl-Muhtadee Billah.jpgAl-Muhtadee BillahCrown Prince of Brunei Darussalam (1974-02-17) February 17, 1974eldest son
 DenmarkFrederik, Crown Prince of Denmark in 2018.jpgFrederikCrown Prince of Denmark,
Count of Monpezat
(1968-05-26) May 26, 1968elder son
 JordanCrown Prince Hussein.jpgHussein bin AbdullahCrown Prince of Jordan (1994-06-28) June 28, 1994elder son
 KuwaitEmir Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah.jpgMishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahSheikh,
Crown Prince of Kuwait
(1940-09-27) September 27, 1940younger brother
 LesothoSin foto.svgLerotholi SeeisoCrown Prince of Lesotho (2007-04-18) April 18, 2007only son
 LiechtensteinHereditary Prince of Liechtenstein.jpgAloisHereditary Prince of Liechtenstein, Count of Rietberg (1968-06-11) June 11, 1968eldest son
 LuxembourgGuillaume av Luxemburg.jpgGuillaumeHereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1981-11-11) November 11, 1981eldest child
 MonacoSin foto.svgJacquesHereditary Prince of Monaco, Marquis of Baux (2014-12-10) December 10, 2014only legitimate son
 MoroccoMoulay Hassan in 2018.jpgMoulay HassanCrown Prince of Morocco (2003-05-08) May 8, 2003only son
 NetherlandsCatharina-Amalia 2019 (cropped).jpgCatharina-AmaliaPrincess of Orange (2003-12-07) December 7, 2003eldest child
 NorwayCrown Prince Haakon of Norway 2012-03-26 001.jpgHaakon MagnusCrown Prince of Norway (1973-07-20) July 20, 1973only son
 Omanذي يزن بن هيثم آل سعيد.pngTheyazin bin HaithamSayyid,
Crown Prince of Oman
(1990-08-21) August 21, 1990eldest son
 Saudi ArabiaMohammad bin Salman Al Saud.jpgMohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al SaudCrown Prince of Saudi Arabia (1985-08-31) August 31, 1985child
 SwedenVictoria, Crown Princess of Sweden in 2018.jpgVictoriaCrown Princess of Sweden,
Duchess of Västergötland
(1977-07-14) July 14, 1977eldest child
 TongaTupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala at the festivities of his parents coronation.jpgTupoutoʻa ʻUlukalalaCrown Prince of Tonga (1985-09-17) September 17, 1985elder son
 United Kingdom
and 14 other Commonwealth realms
William Sumbarines Crop.pngWilliamPrince of Wales,
Earl of Chester,
Duke of Cornwall,
Duke of Rothesay,
Earl of Carrick,
Baron of Renfrew,
Lord of the Isles,
Prince and Great Steward of Scotland
(1982-06-21) June 21, 1982elder son

