Greater Boston

Boston Combined Statistical Area
Boston–Worcester–Providence
Boston
Coordinates:42°21′18″N 71°03′54″W / 42.35500°N 71.06500°W / 42.35500; -71.06500Coordinates:42°21′18″N 71°03′54″W / 42.35500°N 71.06500°W / 42.35500; -71.06500
Country United States
State(s)
Principal cities
Population
 (2020)
 • Total8,466,186 (CSA)
4,941,632 (MSA)
 • Rank
  • Ranked 6th in the US for Combined Statistical Areas
  • Ranked 10th in the US for Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Time zoneEST
Area code(s)617, 781, 857, 339, 978, 508, 351, 774, 603, 401

Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston (the capital of the U.S. state of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England) and its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the Northeast megalopolis, so Greater Boston means both a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and a combined statistical area (CSA), which is broader. The MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast and Cape Cod; the CSA additionally includes the municipalities of Providence (capital of Rhode Island), Manchester (the largest city in the U.S. state of New Hampshire), Worcester (the second largest city in Massachusetts and in New England), the South Coast region, and Cape Cod. While the city of Boston covers 48.4 square miles (125 km2) and has 675,647 residents as of the 2020 census, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas and the CSA has a more than 8.4 million people, making it one of the most populous such regions in the U.S. The CSA is one of two in Massachusetts, the other being Greater Springfield. Greater Boston is the only CSA in New England that lies in three states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island).

Some of Greater Boston's most well-known contributions involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. Greater Boston has been influential upon American history and industry. The region and the state of Massachusetts are global leaders in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.[1]

As of 2020, 64% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan region, and 88% of Massachusetts' population lives in the Boston Combined Statistical Area. Greater Boston is ranked tenth in population among US metropolitan statistical areas, home to 4,941,632 people as of the 2020 United States Census, and sixth among combined statistical areas, with a population of 8,466,186. The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history, particularly American literature,[2] politics, and the American Revolution.

Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.[3] In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty"[4] for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.

The Greater Boston region has played a powerful scientific, commercial, and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, the region was a center for the abolitionist, temperance,[5] and transcendentalist[6] movements.[7] In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Boston.[8] Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the Boston region, including the Adams and Kennedy families.

Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States,[9] with the largest financial endowment of any university,[10] and whose Law School has spawned a contemporaneous majority of United States Supreme Court Justices.[11] Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010.[12][13] Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.[14]

Definitions

Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area and Red represents the City of Boston.

Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC)

The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council.[15] The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions. These include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. In 2013, the population of the MAPC district was 3.2 million, which was 48% of the total population of Massachusetts,[16] in an area of 1,422 square miles (3,680 km2),[15] of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space.[17]

The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core (Boston), Minuteman (Route 2 corridor), MetroWest (Framingham), North Shore (Lynn), North Suburban (Woburn), South Shore (Route 3 corridor), SouthWest (Franklin), and Three Rivers (Norwood).

Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, and all of Bristol County; these areas have their own regional planning bodies. Bristol County is part of the Greater Boston CSA, as part of the Providence MSA.

New England City and Town Area (NECTA)

Cambridge and Boston; MIT and Kendall Square in the foreground, and Boston's Financial District in the background

Because New England's local governance model is organized around the smaller New England town unit, and has weak or non-existent county governments, the US Census Bureau organizes its urban regions in the New England around clusters of towns known as New England city and town areas (NECTAs) rather than around county borders as it does in the rest of the country. The set of towns containing the core urbanized area, along with surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area, is defined as the Boston–Cambridge–Nashua, MA–NH Metropolitan NECTA.[18] The Boston NECTA region is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below. The Boston, Framingham, and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941 (as of 2000).

  • Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA NECTA Division (92 towns)
  • Framingham, MA NECTA Division (12 towns)
  • Peabody–Salem–Beverly, MA NECTA Division (4 towns)
  • Brockton–Bridgewater–Easton, MA NECTA Division (Old Colony region) (8 towns)
  • Haverhill–Newburyport–Amesbury, MA–NH NECTA Division (Merrimack Valley region) (21 towns)
  • Lawrence–Methuen–Salem, MA–NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack Valley region) (4 towns)
  • Lowell–Billerica–Chelmsford, MA–NH NECTA Division (Northern Middlesex region) (15 towns)
  • Nashua, NH–MA NECTA Division (21 towns)
  • Taunton–Middleborough–Norton, MA NECTA Division (part of Southeastern region) (9 towns)
  • Lynn–Saugus–Marblehead, MA NECTA Division (5 towns)

