Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School shield.svg
Coat of arms
TypePrivate
EstablishedSeptember 19, 1782 (1782-09-19)
Parent institution
Harvard University
DeanGeorge Q. Daley
Academic staff
11,694[1]
StudentsTotals:
  • MD – 712
  • PhD – 915
  • DMD – 140
  • Master's – 269
  • DMSc – 39
Location,,
United States

Coordinates:42°20′09″N 71°06′18″W / 42.335743°N 71.105138°W / 42.335743; -71.105138
Websitehms.harvard.edu
Harvard Medical School seal.svg

Harvard Medical School (HMS) is the graduate medical school of Harvard University and is located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1782, HMS is one of the oldest medical schools in the United States[2] and is consistently ranked first for research among medical schools by U.S. News & World Report.[3] Unlike most other leading medical schools, HMS does not operate in conjunction with a single hospital but is directly affiliated with several teaching hospitals in the Boston area. Affiliated teaching hospitals and research institutes include Dana–Farber Cancer Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, McLean Hospital, Cambridge Health Alliance, Judge Baker Children's Center, and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital.[4]

History

Massachusetts Medical College at Mason St.(Old building)
Massachusetts Medical College, Mason Street
The new Massachusetts Medical College in Grove St., Bosto
Massachusetts Medical College, Grove Street
Harvard Medical School quadrangle in Longwood Medical Area.
Harvard Medical School quadrangle in Longwood Medical Area.

Harvard Medical School was founded on September 19, 1782, after President Joseph Willard presented a report with plans for a medical school to the President and Fellows of Harvard College. It is the third-oldest medical school in the United States, founded after the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons.

The founding faculty members of Harvard Medical School were John Warren, Benjamin Waterhouse, and Aaron Dexter.[2] Lectures were first held in the basement of Harvard Hall and then later in Holden Chapel. Students paid no tuition but purchased tickets to five or six daily lectures.[2][5] The first two students graduated in 1788.[2]

In the following century, the medical school moved locations several times due to changing clinical relationships, a function of the fact that Harvard Medical School does not directly own or operate a teaching hospital.[6] In 1810, the school moved to Boston at what is now downtown Washington Street. In 1816, the school was moved to Mason Street and was called the Massachusetts Medical College of Harvard University in recognition of a gift from the Great and General Court of Massachusetts. In 1847, the school was moved to Grove Street to be closer to Massachusetts General Hospital. In 1883, the school was relocated to Copley Square.[7] Prior to this move, Charles William Eliot became Harvard's president in 1869 and found the medical school in the worst condition of any part of the university. He instituted drastic reforms that raised admissions standards, instituted a formal degree program, and defined HMS as a professional school within Harvard University that laid the groundwork for its transformation into one of the leading medical schools in the world.[5]

In 1906, the medical school moved to its current location in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area. The Longwood campus's five original marble-faced buildings of the quadrangle still remain in use today.[8][9]

Innovations

Harvard Medical School postdoctoral trainees and faculty have been associated with a number of important medical and public health innovations:

  • Introduction of smallpox vaccination to America
  • First use of anesthesia for pain control during surgery
  • The introduction of insulin to the US to treat diabetes
  • Comprehending of the role of vitamin B12 in treating anemia
  • Identification of coenzyme A and understanding of proteins
  • Developing tissue culture methods for the polio virus, which paved the way for vaccines against polio
  • Mapping the visual system of the brain
  • Development of the first successful chemotherapy for childhood leukemia
  • Development of the first implantable cardiac pacemaker
  • Discovering the inheritance of immunity to infection
  • Development of artificial skin for burn victims
  • The first successful heart valve surgery
  • The first successful human kidney transplant
  • The first reattachment of a severed human limb
  • Discovery of the genes that cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's disease, among many others
  • Establishing the importance of tumor vascular supply (angiogenesis) and seeding the field of vascular biology
  • Discovery of the cause of preeclampsia.[10]

Broadening admissions

Women

In mid-1847, Professor Walter Channing's proposal that women be admitted to lectures and examinations was rejected by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. While Harriot Kezia Hunt was soon after given permission to attend medical lectures, this permission was withdrawn in 1850.