Heirs apparent who never inherited the throne

Heirs apparent who predeceased the monarch

Heir apparentLivedHeir ofCause of death
SetkaDied before 2575 BCDjedefreUnknown causes
KawabDied before 2566 BCKhufu
YanassiDied before 1580 BCKhyan
Ahmose-ankhDied before 1525 BCAhmose I
AmenemhatDied c. 1455 BCThutmose IIIPlague
AmenmoseDied before 1493 BCThutmose IUnknown causes
AmenhotepDied before 1401 BCAmenhotep II
ThutmoseDied before 1353 BCAmenhotep III
NakhtminDied before 1323 BCAy
Amun-her-khepeshefDied c. 1254 BCRamesses II
RamessesDied c. 1229 BC
KhaemwesetDied c. 1224 BC
Amun-her-khepeshefDied before 1155 BCRamesses III
Crown Prince MianDied 707 BCDuke Huan of ChenKilled by uncle Chen Tuo
YukouBC 672Duke Xuan of ChenKilled
FusuDied 210 BCQin Shi HuangForced to commit suicide
Liu JuBC 128–BC 91Emperor Wu of HanKilled
Pacorus IDied BC 38Orodes II of ParthiaKilled in battle
Gaius CaesarBC 20–4 ADAugustusWounds
Lucius CaesarBC 17–2 ADSudden illness
GermanicusBC 15–19 ADTiberiusMysterious illness
Drusus Julius CaesarBC 13–23 ADSuspected poisoning
Nero Julius Caesar6–31Starvation
Drusus Caesar7–33
Tiberius Gemellus19–37CaligulaKilled
Lucius Aelius Caesar101–138HadrianHemorrhage
Marcus Annius Verus Caesar162–169Marcus AureliusNatural causes
Cao AngDied in 197Cao CaoKilled in battle
Sun Deng209–241Emperor Da of WuIllness
Valerian IIDied 258GallienusDied under mysterious circumstances
Liu Xuan224–264Liu ShanKilled in Disaster of Yongjia
Sima Yu278–300Emperor Hui of JinKilled by Empress Jia Nanfeng
NigrinianDied 284/285CarinusUnknown causes
Tuoba Tao428–451Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei
Xiao Zhangmao458–493Emperor Wu of Southern QiIllness
Xiao Tong501–531Emperor Wu of Liang
Yang Zhao584–606Emperor Yang of Sui
Li Jiancheng589–626Emperor Gaozu of TangKilled during the Xuanwu Gate Incident
MardanshahDied 628Khosrow IIKilled
Li Hong652–675Emperor Gaozong of TangIllness
Prince Kusakabe662–689Empress Jitō
Li Chongrun682–701Emperor Zhongzong of TangExecuted by Empress Wu Zetian
Li Chongjun683–707Killed after coup
Li YingDied in 737Emperor Xuanzong of TangKilled
Li Ning793–812Emperor Xianzong of TangIllness
Li YongDied in 838Emperor Wenzong of TangUnknown cause
Liudolf, Duke of Swabia930–957Otto the GreatFever
Saint Emeric of Hungary1007–1031Stephen I of HungaryHunting accident
Edward the Exile1016–1057Edward the ConfessorUnknown cause
William Adelin1103–1120Henry I of EnglandDrowned in the White Ship disaster
Zhao Fu1127–1129Emperor Gaozong of SongIllness
Henry of Scotland1114–1152David I of Scotland
Roger III, Duke of Apulia1118–1148Roger II of SicilyUnknown causes
Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne1127–1153Stephen, King of EnglandSudden death
Henry Berengar1136–1150Conrad III of GermanyIllness
Roger IV, Duke of Apulia1152–1161William I of SicilyArrow to the eye
William IX, Count of Poitiers1153–1156Henry II of EnglandSeizure
Henry the Young King1155–1183Dysentery
Naratheinga Uzana1197–1235HtilominloUnknown cause
Sigurd LavardDied 1200Sverre of Norway
Alexios PalaiologosDied 1203Alexios III AngelosNatural causes
Valdemar the Young1209–1231Valdemar II of DenmarkHunting accident
Andronikos PalaiologosDied 1216Theodore I LaskarisDisease
Thihathu of Pagan1230s–1256Uzana of PaganAssassinated
Haakon the Young1232–1257Haakon IV of NorwayIllness
Zhenjin1243–1286Kublai Khan
Louis of France1244–1260Louis IX of France
George, son of David VII of Georgia1250–1268David VII of GeorgiaBowel disease
Fernando de la Cerda1255–1275Alfonso X of CastileUnexpected causes
Louis of France1264–1276Philip III of FranceIllness
Alexander, Prince of Scotland1264–1284Alexander III of Scotland
Henry, son of Edward I1268–1274Edward I of England
Theingapati1270s–1299Kyawswa of PaganAssassinated
Alphonso, Earl of Chester1273–1284Edward I of EnglandIllness
Eric Christoffersen of Denmark1307–1332Christopher II of DenmarkDied in battle
Otto the Younger1322–1366Henry II, Landgrave of HesseIllness
Edward, the Black Prince1330–1376Edward III of EnglandA long lasting illness
Christopher, Duke of Lolland1341–1363Valdemar IV of DenmarkIllness
Zhu Biao1355–1392Hongwu Emperor
Martin I of Sicily1374–1409Martin of AragonMalaria
David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay1378–1402Robert III of ScotlandStarvation
Henry V of England1387–1422Charles VI of France (by the Treaty of Troyes)Dysentery
Minye Kyawswa1391–1415Minkhaung IKilled in battle
Peter of Aragon1394–1400Martin I of Sicily and Maria, Queen of SicilyWound from spear
Louis, Duke of Guyenne1397–1415Charles VI of FranceDysentery
John, Duke of Touraine1398–1417Abscess to the head
Martin of Aragon1406–1407Martin I of SicilyIllness
Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York1411–1460Henry VI of England (by Act of Accord)Killed in battle
Charles, Prince of Viana1421–1461John II of Aragon and NavarreUnknown causes
Alexander Stewart, Duke of Rothesay1430James I of ScotlandIllness
Crown Prince Uigyeong1438–1457Sejo of JoseonIllness
Gaston, Prince of Viana1444–1470Gaston IV, Count of FoixWounds in jousting tournament
Zhu Jianji1448–1453Jingtai EmperorIllness
John, Prince of Portugal1451Afonso V of PortugalSudden death
Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales1453–1471Henry VI of EnglandKilled at the Battle of Tewkesbury
Ivan the Young1458–1490Ivan III of RussiaGout