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

Historical population
CensusPop.
1850650,357
1860830,99827.8%
1870978,34617.7%
18801,205,43923.2%
18901,515,68425.7%
19001,890,12224.7%
19102,260,76219.6%
19202,563,12313.4%
19302,866,56711.8%
19402,926,6502.1%
19503,186,9708.9%
19603,516,43510.3%
19703,918,09211.4%
19803,938,5850.5%
19904,133,8955.0%
20004,391,3446.2%
20104,552,4023.7%
20204,941,6328.5%
US Decennial Census

An alternative definition defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, using counties as building blocks instead of towns, is the Boston–Cambridge–Newton, MA–NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further subdivided into three metropolitan divisions. The metropolitan statistical area had a total population of 4,941,632 as of the 2020 census and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the metropolitan area are listed below.

Combined Statistical Area (CSA)

A wider functional metropolitan area based on commuting patterns is also defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Boston–Worcester–Providence combined statistical area. This area consists of the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Worcester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod, in addition to greater Boston. The total population for the extended region was estimated at 8,466,186 at the 2020 census. The following areas, along with the above MSA, are included in the combined statistical area:

Principal cities and towns

Winthrop, MA
Cities and towns

Plymouth County:

Bristol County:

Norfolk County:

Suffolk County:

Essex County:

Middlesex County:

Worcester County:

Boston metropolitan area

The Census Bureau defines the following as principal cities in the Boston NECTA[18] using criteria developed for what the Office of Management and Budget calls a Core Based Statistical Area:[19]

Largest cities and towns

Cities and towns in the Boston CSA with at least 50,000 residents:

RankCity2000
population
2010
population
2014
population[20]
% change
(2010 to 2014)
1Boston589,141617,594655,884+6.20%
2Worcester172,648181,045183,016+1.09%
3Providence173,618178,042179,154+0.62%
4Manchester107,006109,565110,448+0.81%
5Lowell105,167106,519109,945+3.22%
6Cambridge101,355105,162109,694+4.31%
7New Bedford93,76895,07294,845−0.24%
8Brockton94,30493,81094,779+1.03%
9Quincy88,02592,27193,397+1.22%
10Lynn89,05090,32992,137+2.00%
11Fall River91,93888,85788,712−0.16%
12Newton83,82985,14688,287+3.69%
13Nashua86,60586,49487,259+0.88%
14Warwick85,80882,67281,963−0.86%
15Cranston79,26980,38781,037+0.81%
16Somerville77,47875,75478,901+4.15%
17Lawrence72,04376,37778,197+2.38%
18Pawtucket72,95871,14871,499+0.49%
19Framingham66,91068,31870,068+2.56%
20Waltham59,22660,63263,014+3.93%
21Haverhill58,96960,87962,488+2.64%
22Malden56,34059,45060,859+2.37%
23Brookline57,10758,73259,115+0.65%
24Plymouth51,70156,46857,463+1.76%
25Medford55,76556,17357,437+2.25%
26Taunton55,97655,87456,544+1.20%
27Weymouth53,98853,74355,643+3.54%
28Revere47,28351,75554,157+4.64%
29Peabody48,12951,25152,376+2.20%
30Methuen43,78947,25552,044+10.13%

Demographics

St. Patrick's Day Parade in Scituate, Massachusetts, in Plymouth County, the municipality with the highest percentage identifying Irish ancestry in the United States, at 47.5% in 2010.[21] Irish Americans constitute the largest ethnicity in Greater Boston.
Boston's Chinatown, with its paifang gate, is home to many Chinese and also Vietnamese restaurants.
Boston gay pride march, held annually in June

Population density

The most densely populated census tracts in the Boston CSA (2010):[22]

RankCity or neighborhoodCensus tractPopulationPopulation density
/sq mi/km2
1Fenway–Kenmore104045,817110,108285,180
2Fenway–Kenmore104033,00387,828227,470
3Fenway–Kenmore104081,42685,137220,500
4Beacon Hill2023,64980,851209,400
5North End3011,95466,288171,690
6North End3021,66564,642167,420
7North End3042,45158,435151,350
8Cambridge35397,09056,819147,160
9Back Bay108012,78356,534146,420
10East Boston5025,23155,692144,240

Race and ethnicity

The 40 most diverse Census tracts in the Boston CSA:[22]

The 40 census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Hispanic or Latino:[22]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Black American:[22]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Asian American:[22]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Irish American:[23]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Italian American:[24]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Portuguese American:[25]

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with French or French Canadian listed as first ancestry:[26]