In 1866, two women with extensive medical education elsewhere applied but were denied admission. In 1867, a single faculty member's vote blocked the admission of Susan Dimock. In 1872, Harvard declined a gift of $10,000 conditioned on medical school admitting women medical students on the same term as men. A similar offer of $50,000, by a group of ten women including Marie Elizabeth Zakrzewska, was declined in 1882; a committee of five was appointed to study the matter. After the medical school moved from North Grove Street to Boylston Street in 1883, professor Henry Ingersoll Bowditch's proposal that the North Grove Street premises be used for medical education for women was rejected.

In 1943, a dean's committee recommended the admission of women, the proportion of men and women being dependent solely on the qualifications of the applicants.[11] In 1945, the first class of women was admitted; projected benefits included helping male students learn to view women as equals, increasing the number of physicians in lower-paid specialties typically shunned by men, and replacing the weakest third of all-male classes with better-qualified women.[12] By 1972, about one-fifth of Harvard medical students were women.[11]

African Americans

In 1850, three black men, Martin Delany, Daniel Laing Jr., and Isaac H. Snowden, were admitted to the school but were later expelled under pressure from faculty and other students.

In 1968, in response to a petition signed by hundreds of medical students, the faculty established a commission on relations with the black community in Boston; at the time less than one percent of Harvard medical students were black. By 1973, the number of black students admitted had tripled, and by the next year, it had quadrupled.[11] In 2011, HMS appointed its first African American full Professor of medicine, Valerie E. Stone.[13] That year they also appointed their first African-American Professor of Radiology, Stone's former classmate Tina Young Poussaint.[13]

In 2019 LaShyra Nolen was the first black woman to be elected class president of Harvard Medical School.[14]

Medical education

The Warren Anatomical Museum at HMS was named after its founder John Collins Warren, first Dean at HMS (picture taken 1910)

Curriculum

Harvard Medical School has gone through many curricular revisions for its MD program. In recent decades, HMS has maintained a three-phase curriculum with a classroom-based pre-clerkship phase, a principal clinical experience (PCE), and a post-PCE phase.[15]

The pre-clerkship phase has two curricular tracks. The majority of students enter in the more traditional Pathways track that focuses on active learning and earlier entry into the clinic with courses that include students from the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. Pathways students gain early exposure to the clinic through a longitudinal clinical skills course that lasts the duration of the pre-clerkship phase. A small portion of each class enter in the HST track, which is jointly administered with MIT. The HST track is designed to train physician-scientists with emphasis on basic physiology and quantitative understanding of biological processes through courses that include PhD students from MIT.

Admissions

Admission to Harvard Medical School's MD program is highly selective. There are 165 total spots for each incoming class, with 135 spots in the Pathways curriculum and 30 spots in the HST program.[16] While both use a single application, each curricular track independently evaluates applicants.

For the MD Class of 2023, 6,815 candidates applied and 227 were admitted (3.3%). There was a matriculation rate of 73%.[1] For the Master of Medical Science (MMSc) program in Global Health Delivery, the Fall 2020 admissions rate was (8.2%).