Zhu Youji1469–1472Chenghua EmperorIllness
Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales1473–1484Richard III of EnglandUnknown
Afonso, Prince of Portugal1475–1491John II of PortugalHorse riding accident
John, Prince of Asturias1478–1497Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of AragonTuberculosis
Philip I of Castile1478–1506Maximilian I, Holy Roman EmperorTyphoid fever
Arthur, Prince of Wales1486–1502Henry VII of EnglandUnknown illness
Charles Orlando, Dauphin of France1492–1495Charles VIII of FranceMeasles
Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal1498–1500Manuel I of PortugalIllness
John, Hereditary Prince of Saxony1498–1537George, Duke of Saxony
Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Saxony1504–1539
James, Duke of Rothesay1507–1508James IV of Scotland
Arthur Stewart, Duke of Rothesay1509–1510
Magnus III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin1509–1550Henry V, Duke of Mecklenburg
Henry, Duke of Cornwall1511Henry VIII of EnglandSudden death
Şehzade Mustafa1515–1553Suleiman the MagnificentExecuted
Francis III, Duke of Brittany1518–1536Francis I of FranceTuberculosis
Bhoj RajDied 1526Rana SangaDied in battle
Afonso, Prince of Portugal1526John III of PortugalIllness
Prince George of Kakheti1529–1561Levan of KakhetiDied in battle
Manuel, Prince of Portugal1531–1537John III of PortugalIllness
Philip, Prince of Portugal1533–1539
João Manuel, Hereditary Prince of Portugal1537–1554Tuberculosis or diabetes
Crown Prince Sunhoe1551–1563Myeongjong of JoseonIllness
Tsarevich Dmitry Ivanovich of Russia1552–1553Ivan IV of RussiaDrowned
Tsarevich Ivan Ivanovich of Russia1554–1581Wounds to the head
Mingyi Swa1558–1593Nanda BayinKilled in battle
Prince George of Kakheti1570–1605Alexander II of KakhetiKilled alongside his father
Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias1571–1578Philip II of SpainDysentery
Diego, Prince of Asturias1575–1582Smallpox
Philip de' Medici1577–1582Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of TuscanyHydrocephalus
Khusrau Mirza1587–1622JahangirKilled by his brother Shah Jahan
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales1594–1612James I of EnglandTyphoid fever
Otto, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel1594–1617Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-KasselAccidentally shot himself
Christian, Prince-Elect of Denmark1603–1647Christian IV of DenmarkIllness
Louis of Anhalt-Köthen (the Younger)1607–1624Louis I, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen
Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers1609–1631Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat
Crown Prince Sohyeon1612–1645Injo of JoseonBleeding from the head
Henry Frederick, Hereditary Prince of the Palatinate1614–1629Frederick V, Elector PalatineDrowned
Erdmann August, Hereditary Prince of Brandenburg-Bayreuth1615–1651Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-BayreuthIllness
Dara Shikoh1615–1659Shah JahanKilled by his brother Aurangzeb
Ercole, Marquis of Baux1623–1651Honoré II, Prince of MonacoGunshot wound
Ferdinand Maximilian, Hereditary Prince of Baden-Baden1625–1669William, Margrave of Baden-BadenHunting accident
Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias1626–1646Philip IV of SpainSmallpox
Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans1633–1654Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
Theodosius III, Duke of Braganza and Prince of Brazil1634–1653John IV of PortugalTuberculosis
Sigismund Casimir1640–1647Władysław IV VasaDysentery
Tsarevich Dmitry Alexeyevich of Russia1648–1649Alexis of RussiaIllness
Prince Luarsab of KartliDied 1652Rostom of KartliGunshot wound
Tsarevich Alexei Alexeyevich of Russia1654–1670Alexis of RussiaIllness
Leopold George, Hereditary Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg1654–1675William Christoph, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
Prince Mamuka of ImeretiDied 1654Rostom of KartliDied in captivity
Charles, Electoral Prince of Brandenburg1655–1674Frederick William, Elector of BrandenburgDysentery
Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias1657–1661Philip IV of SpainEpileptic attack
Louis, le grand Dauphin1661–1711Louis XIV of FranceSmallpox
Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany1663–1713Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of TuscanyIllness
Charles of Mecklenburg-Güstrow1664–1688Gustav Adolph, Duke of Mecklenburg-GüstrowSmallpox
Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma1666–1693Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of ParmaIllness
Archduke Leopold Joseph of Austria1682–1684Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Louis, Dauphin and Duke of Burgundy1682–1712Louis XIV of FranceMeasles
João, Prince of Brazil1688Peter II of PortugalIllness
Birbhadra ShahDied c.1697Prithvipati Shah
Joseph Ferdinand, Electoral Prince of Bavaria1692–1699Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of BavariaSudden illness
Count Palatine Joseph Charles of Sulzbach1694–1729Theodore Eustace, Count Palatine of SulzbachIllness
Crown Prince Friedrich Ludwig1698–1731Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg
Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont1699–1715Victor Amadeus II of SardiniaSmallpox