Other

Greater Boston has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at between 210,000 people,[27][28] and 261,000[29] or 5–6% of the Greater Boston metro population, compared with about 2% for the nation as a whole. Contrary to national trends, the number of Jews in Greater Boston has been growing, fueled by the fact that 60% of children in Jewish mixed-faith families are raised Jewish, compared with roughly one in three nationally.[27]

The City of Boston also has one of the largest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks fifth of all major cities in the country (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind Seattle, Atlanta, and Minneapolis respectively), with 12.3% of the city identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[30]

County2016 Estimate2010 CensusChangeAreaDensity
Essex County, Massachusetts779,018743,159+4.83%492.56 sq mi (1,275.7 km2)1,582/sq mi (611/km2)
Middlesex County, Massachusetts1,589,7741,503,085+5.77%817.82 sq mi (2,118.1 km2)1,944/sq mi (751/km2)
Norfolk County, Massachusetts697,181670,850+3.93%396.11 sq mi (1,025.9 km2)1,760/sq mi (680/km2)
Plymouth County, Massachusetts513,565494,919+3.77%659.07 sq mi (1,707.0 km2)779/sq mi (301/km2)
Suffolk County, Massachusetts784,230722,023+8.62%58.15 sq mi (150.6 km2)13,486/sq mi (5,207/km2)
Rockingham County, New Hampshire303,251295,223+2.72%694.72 sq mi (1,799.3 km2)437/sq mi (169/km2)
Strafford County, New Hampshire127,428123,143+3.48%368.97 sq mi (955.6 km2)345/sq mi (133/km2)
Total4,794,4474,552,402+5.32%3,487.40 sq mi (9,032.3 km2)1,375/sq mi (531/km2)

Higher education

Harvard University, a leading global university, is located in Cambridge, MA in Greater Boston

A long established center of higher education, the area includes many community colleges, two-year schools, and internationally prominent undergraduate and graduate institutions. The graduate schools include highly regarded schools of law, medicine, business, technology, international relations, public health, education, and religion. Greater Boston contains seven R1 Research Institutions as per the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. This is, by far, the highest number of such institutions in a single Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States.

Selected statistics

Changes in house prices for the Greater Boston area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.

Major companies

References:[31][32][33][34]

Companies along, inside or outside I-495, outside Route 128

Companies along or inside I-95 (Route 128), not including Boston

Major companies inside Boston proper

Sports

ClubSportLeagueStadiumEstablishedLeague titles
Boston BruinsIce hockeyNational Hockey LeagueTD Garden (Boston)19246 Stanley Cups
7 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston CannonsLacrosseMajor League LacrosseHarvard Stadium (Boston)20011 MLL Championship
Boston CelticsBasketballNational Basketball AssociationTD Garden (Boston)194617 NBA Championships
21 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston PrideIce hockeyNational Women's Hockey LeagueBright Hockey Center (Boston)20152 Isobel Cups
Boston Red SoxBaseballMajor League BaseballFenway Park (Boston)19019 MLB World Series Champions
14 American League Pennants
New England PatriotsFootballNational Football LeagueGillette Stadium (Foxboro)19606 Super Bowl Champions
11 AFC Champions
New England RevolutionSoccerMajor League SoccerGillette Stadium (Foxboro)19951 US Open Cup
1 SuperLiga

Annual sporting events include:

Transportation

Interstates

  • I-90
  • I-93
  • I-95
  • I-190
  • I-195
  • I-290
  • I-293
  • I-295
  • I-395
  • I-495

U.S. Routes

State Highways

  • Route 1A
  • Route 2
  • Route 2A
  • Route 3
  • Route 3A
  • Route 4
  • Route 9
  • Route 16
  • Route 18
  • Route 24
  • Route 25
  • Route 27
  • Route 28
  • Route 30
  • Route 38
  • Route 53
  • Route 58
  • Route 60
  • Route 62
  • Route 97
  • Route 106
  • Route 109
  • Route 110
  • Route 113
  • Route 114
  • Route 115
  • Route 117
  • Route 122
  • Route 123
  • Route 125
  • Route 126
  • Route 128
  • Route 129
  • Route 133
  • Route 135
  • Route 138
  • Route 139
  • Route 140
  • Route 146
  • Route 213
  • Route 225