Graduate education

PhD degree programs

There are nine PhD programs based in Harvard Medical School.[17] Students in these programs are all enrolled in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS) and are part of the HILS (Harvard Integrated Life Sciences) inter-program federation.[18]

Master's degree programs

Harvard Medical School offers two types of master's degrees, Master of Medical Sciences (MMSc) degrees and Master of Academic Discipline degrees.[19]

Postgraduate certificate programs

Harvard Medical School offers several Postgraduate Certificate (PgCert) programs.[20] These graduate-level programs may run up to twelve months. Admitted postgraduate students are awarded a Certificate from Harvard Medical School upon successful completion, and are eligible for associate membership in the Harvard Alumni Association.[21]

Affiliated teaching hospitals and research institutes

Harvard Medical School does not directly own or operate any hospitals and instead relies on affiliated teaching hospitals for clinical education. Medical students primarily complete their clinical experiences at the following hospitals.[22]

Notable alumni

There are over 10,425 alumni.[1]

NameClass yearNotabilityReference(s)
Andrea Ackermanartist
John R. Adler1980Academic[23]
Robert B. AirdAcademic
Tenley AlbrightFigure skater
David AltshulerGeneticist
Harold Amosmicrobiologist[24]
William French Andersongeneticist
Christian B. Anfinsenbiochemist, Nobel laureate
Paul S. Appelbaum1976academic
Jerry Avornacademic
Babak Azizzadehfacial surgery specialist and surgeon for Mary Jo Buttafuoco after she was shot by Amy Fisher in 1992
Arie S. Belldegrundirector of the UCLA Institute of Urologic Oncology and is Professor and Chief of Urologic Oncology at the David Geffen School of Medicine[25]
Rebecka Belldegrunophthalmologist, businesswoman
Herbert Bensoncardiologist, author of The Relaxation Response
Ira Blackneuroscientist and stem cell researcher, first director of the Stem Cell Institute of New Jersey[26]
Roscoe Bradybiochemist
Eugene Brody1944psychiatrist
Henry Bryantphysician
Rafael Campopoet
Ethan Caninauthor
Walter Bradford Cannonphysiologist
William Bosworth Castlehematologist
George Cheyne Shattuck Choatephysician
Gilbert Chuphysician, biochemist
Aram ChobanianPresident of Boston University (2003–2005)
Stanley Cobbneurologist
Godwin Madukadoctor, philanthropist
Ernest Codmanphysician
Albert Coonsphysician, immunologist, Lasker Award winner
Michael Crichtonauthor
Harvey Cushingneurosurgeon
Elliott Cutlersurgeon
Hallowell Davishearing researcher, contributor to the invention of the electroencephalograph[27]
Martin Delanyone of the first African Americans to attend, first African-American field officer in the US, expelled after a faculty vote to end the admission of blacks[28]
Allan S. Detskyphysician
James Madison DeWolfsoldier, physician
Peter Diamandisentrepreneur
Daniel DiLorenzoentrepreneur, neurosurgeon, inventor
Thomas Dwightanatomist
Lawrence Eroninfectious disease physician
Edward Evartsneuroscientist
Sidney Farberpathologist
Paul Farmerinfectious disease physician, global health
Jonathan Fieldingpast president of the American College of Preventive Medicine, health administrator, academic
Harvey V. Finebergacademic administrator
Elliott S. Fisher1981director of The Dartmouth Institute
John "Honey Fitz" FitzgeraldMayor of Boston (1906–08; 1910–14)
Thomas Fitzpatrickdermatologist
Judah Folkmanscientist
Irwin Freedberg1956dermatologist
Bill FristU.S. Senator (1995–2007)
Atul Gawandesurgeon, author
Charles Brenton Hugginsphysician, physiologist, Nobel laureate
Laurie H. Glimcher1976President and CEO, Dana–Farber Cancer Institute
George Lincoln Goodalebotanist
Robert Goldwynsurgeon, editor-in-chief of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery for 25 years[29]
Ernest GrueningGovernor of the Alaska Territory (1939–53), U.S. Senator (1959–69)
I. Kathleen Hagenmurder suspect
Dean Hamergeneticist
Alice Hamiltonfirst female faculty member at Harvard Medical School
J. Hartwell Harrisonsurgeon who performed first kidney transplant, editor-in-chief of Campbell's Urology (4th ed.)
Michael R. Harrisonpediatrician
Bernadine HealyDirector of the National Institutes of Health (1991–93), CEO of the American Red Cross (1999–2001)
Ronald A. Heifetzacademic
Lawrence Joseph Hendersonbiochemist
Edward H. Hill1867founder of Central Maine Medical Center[30]
David Hoinfectious disease physician
Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr.physician, poet
Sachin H. Jain2008CEO of CareMore Health System, Obama administration official
William Jamesphilosopher
Mildred Fay Jeffersonanti-abortion activist, first African-American woman to graduate from Harvard Medical School