Archduke Leopold Joseph of Austria1700–1701Joseph I, Holy Roman EmperorHydrocephalus
Frédéric Maurice Casimir de La Tour d'Auvergne1702–1723Emmanuel Théodose de La Tour d'AuvergneIllness
Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Baden-Durlach1703–1732Charles III William, Margrave of Baden-Durlach
Louis, Hereditary Prince of Lorraine1704–1711Leopold, Duke of LorraineSmallpox
Joseph, Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Rotenburg1705–1744Ernest Leopold, Landgrave of Hesse-RotenburgIllness
Ludwig Gruno of Hesse-Homburg1705–1745Frederick III, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg
Louis, Dauphin and Duke of Brittany1707–1712Louis XIV of FranceMeasles
Léopold Clément, Hereditary Prince of Lorraine1707–1723Leopold, Duke of LorraineSmallpox
Frederick, Prince of Wales1707–1751George II of Great BritainA burst abscess in the lung
Pedro, Prince of Brazil1712–1714John V of PortugalUnknown disease
Peter Petrovich1715–1719Peter the GreatUnknown causes
Crown Prince Hyojang1719–1728Yeongjo of JoseonIllness
Louis, Dauphin of France1729–1765Louis XV of FranceTuberculosis
Yonglian1730–1738Qianlong EmperorIllness
Crown Prince Sado of Joseon (Korea)1735–1762Yeongjo of Joseon (Korea)His father killed him by locking him in a rice chest
Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden1755–1801Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of BadenIllness
Shō Tetsu1759–1788Shō BokuUnknown cause
José, Prince of Brazil1761–1788Maria I of PortugalSmallpox
Thado Minsaw1762–1808BodawpayaIllness
Karl Georg August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel1766–1806Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick
Charles August, Crown Prince of Sweden1768–1810Charles XIII of SwedenStroke
Frederick, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt-Dessau1769–1814Leopold III, Duke of Anhalt-DessauIllness
Carlo, Duke of Calabria1775–1778Ferdinand IV of NaplesSmallpox
Frederick Louis, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin1778–1819Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-SchwerinIllness
Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh1780–1801Gia Long Emperor Smallpox
Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France1781–1789Louis XVI of FranceTuberculosis
Crown Prince Munhyo1782–1788Jeongjo of JoseonIllness
Abbas Mirza1789–1833Fath-Ali Shah Qajar
Mirza Dara Bakht1790–1841Bahadur Shah Zafar
Crown Prince Hyomyeong1809–1830Sunjo of Joseon
Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans1810–1842Louis-Philippe of FranceCarriage accident
Mirza Fath-ul-Mulk Bahadur1816–1856Bahadur Shah ZafarCholera
Kanaung Mintha1820–1866Mindon MinAssassinated
Tēvita ʻUnga1824–1879George Tupou ILiver ailment
Louis Philippe, Crown Prince of Belgium1833–1834Leopold I of BelgiumInflammation of mucous membrane
Victoria Kamāmalu1838–1866Kamehameha VIllness
Keaweaweulaokalani1839Kamehameha III
Keaweaweulaokalani1842
Nicholas Alexandrovich, Tsarevich of Russia1843–1865Alexander II of RussiaMeningitis
William, Prince of Orange1843–1879William III of the NetherlandsDebauchery
Vuna Takitakimālohi1844–1862George Tupou IIllness
Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil1845–1847Pedro II of BrazilEpilepsy
Raja Musa ibni Sultan Abdul Samad1844–1884Sultan Abdul Samad ibni Raja Abdullah
Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach1844–1894Charles Alexander, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachIllness
Trailokya, Crown Prince of Nepal1847–1878Surendra of NepalUnknown causes
Pedro Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil1848–1850Pedro II of BrazilFever
ʻElisiva Fusipala Taukiʻonetuku1850–1889George Tupou IIllness
Alexander, Prince of Orange1851–1884William III of the NetherlandsTyphus
Leleiohoku II1854–1877KalākauaRheumatic fever
ʻUelingatoni Ngū1854–1885George Tupou IIllness
Ludvonga1855–1872Mswati IIPoisoned
Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Anhalt1855–1886Frederick I, Duke of AnhaltIllness
Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin1857–1916Mehmed VSuicide (disputed)
Albert Kamehameha1858–1862Kamehameha IVMeningitis
Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria1858–1889Franz Joseph I of AustriaSuicide (disputed)
Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant1859–1869Leopold II of BelgiumPneumonia, after falling into a pond
Nalesoni Laifone1859–1889George Tupou IIllness
Araya Selassie Yohannes1869/1870–1888Yohannes IVSmallpox
Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha1874–1899Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and GothaUnclear circumstances
Maha Vajirunhis, Crown Prince of Siam1878–1895Rama VTyphoid
Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal1887–1908Carlos I of Portugal and the AlgarvesJointly assassinated with his father
Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani1896–1948Abdullah bin Jassim Al ThaniIllness
Turki I bin Abdulaziz Al Saud1900–1919Abdulaziz of Saudi ArabiaFlu
Sultan, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia1925–2011Abdullah of Saudi ArabiaIllness
Muhammed Akbar Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan1933–1941Mohammed Zahir Shah
Nayef, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia1934–2012Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