Bridges and tunnels

  • Boston University Bridge, carrying Route 2
  • Callahan Tunnel, carrying Route 1A Northbound
  • Charles M. Braga Jr. Memorial Bridge, carrying Interstate 195
  • Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge, carrying Route 138
  • Fore River Bridge, carrying Massachusetts Route 3A
  • Harvard Bridge, carrying Route 2A
  • Longfellow Bridge, carrying Massachusetts Route 3, US Route 3, and the MBTA Red Line
  • North Washington Street Bridge, carrying Route 99
  • Sumner Tunnel, carrying Route 1A Southbound
  • Ted Williams Tunnel, carrying I-90
  • Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Tunnel, carrying I-93 and Routes 1 and 3 concurrently
  • Tobin Bridge, carrying Route 1
  • Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, carrying Interstate 93, Route 1 and Route 3 concurrently

Airports

Rail and bus

The MBTA district, with Commuter Rail lines in purple

The first railway line in the United States was in Quincy. See Neponset River.

The following Regional Transit Authorities have bus service that connects with MBTA commuter rail stations:

  • Brockton Area Transit Authority
  • Cape Ann Transportation Authority
  • Greater Attleboro Taunton Regional Transit Authority
  • Lowell Regional Transit Authority
  • Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority
  • MetroWest Regional Transit Authority
  • Montachusett Regional Transit Authority
  • Rhode Island Public Transit Authority
  • Worcester Regional Transit Authority

Ocean transportation

The Salem Ferry, 92 ft. Catamaran is photographed approaching its dock off Blaney Street at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site in Salem, Massachusetts, United States.