Clay JohnstonDean of the Dell Medical School at University of Texas at Austin
Elliott P. Joslindiabetolologist
Nathan Cooley Keepphysician who founded the Harvard School of Dental Medicine
Jonny KimNavy SEAL, ER physician, astronaut
Jim Kimphysician, global health leader, current President of the World Bank
Melvin Konnerauthor, biological anthropologist
Peter D. Kramer1976psychiatrist
Charles Krauthammer1975columnist
Daniel Laing Jr.one of the first African Americans to attend, one of the first African-American physicians, expelled after a faculty vote to end the admission of blacks but finished his degree elsewhere[28]
Theodore K. Lawlessdermatologist, medical researcher, philanthropist
Philip J. Landriganepidemiologist, pediatrician
Aristides Leãobiologist
Philip Ledergeneticist
Simon LeVayneuroscientist
Pam Lingcastmate on The Real World: San Francisco[31]
Joseph LovellSurgeon General of the U.S. Army (1818–36)
Karl Menningerpsychiatrist
Marek-Marsel Mesulam1972characterized primary progressive aphasia
John S. Meyerphysician
Randell Millsscientist
Vamsi Moothasystems biologist, geneticist
Siddhartha Mukherjeephysician, author
Joseph Murraysurgeon
Woody MyersIndiana state health commissioner[32]
Joel Mark Noeplastic surgeon
Amos Nourse1817U.S. Senator (1857)
Borna Nyaoke-AnokeAIDS researcher[33]
David C. Pagebiologist
Hiram Polkacademic
Geoffrey Pottsacademic
Morton Princeneurologist
Alexander Richbiophysicist
Oswald Hope Robertsonmedical scientist
Richard S. RossDean Emeritus of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, former President of the American Heart Association
Wilfredo Santa-Gómezauthor
George E. Shambaugh Jr.otolaryngologist
Alfred Sommeracademic
Philip Solomonacademic psychiatrist
Paul Spanglernaval surgeon
Samuel L. Stanley5th President of Stony Brook University, academic, physician
Jill Stein1979physician, activist, politician[34]
Felicia Stewartphysician
Lubert Stryeracademic, coauthor of Biochemistry
Yellapragada Subbarowbiochemist
James B. Sumnerchemist
Orvar Swenson1937pediatric surgeon, performed first surgery for Hirschsprung's disease[35]
Helen B. Taussigcardiologist, helped develop Blalock–Taussig shunt
John Templeton Jr.president of the John Templeton Foundation
E. Donnall Thomasphysician
Lewis Thomasessayist
Abby Howe Turneracademic
George Eman Vaillantpsychiatrist
Mark Vonnegutauthor, pediatrician
Joseph Warrensoldier
Amy Wax1981Robert Mundheim Professor of Law at the University of Pennsylvania Law School[36]
Andrew Weil1968proponent of alternative medicine and integrative medicine
Paul Dudley Whitecardiologist
Robert J. Whiteneurosurgeon who performed first monkey head transplant in the 1970s
Patrisha Zóbel de AyalaChairman of World Medical Association, surgeon, anesthesiologist, neurologist, medical researcher
Charles F. Winslowearly atomic theorist
Leonard WoodChief of Staff of the United States Army, Governor-General of the Philippines
Louis T. Wrightresearcher, practitioner, first black Fellow of the American College of Surgeons[37]
David WuMember of the U.S. House of Representatives (1999–2011)
Jeffries Wymananatomist
Alfred Worcestergeneral practitioner
Mark Schuster1988Dean and Founding CEO, Kaiser Permanente Bernard J. Tyson School of Medicine
Patrick Tyrance1997orthopedic surgeon, former Academic All American linebacker for the Nebraska Cornhuskers football team, picked by the Los Angeles Rams in the 1991 NFL draft[38][39]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Facts and Figures". Harvard Medical School. Harvard University. Archived from the original on March 24, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "The History of HMS". hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  3. ^ "Best Medical Schools: Research". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  4. ^ "HMS Affiliates - Harvard Medical School". hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  5. ^ a b Morison, Samuel Eliot (1930). The Development of Harvard University since the inauguration of President Eliot, 1869-1929. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 555–594 & Preface.
  6. ^ "History of Harvard Medicine". medstudenthandbook.hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  7. ^ "The History of HMS - Harvard Medical School". hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  8. ^ "Harvard Medical School — History". Archived from the original on May 5, 2007. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
  9. ^ "Countway Medical Library — Records Management — Historical Notes". Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