Heirs apparent who were forced to abandon their claim

Heir apparentLivedHeir ofForced out
DariusDied 465 BCXerxes IUpon the murder of Xerxes I, Darius was framed for the murder and executed
Liu RongDied 148 BCEmperor Jing of HanHis mother angered the emperor by requesting the position of empress and refusing to allow the marriage of Liu Rong to Chen Jiao
KunalaBorn 263 BCAshokaBlinded
AntipaterBC 46–BC 4Herod the GreatDisinherited after being charged with intended murder. Subsequently executed.
AlexanderBC 35–BC 7Disinherited and executed
Aristobulus IVBC 31–BC 7
Herod IIBC 27–33 ADDisinherited
Agrippa PostumusBC 12–14 ADAugustusBanished. Later executed by his own guards after the accession of Tiberius
Liu Jiang25–58Emperor Guangwu of HanHis mother lost the position of empress
Sun He224–253Sun QuanReplaced with his brother Sun Liang
Sima Ying279–306Emperor Hui of JinReplaced as heir by Emperor Huai of Jin
Crispus295–326Constantine the GreatExecuted
Prince Kinashi no KaruDied 453Emperor IngyōHis brother Emperor Ankō took the throne instead
Yuan Xun483–497Emperor Xiaowen of Northern WeiDisagreement of his father's policy
HermenegildDied 585LiuvigildDisinherited for rebellion
Niketas the PersianDied 636ShahrbarazKilled after 40 days of rule
Yang YongDied 604Emperor Wen of SuiForced to abdicate and killed by younger brother Yang Guang
Li Chengqian619–645Emperor Taizong of TangAttempted to overthrow his father and kill his brother by coup. Exiled from immorality and treason
Li Zhong642–665Emperor Gaozong of TangEmpress Wu Zetian got the favor from Gaozong and his position was taken by his half brother Li Hong
Li Xian655–684Exiled by Empress Wu Zetian from rumors. And forced to commit suicide after Gaozong's death
Prince Kusakabe662–689Emperor TenmuDid not assume throne
Abd al-Aziz ibn MarwanDied 705Marwan IRemoved from line of succession
Li Chengqi679–742Emperor Ruizong of TangGave up the claim because he thought that he did not have the strength to be a wise emperor
Alexios Mosele9th centuryTheophilosDisinherited for rebellion
Al-MufawwidDied 890sAl-Mu'tamid (Abbasid caliph)On 30 April 892, Al-Mufawwid was removed from the succession by his cousin, al-Mu'tadid and when al-Mu'tamid died in October 892, he was succeeded by al-Mu'tadid.
Al-Abbas ibn Ahmad ibn TulunDied 884Ahmad ibn TulunAttempted to overthrow his father
Li YuDied in 904Emperor Zhaozong of TangActually inherited the throne in fact, but not recognized as an emperor. Became crown prince again after two months and killed by Zhu Wen
Prince Tsunesada825–884Emperor NinmyōDisinherited in the Jōwa Incident
Yelü Bei899–937Emperor Taizu of LiaoKept the favor away from her mother Empress Shulü Ping, because he their political view were totally opposite.
Fujiwara no Korechika974–1010Fujiwara no MichitakaLost in Chōtoku Incident to his uncle Fujiwara no Michinaga who seize the power and lost the position to inherent Kampaku.
Prince Atsuyasu999–1019Emperor IchijōKugyō Fujiwara no Yukinari and Fujiwara no Michinaga forced him to give up the status and his half brother Prince Atsuhira took his position.
Abd al-Rahim ibn IlyasDied 1020sAl-Hakim bi-Amr AllahSidelined upon Al-Hakim's death in favor of Al-Zahir li-i'zaz Din Allah, who had him arrested and imprisoned.
Al-Malik al-AzizDied 1049Jalal al-DawlaLate ruler's nephew Abu Kalijar took the throne instead
Conrad II of Italy1074–1101Henry IV, Holy Roman EmperorDisinherited for rebellion
Min Shin Saw1117–1167AlaungsithuExiled
William I, Count of Boulogne1137–1159Stephen, King of EnglandTreaty of Wallingford dictated the succession of Henry II of England
Demna of Georgia1155–1178David V of GeorgiaImprisoned, blinded and castrated by his uncle, King George III of Georgia
Zhao HongDied 1225Emperor NingzongShi Miyuan and Empress Yang faked the edict of emperor.
Henry (VII) of Germany1211–1242Frederick II, Holy Roman EmperorDisinherited for rebellion
James of Majorca1275–1330James II of MajorcaBecame a monk
James of Aragon1296–1334James II of Aragon
Otto, Duke of Lolland and Estonia1310–1346Christopher II of DenmarkForced to surrender claim to the throne in favor of his brother Valdemar IV of Denmark
Prince Narinaga1326–c. 1337–44Emperor KōmyōKilled or deposed by Ashikaga Takauji
Eric XII of Sweden1339–1359Magnus VII of NorwayBecame King of Sweden, with his brother Haakon VI of Norway taking the throne of Norway
Baw Ngan-Mohn1370–1390Binnya UImprisoned
Grand Prince Yangnyeong1394–1462Taejong of JoseonRemoved for an affair
Dmitry Ivanovich1483–1509Ivan III of RussiaDisinherited in favor of uncle Vasili III of Russia
Carlos, Prince of Asturias1545–1568Philip II of SpainArrested and imprisoned by his father; died in prison six months later
Minye Kyawswa II of Ava1567–1599Nanda BayinDefected
Cuyen1580–1615NurhaciPolitical conflict with his father
Yinreng1674–1725The Kangxi EmperorImprisoned for life by Kangxi for immorality and treason; replaced by his brother Yongzheng Emperor
Alexei Petrovich, Tsarevich of Russia1690–1718Peter the Great of RussiaImprisoned by his father and forced to relinquish his claim. Died in prison.
Philip, Duke of Calabria1747–1777Charles III of SpainIntellectually disabled; removed from the line of succession in favor of his brothers Charles and Ferdinand
Pedro, Prince Imperial of Brazil1825–1891Pedro IV of PortugalBecame heir solely to Brazil, with his sister Maria becoming heir presumptive
Mustafa Fazıl Pasha1830–1875Isma'il PashaSuccession law changed to pass from father to son instead of brother to brother; replaced by Tewfik Pasha
Tengku Alam Shah1846–1891Sultan Ali of JohorThrone given to kinsman Abu Bakar of Johor instead
Khalifa bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyanb.1856Zayed bin Khalifa Al NahyanRefused throne, with his brother Tahnoun bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan becoming ruler instead
George, Crown Prince of Serbia1887–1972Peter I of SerbiaAbdicated his succession rights in 1909; replaced by his brother Alexander
Muhammad of Saudi Arabia1910–1988King Faisal ibn Abdul-AzizForced to abdicate in 1965; replaced by his brother Khalid
Tunku Abdul Rahman of Johor1933–1989Ismail of JohorHis elder brother Iskandar of Johor was reinstated after previously being forced to renounce his rights
Khalid bin Saqr Al Qasimi1940–Saqr bin Mohammed Al QasimiDisinherited in favor of his half-brother Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi
Muqrin of Saudi Arabia1945–King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al SaudRemoved as Crown Prince in April 2015; replaced by his nephew Muhammad bin Nayef
Hassan of Jordan1947–King Hussein of JordanHe was replaced by his nephew Abdullah only days before the king died in 1999
Muhammad bin Nayef of Saudi Arabia1959–King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al SaudRemoved as Crown Prince in June 2017; replaced by his cousin Mohammad bin Salman
Mishaal bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani1972–Hamad bin Khalifa Al ThaniRenounced his claim in 1996 in favor of his younger half-brother, Sheikh Jasim
Jassim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani1978–Renounced his claim in 2003 in favor of his younger brother, Sheikh Tamim
Prince Carl Philip of Sweden1979–Carl XVI Gustaf of SwedenSwedish succession laws were changed in 1980. Carl Philip was supplanted by his elder sister Victoria
Prince Hamzah of Jordan1980–Abdullah II of JordanTitle of Crown Prince removed in 2004. Hamzah was supplanted by his half-nephew Hussein