Geography

Climate

Climate data for Concord Municipal Airport, New Hampshire (1991−2020 normals,[a] extremes 1868–present)[b]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)72
(22)
74
(23)
89
(32)
95
(35)
98
(37)
101
(38)
102
(39)
101
(38)
98
(37)
92
(33)
80
(27)
73
(23)
102
(39)
Mean maximum °F (°C)52
(11)
54
(12)
66
(19)
82
(28)
90
(32)
93
(34)
94
(34)
92
(33)
89
(32)
79
(26)
69
(21)
57
(14)
96
(36)
Average high °F (°C)31.6
(−0.2)
34.8
(1.6)
43.6
(6.4)
57.5
(14.2)
69.3
(20.7)
77.8
(25.4)
83.0
(28.3)
81.7
(27.6)
73.7
(23.2)
60.9
(16.1)
48.4
(9.1)
37.1
(2.8)
58.3
(14.6)
Daily mean °F (°C)22.3
(−5.4)
24.7
(−4.1)
33.4
(0.8)
45.4
(7.4)
56.7
(13.7)
65.8
(18.8)
71.1
(21.7)
69.5
(20.8)
61.4
(16.3)
49.3
(9.6)
38.6
(3.7)
28.3
(−2.1)
47.2
(8.4)
Average low °F (°C)12.9
(−10.6)
14.7
(−9.6)
23.3
(−4.8)
33.3
(0.7)
44.1
(6.7)
53.7
(12.1)
59.2
(15.1)
57.2
(14.0)
49.0
(9.4)
37.8
(3.2)
28.7
(−1.8)
19.5
(−6.9)
36.1
(2.3)
Mean minimum °F (°C)−9
(−23)
−7
(−22)
2
(−17)
19
(−7)
29
(−2)
39
(4)
47
(8)
44
(7)
32
(0)
22
(−6)
12
(−11)
−1
(−18)
−12
(−24)
Record low °F (°C)−35
(−37)
−37
(−38)
−20
(−29)
4
(−16)
21
(−6)
30
(−1)
35
(2)
29
(−2)
20
(−7)
10
(−12)
−17
(−27)
−24
(−31)
−37
(−38)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.80
(71)
2.75
(70)
3.28
(83)
3.43
(87)
3.47
(88)
3.77
(96)
3.62
(92)
3.63
(92)
3.63
(92)
4.43
(113)
3.44
(87)
3.70
(94)
41.95
(1,066)
Average snowfall inches (cm)17.1
(43)
16.9
(43)
13.6
(35)
2.5
(6.4)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.8
(2.0)
2.5
(6.4)
14.3
(36)
67.7
(172)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.210.011.511.412.412.810.99.99.310.610.812.0132.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)8.17.65.21.30.00.00.00.00.00.21.66.330.3
Average relative humidity (%)67.966.064.862.065.070.971.874.576.372.873.372.369.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours162.8171.8210.5223.2258.4274.3295.8261.9214.7183.4127.8134.82,519.4
Percent possible sunshine56585756576064615754444856
Average ultraviolet index1245788763215
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[36][37][38]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[39]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)74
(23)
73
(23)
89
(32)
94
(34)
97
(36)
100
(38)
104
(40)
102
(39)
102
(39)
90
(32)
83
(28)
76
(24)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C)58.3
(14.6)
57.9
(14.4)
67.0
(19.4)
79.9
(26.6)
88.1
(31.2)
92.2
(33.4)
95.0
(35.0)
93.7
(34.3)
88.9
(31.6)
79.6
(26.4)
70.2
(21.2)
61.2
(16.2)
96.4
(35.8)
Average high °F (°C)36.8
(2.7)
39.0
(3.9)
45.5
(7.5)
56.4
(13.6)
66.5
(19.2)
76.2
(24.6)
82.1
(27.8)
80.4
(26.9)
73.1
(22.8)
62.1
(16.7)
51.6
(10.9)
42.2
(5.7)
59.3
(15.2)
Daily mean °F (°C)29.9
(−1.2)
31.8
(−0.1)
38.3
(3.5)
48.6
(9.2)
58.4
(14.7)
68.0
(20.0)
74.1
(23.4)
72.7
(22.6)
65.6
(18.7)
54.8
(12.7)
44.7
(7.1)
35.7
(2.1)
51.9
(11.1)
Average low °F (°C)23.1
(−4.9)
24.6
(−4.1)
31.1
(−0.5)
40.8
(4.9)
50.3
(10.2)
59.7
(15.4)
66.0
(18.9)
65.1
(18.4)
58.2
(14.6)
47.5
(8.6)
37.9
(3.3)
29.2
(−1.6)
44.5
(6.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C)4.8
(−15.1)
8.3
(−13.2)
15.6
(−9.1)
31.0
(−0.6)
41.2
(5.1)
49.7
(9.8)
58.6
(14.8)
57.7
(14.3)
46.7
(8.2)
35.1
(1.7)
24.4
(−4.2)
13.1
(−10.5)
2.6
(−16.3)
Record low °F (°C)−13
(−25)
−18
(−28)
−8
(−22)
11
(−12)
31
(−1)
41
(5)
50
(10)
46
(8)
34
(1)
25
(−4)
−2
(−19)
−17
(−27)
−18
(−28)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.39
(86)
3.21
(82)
4.17
(106)
3.63
(92)
3.25
(83)
3.89
(99)
3.27
(83)
3.23
(82)
3.56
(90)
4.03
(102)
3.66
(93)
4.30
(109)
43.59
(1,107)
Average snowfall inches (cm)14.3
(36)
14.4
(37)
9.0
(23)
1.6
(4.1)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