  10. ^ "History of Harvard Medicine". Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Beecher, Henry Knowles (1977). Medicine at Harvard : the first three hundred years. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England. pp. 460–481.
  12. ^ First class of women admitted to Harvard Medical School, 1945 (Report). Countway Repository, Harvard University Library. Archived from the original on June 23, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  13. ^ a b Soucheray, Stephanie. "A friendship endures from Yale to Harvard". Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on January 29, 2022. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  14. ^ Nolen, LaShyra "Lash". "Being a 'First' Is My Great Honor. But It's Not Enough". Teen Vogue. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  15. ^ "MD Program". meded.hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  16. ^ "Admissions at a Glance". meded.hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on January 27, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  17. ^ "PhD Degree Programs". hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on July 9, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  18. ^ "Harvard Integrated Life Sciences". gsas.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  19. ^ "Master's Degree Programs". hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  20. ^ "Certificate Programs". postgraduateeducation.hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  21. ^ "FAQs". postgraduateeducation.hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on February 6, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
  22. ^ "Pathways". meded.hms.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on May 9, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  23. ^ "John R. Adler, MD | Stanford Medicine". med.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 26, 2015.
  24. ^ "Dr. Harold Amos, 84; Mentor to Aspiring Minority Physicians". Los Angeles Times. March 8, 2003. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  25. ^ "Arie Belldegrun M.D. | David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA". People.healthsciences.ucla.edu. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2013.
  26. ^ Pearce, Jeremy. "Dr. Ira B. Black, 64, Leader in New Jersey Stem Cell Effort, Dies" Archived October 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, January 12, 2006. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
  27. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang. "Hallowell Davis, 96, an Explorer Who Charted the Inner Ear, Dies" Archived February 9, 2018, at the Wayback Machine, New York Times, September 10, 1992. Accessed July 19, 2010.
  28. ^ a b Menand, Louis (2001), The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pp. 7–9, ISBN 0-374-52849-7
  29. ^ Murray, Joseph E. M.D., Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Archived February 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, October 2004, Volume 114, accessed March 20, 2011.
  30. ^ Howard Atwood Kelly, Walter Lincoln Burrage, American Medical Biographies (1920) pg. 527 https://books.google.com/books?id=SIRIAQAAMAAJ
  31. ^ "MTV Original TV Shows, Reality TV Shows - MTV". Archived from the original on April 7, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  32. ^ Johnson, Dirk (January 20, 1990). "Man in the News: Woodrow Augustus Myers Jr.; A Commissioner Who Knows Strife". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 8, 2019. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
  33. ^ Business Daily Africa (2017). "Top 40 Women Under 40 in Kenya" (PDF). Nairobi: Nation Media Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 11, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
  34. ^ "Jill Stein (G-R) Candidate for Governor". Archived from the original on March 29, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  35. ^ Grosfeld, Jay L.; Othersen, H. Beimann (2009). "A tribute to Orvar Swenson on his 100th birthday". Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 44 (2): 475. doi:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2009.01.004. PMID 19231562.
  36. ^ "Our History: Former Faculty: Wax, Amy L. (1994-2001); Tenured faculty at the University of Virginia School of Law through its history." Archived April 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, University of Virginia School of Law.
  37. ^ Medicine: Negro Fellow Time, October 29, 1934
  38. ^ "Pat Tyrance". Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017.
  39. ^ "Tyrance Earns Spot in Academic All-America Hall". Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 25, 2017.