Heirs apparent of monarchs who themselves abdicated or were deposed

Heir apparentLivedHeir ofEnd of line/monarchy
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus38–69GalbaAssassinated in 69 under orders of Otho
Gaius Julius Verus Maximus217–238Maximinus ThraxAssassinated in 238
Publius Licinius Egnatius Marinianus249–268GallienusKilled in 268
Licinius II315–326LiciniusBoth father and son were executed by Licinius' co-emperor Constantine the Great
VictorDied 388Magnus MaximusBoth executed
Constans IIDied 411Constantine IIIBoth killed in revolts
Chen Yin573–618Chen ShubaoChen Dynasty fell
Theodosius583/585–602MauriceBoth father and son executed by supporters of Phocas
Tiberius IV705–711Justinian IIBoth father and son overthrown and executed
Theophylact793–849Michael I RangabeMichael I abdicated in the face of a military revolt
ConstantineBorn between 800 and 810Leo V the ArmenianLeo V was assassinated and his heirs banished
Meng Xuanzhe937–991Meng ChangLater Shu was defeated by Song Dynasty
William fitz Duncan1090–1147Duncan II of ScotlandDuncan II was killed in battle in 1094 and his uncle Donald III retook the throne
Daoud ibn al-AdidDied 1207Al-AdidThe Ayyubid dynasty took power
Edward Balliol1283–1367John BalliolAbdicated following defeat in First War of Scottish Independence
Zhu WenkuiDisappeared in 1402Jianwen EmperorPrince Yan sacked Nanjing. Disappeared with his father Jianwen Emperor.
Deposed Crown Prince Yi Hwang1498–1506Yeonsangun of JoseonYeonsangun was deposed in 1506 in favor of his half-brother Jungjong of Joseon
John of Denmark1518–1532Christian II of DenmarkChristian II was deposed in 1523 in favor of his uncle Frederick I
Gustav of Sweden1568–1607Eric XIV of SwedenEric XIV was deposed in 1568 in favor of his half-brother John III
Gustav of Saxe-Lauenburg1570–1597Magnus II, Duke of Saxe-LauenburgMagnus' father Francis I, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg reascended
Władysław Vasa1595–1648Sigismund of SwedenSigismund was deposed in 1599 in favor of his uncle Charles IX
Deposed Crown Prince Yi Ji1598–1623Gwanghaegun of JoseonGwanghaegun was deposed in 1623 in favor of his nephew Injo of Joseon
Zhu Cilang1629–1644Chongzhen EmperorMing conquered by Manchu and founded Qing Dynasty
Yunreng, Prince Limi of the First Rank1674–1725Kangxi EmperorHe was demoted by his father.
James Francis Edward Stuart1688–1766James II of EnglandJames II was deposed in favor of his daughter and son-in-law Mary II and William III and II on 11 April 1689 for being Catholic
Yonglian, Crown Prince Duanhui1730 – 1738Qianlong EmperorDied of smallpox at age of 8.
Prince David of Georgia1767–1819George XII of GeorgiaAnnexation by Russia
Louis-Antoine, Dauphin and Duke of Angoulême1775–1844Charles X of FranceAbdicated jointly with his father on 2 August 1830
Louis-Charles, Dauphin of France1785–1795Louis XVI of FranceFrench Revolution
Duke Pius August in Bavaria1786–1837Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-GelnhausenAnnexation by Bavaria
Prince Constantine of Imereti1789–1844Solomon II of ImeretiAnnexation by Russia
Gustav, Prince of Vasa1799–1877Gustav IV Adolf of SwedenGustav's whole family was excluded from the line of royal succession on 10 May 1809 by the Riksdag of the Estates, after the deposition of Gustav IV Adolf in favor of his uncle Charles XIII
Jacques-Victor Henry1804–1820Henri ChristopheFearing a coup, Henri Christophe committed suicide and Jacques-Victor Henry was assassinated
Agustín Jerónimo, Prince Imperial of Mexico1807–1866Agustín I of MexicoDeposed in 1823
Leopold, Prince of Hohenzollern1835–1905Karl Anton, Prince of HohenzollernAnnexed by Prussia on 7 December 1849
Prince Philippe, Count of Paris1838–1894Louis Philippe I of FranceDeclaration of the Second Republic on 24 February 1848
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover1845–1923George V of HanoverAnnexation by Prussia in 1866
Ernest, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal1846–1925Charles II, Landgrave of Hesse-Philippsthal
Marama Teururai1851–1909Ari'imateAri'imate was deposed in 1868 in favor of his wife Tehaapapa II
William, Hereditary Prince of Nassau1852–1912Adolphe, Duke of NassauAnnexation by Prussia in 1866
Louis Napoléon, Prince Imperial1856–1879Napoleon III of FranceNapoleon III was deposed 4 September 1870 by the forces of the Third Republic
Crown Prince Gustaf of Norway1858–1950Oscar II of NorwayDissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905
Agustín, Prince of Iturbide1863–1925Maximilian I of MexicoMonarchy abolished in 1867
Shō Ten1864–1920Shō TaiRyukyu Kingdom was annexed by Japan in 1872
Abdulmejid II1868–1944Mehmed VIOttoman Empire dissolved in 1922.
Teriivaetua1869–1918Pōmare VTahiti was annexed by France in 1880
Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta1869–1931Amadeo I of SpainAbdicated in 1873
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria1869–1955Ludwig III of BavariaGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro1871–1939Nikola I Petrović-NjegošAnnexed by Serbia
Kaʻiulani1875–1899LiliuokalaniAnnexation by the United States
Yuan Keding1878–1958Yuan ShikaiShort lived Empire abolished in March 1916