0.7
(1.8)
9.0
(23)
49.2
(125)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.810.611.611.611.810.99.49.09.010.510.311.9128.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)6.66.24.40.80.00.00.00.00.00.20.64.223.0
Average relative humidity (%)62.362.063.163.066.768.568.470.871.868.567.565.466.5
Average dew point °F (°C)16.5
(−8.6)
17.6
(−8.0)
25.2
(−3.8)
33.6
(0.9)
45.0
(7.2)
55.2
(12.9)
61.0
(16.1)
60.4
(15.8)
53.8
(12.1)
42.8
(6.0)
33.4
(0.8)
22.1
(−5.5)
38.9
(3.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours163.4168.4213.7227.2267.3286.5300.9277.3237.1206.3143.2142.32,633.6
Percent possible sunshine56575857596365646360495059
Average ultraviolet index1245788864215
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961−1990)[41][42][43]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[44]
Climate data for Boston, Massachusetts
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °F (°C)41.3
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.4
(3.5)
43.1
(6.2)
49.2
(9.5)
58.4
(14.7)
65.7
(18.7)
67.9
(20.0)
64.8
(18.2)
59.4
(15.3)
52.3
(11.3)
46.6
(8.2)
52.1
(11.2)
Source: Weather Atlas[44]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)70
(21)
72
(22)
90
(32)
98
(37)
96
(36)
98
(37)
102
(39)
104
(40)
100
(38)
88
(31)
81
(27)
77
(25)
104
(40)
Mean maximum °F (°C)59
(15)
58
(14)
67
(19)
79
(26)
87
(31)
92
(33)
95
(35)
93
(34)
88
(31)
79
(26)
70
(21)
62
(17)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C)38.3
(3.5)
40.5
(4.7)
47.7
(8.7)
58.9
(14.9)
68.9
(20.5)
77.7
(25.4)
83.6
(28.7)
82.2
(27.9)
74.8
(23.8)
63.8
(17.7)
53.2
(11.8)
43.4
(6.3)
61.1
(16.2)
Daily mean °F (°C)30.2
(−1.0)
32.0
(0.0)
38.9
(3.8)
49.3
(9.6)
59.1
(15.1)
68.2
(20.1)
74.4
(23.6)
73.0
(22.8)
65.6
(18.7)
54.4
(12.4)
44.5
(6.9)
35.5
(1.9)
52.1
(11.2)
Average low °F (°C)22.1
(−5.5)
23.5
(−4.7)
30.2
(−1.0)
39.6
(4.2)
49.2
(9.6)
58.8
(14.9)
65.2
(18.4)
63.9
(17.7)
56.5
(13.6)
45.1
(7.3)
35.8
(2.1)
27.6
(−2.4)
43.1
(6.2)
Mean minimum °F (°C)4
(−16)
7
(−14)
15
(−9)
29
(−2)
38
(3)
47
(8)
56
(13)
54
(12)
43
(6)
32
(0)
22
(−6)
12
(−11)
2
(−17)
Record low °F (°C)−13
(−25)
−17
(−27)
1
(−17)
11
(−12)
29
(−2)
39
(4)
48
(9)
40
(4)
32
(0)
20
(−7)
6
(−14)
−12
(−24)
−17
(−27)
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.96
(101)
3.44
(87)
4.90
(124)
4.29
(109)
3.37
(86)
3.81
(97)
2.91
(74)
3.59
(91)
4.17
(106)
4.18
(106)
4.27
(108)
4.65
(118)
47.54
(1,208)
Average snowfall inches (cm)10.3
(26)
10.5
(27)
6.4
(16)
0.6
(1.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
1.0
(2.5)
7.6
(19)
36.6
(93)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)11.210.311.611.712.210.89.39.19.110.29.611.9127.0
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)5.75.43.70.40.00.00.00.00.00.10.63.419.3
Average relative humidity (%)63.963.062.961.466.670.171.072.573.070.268.967.067.5
Average dew point °F (°C)16.3
(−8.7)
17.4
(−8.1)
25.0
(−3.9)
33.1
(0.6)
45.0
(7.2)
55.6
(13.1)
61.5
(16.4)
61.0
(16.1)
53.8
(12.1)
42.6
(5.9)
33.3
(0.7)
22.1
(−5.5)
38.9
(3.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours171.7172.6215.6225.1254.9274.1290.6262.8233.0208.7148.0148.62,605.7
Percent possible sunshine58585856576063616261505258
Average ultraviolet index1246788864215
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point, and sun 1961–1990)[46][47][48]
Source 2: Weather Atlas [49]
Climate data for Providence
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average sea temperature °F (°C)41.4
(5.2)
38.1
(3.4)
38.7
(3.8)
44.1
(6.7)
50.9
(10.5)
59.6
(15.3)
67.0
(19.4)
69.3
(20.7)
66.7
(19.3)
61.6
(16.4)
54.2
(12.3)
47.7
(8.8)
53.3
(11.8)
Source: Weather Atlas [49]