External links

Media files used on this page

Harvard Medical School seal.svg

A seal for Harvard Medical School, the graduate medical school of Harvard University, as used by the School in multiple official publications.

Bulletin of the Warren Anatomical Museum (1910) (14760804254).jpg
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Cabinet 21A

Identifier: bulletinofwarren00harv (find matches)
Title: Bulletin of the Warren Anatomical Museum
Year: 1910 (1910s)
Authors: Harvard Medical School Whitney, William F
Subjects: Warren Anatomical Museum Anatomy, Pathological Museums Anatomy Pathology
Publisher: Boston : (Harvard Medical School)
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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Text Appearing Before Image:
l appearances of 8194. The limbsare very short and the nose is very much depressed at its root. The fat tissueis well developed. 7864. Bones. Cretinism. The pelvis and bones of the lower extrem-ities, in fluid. The long bones are flattened, very much bent and the cartilaginous endsextremely enlarged. The pelvis is shallow. From an infant at term. 1882. Dr. W. L. Richardson. 1558. Skull. Cretinism. A skull which is low, large posteriorly andbulging upon each side of the median line from just behind the vertex.From an adult from the Haut-valais. 5544. Skeleton. Osteomalacia. An articulated skeleton. The pelvis and long bones of the lower extremities are very much deform-ed, the position of the sacrum being horizontal, and the broad, thin, sickle-shaped fibulae very characteristic. There is marked lateral curvature of thespine. The head, upper extremities and feet are well formed, and the thoraxvery nearly so. From an adult female. 1857. BONES.—CONGENITAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISEASES. 23
Text Appearing After Image:
Cabinet No. 21 A. 24 BONES. CONGENITAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISEASES. 1545. Skeleton. Osteomalacia. The entire skeleton, dried. The bones of the extremities are very short, due to multiple fractures,which are strongly united. The thorax is compressed and there are numerousfractures of the ribs. The pelvis is very small and compressed so that theinner surface of the ilium nearly touches the sacrum. The whole skeleton,excepting the head, is more or less atrophied, and many of the bones whensoaked in water for preparation were very soft. From an Indian 21 years old. His mode of locomotion was by a largewooden bowl in which he sat and moved the bowl by advancing first one sideand then the other by means of his hands. 1874. Dr. J. C. Warren. 5077. Skeleton. Rachitis. The skull is sufficiently well formed. The whole spine is curved some-what backward, but not laterally, and the acetabula are pushed in, so as toencroach upon the cavity of the pelvis. All of the long bones are more or lesscurved

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The new Massachusetts Medical College in Grove St., Boston, by William Comely Sharp, W. Sharp & Co Lith, c. 1840s, from the Digital Commonwealth - commonwealth 37720s00b.jpg
The new Massachusetts Medical College in Grove St., Boston, by William Comely Sharp, W. Sharp & Co Lith, c. 1840s, from the Digital Commonwealth - commonwealth 37720s00b. (https://www.digitalcommonwealth.org/search/commonwealth:37720s00b)
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Massachusetts Medical College, Mason St., Boston. Annin & Smith, engraver (printmaker) Penniman, John Ritto (ca.1782-1841), United States, artist

Guild, Jacob, architect