Wilhelm, German Crown Prince1882–1951Wilhelm II, German EmperorWilhelm was deposed by the German government on 9 November 1918
Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony1893–1943Frederick Augustus III of SaxonyGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Husain Bey, Crown Prince of Tunisia1893–1969Muhammad VIII al-AminDeposed in 1957
Heinrich XLV, Hereditary Prince Reuss Younger Line1895–1945Heinrich XXVII, Prince Reuss Younger LineGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont1896–1967Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Philipp, Landgrave of Hesse1896–1980Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, King-elect of FinlandMonarchy abolished in 1918
Prince Wilhelm of Urach1897–1957Mindaugas II of Lithuania
Yi Un1897–1970Sunjong of KoreaAnnexation by Korea in 1910
Nikolaus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Oldenburg1897–1970Frederick Augustus II, Grand Duke of OldenburgGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Crown Prince Friðrik of Iceland1899–1972Kristján X of IcelandMonarchy abolished on 17 June 1944
Muhammad Abdel Moneim1899–1979Abbas II of EgyptAbbas II was deposed by the British for supporting the Ottomans in World War I
Georg Moritz, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Altenburg1900–1991Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-AltenburgGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia1904–1918Nicholas II of RussiaNicholas abdicated on 2/15 March 1917 on behalf of both himself and his son. The monarchy was abolished 1 September 1917
Umberto, Prince of Piedmont1904–1983Victor Emmanuel III of Ethiopia and AlbaniaVictor Emmanuel was only partially recognized in those countries, renounced claims in 1943 in favor of previous holders
Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse1906–1937Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of HesseGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha1906–1972Charles Edward, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Alfonso, Prince of Asturias1907–1938Alfonso XIII of SpainAlfonso XIII was deposed by the formation of the Second Spanish Republic on April 14, 1931. Prince Alfonso renounced his claim on 21 June 1933 so he could marry a commoner
Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin1910–2001Frederick Francis IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-SchwerinGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Ghazi bin Faisal1912–1939Faisal I of SyriaDeposed in 1920
Charles Augustus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach1912–1988William Ernest, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-EisenachGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Otto von Habsburg, Crown Prince of Austria, Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia1912–2011Charles I of AustriaAustria and Hungary abolished the monarchy in 1918.
'Abd al-Ilah1913–1958Ali of HejazDeposed in 1925
Carol Victor, Hereditary Prince of Albania1913–1973Wilhelm, Prince of AlbaniaFled into exile in 1914
Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover1914–1987Ernest Augustus, Duke of BrunswickGerman monarchies abolished in November 1918
Amha Selassie1916–1997Haile Selassie of EthiopiaHaile Selassie was overthrown in 1974 after being taken by communist Derg power
Hasan as-Senussi1928–1992Idris of LibyaDeposed in 1969
Vong Savang1931–1978Sisavang VatthanaMonarchy abolished after Laotian Civil War
Ahmad Shah Khan, Crown Prince of Afghanistan1934–Mohammed Zahir ShahDeposed in 1973
Bảo Long1936–2007Bảo Đại1955 State of Vietnam referendum
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples1937–Umberto II of ItalyItaly abolished the monarchy on 12 June 1946, after Umberto II had reigned 33 days
Leka, Crown Prince of Albania1939–2011Zog of AlbaniaTwo days after Leka's birth, Mussolini's Italy invaded Albania on 7 April 1939 and sent the royal family into exile
Crown Prince Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta1943–2021Tomislav II of CroatiaTomislav II abdicated October 12, 1943 due to the Armistice between Italy and Allied armed forces, when Amedeo was only two weeks old
Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia1945–Peter II of YugoslaviaPeter II was deposed by Yugoslavia's Constituent Assembly on 29 November 1945
Abdelaziz bin Ahmed Al Thani1946–2008Ahmad bin Ali Al ThaniDeposed in 1972; Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani took the throne
Charles, Prince of Wales1948–Elizabeth II of Pakistan, South Africa, Ceylon, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanganyika, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Malta, The Gambia, Guyana, Mauritius, Fiji, and BarbadosCountries became republics
Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran1960–Mohammad Reza PahlaviThe Shah was overthrown by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979
Pavlos, Crown Prince of Greece1967–Constantine II of GreeceConstantine II fled into exile shortly after Pavlos's birth, and the monarchy was abolished 1 June 1973
Paras, Crown Prince of Nepal1971–Gyanendra of NepalGyanendra was deposed 28 May 2008 in favour of a republican government
Jean-Bédel Bokassa, Crown Prince of the Central African Empire1973–Jean-Bédel BokassaDeposed in 1979