See also

  • Greater Boston League, a high school athletic conference in Massachusetts

Notes

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  2. ^ Official records for Concord were kept at downtown from September 1868 to April 1941 and at Concord Municipal Airport since May 1941; snow records date from December 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  4. ^ Official records for Boston were kept at downtown from January 1872 to December 1935, and at Logan Airport (KBOS) since January 1936.[40]
  5. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  6. ^ Official records for Providence kept at downtown from November 1904 to May 1932 and at T. F. Green Airport since June 1932.[45]

References

  1. ^ "Housing and Economic Development:Key Industries". mass.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  2. ^ Will Joyner (9 April 1999). "Where Literary Legends Took Shape Around Boston". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  3. ^ "The 1692 Salem Witch Trials". SalemWitchTrialsMuseum.com. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  4. ^ "Faneuil Hall". Celebrateboston.com. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  5. ^ "The Temperance Issue in the Election of 1840: Massachusetts". Teachushistory.org. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  6. ^ Packer, Barbara (2007). The Transcendentalists. University of Georgia Press; First edition (April 25, 2007). ISBN 978-0820329581.
  7. ^ "Images of the Antislavery Movement in Massachusetts". Masshist.org. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  8. ^ "Massachusetts court strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". Reuters. November 18, 2003. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  9. ^ "History of Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
  10. ^ Tamar Lewin (January 28, 2015). "Harvard's Endowment Remains Biggest of All". The New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  11. ^ Richard Wolf (March 16, 2016). "Meet Merrick Garland, Obama's Supreme Court nominee". USA Today. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  12. ^ "Kendall Square Initiative". MIT. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  13. ^ Lelund Cheung. "When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?". Boston Globe Media Partners, LLC. Retrieved December 1, 2016.
  14. ^ [1] Accessed May 9, 2016.
  15. ^ a b "About MAPC". Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
  16. ^ "Metropolitan Area Planning Council Strategic Plan 2015–2020" (PDF). Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-11. Retrieved 2017-04-22.
  17. ^ "Transportation Plan – Overview". Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2009. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
  18. ^ a b "Principal cities of New England city and town areas (NECTAs)" (XLS spreadsheet). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  19. ^ "Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas" (PDF). Office of Management and Budget. December 27, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
  20. ^ "City and Town Population for 2013". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
  21. ^ Jane Walsh (November 25, 2015). "The most Irish town in America is named using US census data". Irish Central. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". The New York Times. 13 December 2010.
  23. ^ "Irish as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  24. ^ "Italian as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  25. ^ "Archived copy". www.usa.com. Archived from the original on 1 October 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "French as First Ancestry Population Percentage Rank of Census Tract within 100 miles of Zip Code 02176". Usa.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  27. ^ a b Michael Paulson (2006-11-10). "Jewish population in region rises". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  28. ^ "Cities with the Largest Jewish Population in the Diaspora". adherents.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 1999. Retrieved 2009-11-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  29. ^ "Metro Area Membership Report". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  30. ^ "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company. 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
  31. ^ "2009 Globe 100 – Top Massachusetts-based employers". The Boston Globe. 2010-01-19. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009.
  32. ^ [2] Archived March 10, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Top Companies in Massachusetts on the Inc. 5000 - Inc.com". Inc.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  34. ^ [3] Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ "Who We Are & About Us - Vistaprint". News.vistaprint.com. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  36. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  37. ^ "Station: CONCORD MUNI AP, NH". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  38. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CONCORD MUNICIPAL AP, NH 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 11, 2014.
  39. ^ "Concord, New Hampshire, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  40. ^ ThreadEx
  41. ^ "Summary of Monthly Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  42. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  43. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for BOSTON/LOGAN INT'L AIRPORT, MA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  44. ^ a b "Boston, Massachusetts, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  45. ^ ThreadEx
  46. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  47. ^ "Station: Providence T F Green AP, RI". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 30, 2021.
  48. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for PROVIDENCE/GREEN STATE, RI 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  49. ^ a b "Providence, Rhode Island, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.

Further reading

  • Wilson, Susan (2005). The Literary Trail of Greater Boston: A Tour of Sites in Boston, Cambridge, and Concord, Revised Edition. Commonwealth Editions. ISBN 1-889833-67-3. An informative guidebook, with facts and data about literary figures, publishers, bookstores, libraries, and other historic sites on the newly designated Literary Trail of Greater Boston.
  • Warner, Sam, Jr. (2001). Greater Boston: Adapting Regional Traditions to the Present. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1769-1.

Media files used on this page

US 1.svg
600 mm × 600 mm (24 in × 24 in) U.S. Highway shield, made to the specifications of the 2004 edition of Standard Highway Signs. (Note that there is a missing "J" label on the left side of the diagram.) Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.)
Flag of the United States.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Boston.svg
Flag of Boston
Flag of Cambridge, Massachusetts.svg
Flag of Cambridge, Massachusetts, which contains a colorized version of the city's seal at its center, on a white background.
Widener Library.jpg
Author/Creator: Caroline Culler (User:Wgreaves), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Widener Library at Harvard University
MA Route 109.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 146.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 24.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Seal of New Hampshire.svg
Seal of New Hampshire.
Flag of Quincy, Massachusetts.svg
Flag of Quincy, Massachusetts showing a simplified city seal with gold border around flag. Reference photo: http://flagspot.net/flags/us-maqnc.html
MA Route 16.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 106.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 60.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 123.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 139.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MBTA Commuter Rail and funding district map.svg
Geographic map of the MBTA Commuter Rail system and the MBTA funding district. The original 14-town MTA district is shown in darkest pink, the 78-town MBTA district established in 1964 in medium pink, and the 175-town "forward funding" district established in 1999 as light pink. White areas are not part of the MBTA district but still pay state sales taxes which are partially used to fund the MBTA. Rhode Island, which is not part of the district but pays for service to 3 stations under the 1988 Pilgrim Partnership, is shown in light blue.
US 44.svg
600 mm × 600 mm (24 in × 24 in) U.S. Highway shield, made to the specifications of the 2004 edition of Standard Highway Signs. (Note that there is a missing "J" label on the left side of the diagram.) Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.)
Flag of Concord, NH.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: Fair use
Flag of Concord, the capital of New Hampshire
Kendall Square aerial.JPG
Author/Creator: Nick Allen, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Aerial view of Kendall Square and Area 4 prior to major redevelopment plans beginning in 2016.
MA Route 2.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 3A.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 213.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Winthrop ma.jpg
View of Winthrop, Massachusetts from the northeast, with Logan International Airport and the Boston skyline in the background. A causeway of the Boston, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad is visible parallel to the shore in the right center of the image.
MA Route 133.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Greater Boston Lg.PNG
Legend -
  • Red: City of Boston
  • Dark blue: Boston Metropolitan Area
  • Light blue: Greater Boston
MA Route 18.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 225.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners. Note: The specs specify Series D font for the numbers. However, that font does not fit when none of the characters is a one, and so those signs actually use Series C. This image is true to real signs, not the specs.
Flag of Worcester, Massachusetts.svg
Flag of the City of Worcester, Massachusetts
MA Route 38.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 53.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 138.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 140.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 128.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 9.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 1A.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 97.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 115.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Flag of Lowell, Massachusetts.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: Fair use

Flag of the City of Lowell

MA Route 122.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
St. Patrick's Day Parade, Scituate MA.jpg
Author/Creator: John Phelan, Licence: CC BY 3.0
St. Patrick's Day Parade, Scituate Massachusetts - on First Parish Road
US 3.svg
600 mm × 600 mm (24 in × 24 in) U.S. Highway shield, made to the specifications of the 2004 edition of Standard Highway Signs. (Note that there is a missing "J" label on the left side of the diagram.) Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.)
MA Route 135.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 3.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 113.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 117.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Downtown Providence Rhode Island 2008.jpg
Author/Creator: Kenneth C. Zirkel, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Downtown Providence Rhode Island in 2008
MA Route 125.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Salem Ferry.JPG
Author/Creator: Fletcher6, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Salem Ferry, Nathaniel Bowditch, approaches its dock in Salem, Massachusetts. Two Caterpillar diesel engines allow a top speed of 36 knots, making the trip to Boston in about 45 minutes in good weather. The Salem Ferry is a 92 foot long catamaran. It was purchased with the help of a $1.6 million Federal grant. Recently land was purchased to expand the dock and allow for a future cruise ship terminal. The western shore of Marblehead is visible in the background.
Boston Chinatown Paifang.jpg
Author/Creator: Ingfbruno, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Boston Chinatown. Inscription on gate is from Sun Yat Sen's calligraphy "天下為公" (Everything under the sun for the public)
Flag of Manchester, New Hampshire.gif
Flag of Manchester, Massachusetts. Adopted in 1996 but elements are from 1965.
MA Route 62.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 129.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 28.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MIT Charles River aerial.JPG
Author/Creator: Nick Allen, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Aerial view of the East Campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Charles River, facing Back Bay and central Boston. Bottom right is the Harvard Bridge.
MA Route 2A.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 30.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 25.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 110.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 4.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Seal of Massachusetts.svg
Seal of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
MA Route 126.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
MA Route 114.svg
750 mm by 600 mm (30 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect rectangle, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
US 20.svg
600 mm × 600 mm (24 in × 24 in) U.S. Highway shield, made to the specifications of the 2004 edition of Standard Highway Signs. (Note that there is a missing "J" label on the left side of the diagram.) Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.)
US 6.svg
600 mm × 600 mm (24 in × 24 in) U.S. Highway shield, made to the specifications of the 2004 edition of Standard Highway Signs. (Note that there is a missing "J" label on the left side of the diagram.) Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.)
MA Route 27.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.
Boston Skyline (pano) (19806818856).jpg
Author/Creator: Eric Kilby from Somerville, MA, USA, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
New construction at the Filenes site in Downtown Crossing is visible.
Were a gay and happy family wagon.jpg
Author/Creator: Melinda, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Wagon with poster "We're a GAY and HAPPY FAMILY"
MA Route 58.svg
600 mm by 600 mm (24 in by 24 in) Massachusetts Route shield, made to the specifications of the 1996 edition of Construction and Traffic Standard Details (sign M1-5). Uses the Roadgeek 2005 fonts. (United States law does not permit the copyrighting of typeface designs, and the fonts are meant to be copies of a U.S. Government-produced work anyway.) The outside border has a width of 1 (1 mm) and a color of black so it shows up; in reality, signs have no outside border. The specs actually do not show the curve on the outside border, instead making it a perfect square, but all signs I have seen round the corners.