See also

  • List of heirs apparent
  • President-elect
  • Prime minister-designate
  • Heads of former ruling families

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ Sometimes heiress apparent is used for a female heir apparent; however, heir is an equally valid term for a man, woman or child.
  2. ^ assuming no change in the laws governing succession
  3. ^ Note that the substantive titles do not usually correspond exactly with the status of heir apparent. See crown prince for more examples and information.

References

  1. ^ Proclamations of Accessions of British Sovereigns (1547–1952)
  2. ^ "King James’ Parliament: The succession of William and Mary – begins 13/2/1689" The History and Proceedings of the House of Commons: volume 2: 1680–1695 (1742), pp. 255–277. Accessed: 16 February 2007.
  3. ^ Fields 1987, pp. 166–169.
  4. ^ Kennedy 1993, pp. 765–766.

Media files used on this page

Heraldic Royal Crown (Common).svg
Author/Creator: Heralder, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Heraldic Royal Crown, Generic Design in Europe with 8 half-arches
Heraldic Imperial Crown (Gules Mitre).svg
Author/Creator: Heralder, based on Katepanomegas, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Heraldic Imperial Crown with a Gules (red) mitre, the most precise design.
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
The civil ensign and flag of Belgium. It is identical to Image:Flag of Belgium.svg except that it has a 2:3 ratio, instead of 13:15.
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg
Flag of Liechtenstein
Flag of Norway.svg
Flag of Norway. The colors approximately correspond to Pantone 200 C (deep red) and 281 C (dark blue).
Flag of Sweden.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Tonga.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
William Sumbarines Crop.png
Author/Creator: Royal Navy, Licence: OGL 3
Prince William visiting a Royal Navy facility in June 2021.
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Flag of Canada introduced in 1965, using Pantone colors. This design replaced the Canadian Red Ensign design.
Flag of Jamaica.svg
Flag of Jamaica. “The sunshine, the land is green, and the people are strong and bold” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag. GOLD represents the natural wealth and beauty of sunlight; GREEN represents hope and agricultural resources; BLACK represents the strength and creativity of the people. The original symbolism, however, was "Hardships there are, but the land is green, and the sun shineth", where BLACK represented the hardships being faced.
Flag of Japan.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Malaysia.svg
Flag of Malaysia – Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory)
Flag of Thailand.svg
The national flag of Kingdom of Thailand since September 2017; there are total of 3 colours:
  • Red represents the blood spilt to protect Thailand’s independence and often more simply described as representing the nation.
  • White represents the religion of Buddhism, the predominant religion of the nation
  • Blue represents the monarchy of the nation, which is recognised as the centre of Thai hearts.
Flag of Australia (converted).svg

Flag of Australia, when congruence with this colour chart is required (i.e. when a "less bright" version is needed).

See Flag of Australia.svg for main file information.
Flag of New Zealand.svg
Flag of New Zealand. Specification: http://www.mch.govt.nz/nzflag/description.html , quoting New Zealand Gazette, 27 June 1902.
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
Flag of Papua New Guinea
Colours: Pantone 186 C for red and 116 C for yellow
Flag of Tuvalu.svg
Author/Creator: Nightstallion (original)
Zscout370 (most recent), Licence: CC0
Flag of Tuvalu.

FIAV 111111.svg
Sin foto.svg
Author/Creator: User:Huhsunqu, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Image in case there's a portrait missing.
ذي يزن بن هيثم آل سعيد.png
Author/Creator: cinematic Production, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
ولي عهد سلطنة عمان
Royal Prince of Bhutan (cropped).jpg
Author/Creator: The Rashtrapati Bhavan, Licence: GODL-India
Kings and Royal Prince of Bhutan and First Family of India
Crowd awaiting Crown Prince Tokyo Dec1916.jpg
newspaper photograph, original clipping -- New York Public Library Picture Collection:
Caption: "Throngs before the Imperial Palace in Japan awaiting the appearance of the Crown Prince for the recent proclamation of his official recognition as the heir apparent to the Japanese Imperial Throne."
Moulay Hassan in 2018.jpg
Author/Creator: The White House from Washington, DC, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Moulay Hassan in 2018
Guillaume av Luxemburg.jpg
Author/Creator: Frankie Fouganthin, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg on the way to the castle church at the Royal Palace in Stockholm before the wedding between Princess Madeleine and Christopher O'Neill June 8, 2013.
Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark in 2018.jpg
Author/Creator: Saeima, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
December 6, 2018. Speaker of the Saeima Ināra Mūrniece receives Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark and Crown Princess Mary in the parliament.

Photo: Ernests Dinka, Saeima

Terms of use: saeima.lv/lv/autortiesibas
Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein.jpg

The Hereditary Prince of Liechtenstein on 14 January 2010
Crown Prince Haakon of Norway 2012-03-26 001.jpg
Author/Creator: Jan Haug, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway.
Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud.jpg
Defense Secretary Jim Mattis stands with Deputy Crown Price of Saudi Arabia Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud before a bi-lateral meeting held at the Pentagon in Arlington, VA, Mar. 16, 2017. (DOD photo by Sgt. Amber I. Smith)
Catharina-Amalia 2019 (cropped).jpg
(c) RoyalblogNL, CC BY 3.0
On Monday morning on 25 February 2019, members of the Dutch Royal Family met with the media in Lech, Austria, for a photo call. This year, Princess Beatrix, Prince Constantijn and Princess Laurentien and their children Countess Eloise, Count Claus-Casimir and Countess Leonore, also participated. — ROYALBLOG.NL
Tupoutoʻa ʻUlukalala at the festivities of his parents coronation.jpg
Author/Creator: LeliseliTongaFollow, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Crown Princes of Tonga at the garden party of the final day of the festivities of his parents coronation
Crown Prince Hussein.jpg
The Crown Prince of Jordan at the meeting with the US State Secretary
Emir Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah.jpg
Author/Creator: الديوان الأميري, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Emir Mishal Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden in 2018.jpg
Author/Creator: Frankie Fouganthin, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
HKH Kronprinsessan under nyinvigningen av Nationalmuseum i Stockholm 2018.
Al-Muhtadee Billah.jpg
Al-Muhtadee Billah