Great Peace of Montreal

The Great Peace of Montreal
La Grande paix de Montréal
Grande Paix Montreal.jpg
Copy of the treaty including signatures
SignedAugust 4, 1701
LocationMontreal, Quebec, Canada
Signatories
Languages
  • French

The Great Peace of Montreal (French: La Grande paix de Montréal) was a peace treaty between New France and 39 First Nations of North America that ended the Beaver Wars. It was signed on August 4, 1701, by Louis-Hector de Callière, governor of New France, and 1300 representatives of 39 Indigenous nations.[1]

The French, allied to the Hurons and the Algonquians, provided 16 years of peaceful relations and trade before war started again. Present for the diplomatic event were the various peoples; part of the Iroquois confederacy, the Huron peoples, and the Algonquian peoples.[2]

This has sometimes been called the Grand Settlement of 1701,[3] not to be confused with the unrelated Act of Settlement 1701 in England. It has often been referred to as La Paix des Braves, meaning "The Peace of the Braves".

The Fur Wars

The foundation of Quebec City in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain, one of the first governors of New France, marked the beginning of the gathering of resources of the Great Northern forests by traders from Metropolitan France. Control over the fur trade became a high-stakes game among the Native American tribes, as all of them wanted to be the European's chosen intermediary. The "Fur-Wars" saw the Hurons and Algonquins, supported by the French, pitted against the Iroquois of the powerful League of Five Nations, who were supported first by New Netherlands, and later by the English when they took New Amsterdam in the 1660s and 1670s, renaming it New York City.

In the first half of the 17th century, the Dutch-allied Iroquois made substantial territorial gains against the French-allied First Nations, often threatening French settlements at Montreal and Trois-Rivières. In an attempt to secure the colony, in 1665 the Carignan-Salières Regiment was sent to New France. Their campaign in 1666 devastated a number of Mohawk communities, who were forced to negotiate a peace. A period of prosperity followed for France's colony, but the Iroquois, now supported by the English, continued to expand their territory westward, fighting French allies in the Great Lakes region and again threatening the French fur trade. In the 1680s the French became actively involved in the conflict again, and they and their allied Indians made significant gains against the Iroquois, including incursions deep into the heartland of Iroquoia (present-day Upstate New York). After a devastating raid by the Iroquois against the settlement of Lachine in 1689, and the entry the same year of England into the Nine Years' War (known in the English colonies as King William's War), Governor Frontenac organized raiding expeditions against English communities all along the frontier with New France. French and English colonists, and their Indian allies, then engaged in a protracted border war that was formally ended when the Treaty of Ryswick was signed in 1697. The treaty, however, left unresolved the issue of Iroquois sovereignty (both France and England claimed them as part of their empire), and French allies in the upper Great Lakes continued to make war on the Iroquois.

Prelude to peace

The success of these attacks, which again reached deep into Iroquois territory, and the inability of the English to protect them from attacks originating to their north and west, forced the Iroquois to more seriously pursue peace. Their demographic decline, aided by conflicts and epidemics, put their very existence into doubt. At the same time, commerce became almost nonexistent because of a fall in the price of furs. The Indians preferred to trade with the merchants of New York because these merchants offered better prices than the French.

Preliminary negotiations took place in 1698 and 1699, but these were to some degree frustrated by the intervention of the English, who sought to keep the Iroquois from negotiating directly with the French. After another successful attack into Iroquoia in early 1700, these attempts at intervention failed. The first conference between the French and Iroquois was held on Iroquois territory at Onondaga in March 1700. In September of the same year, a preliminary peace treaty was signed in Montreal with the five Iroquois nations. Thirteen First Nations symbols are on the treaty. After this first entente, it was decided that a bigger one would be held in Montreal in the summer of 1701 and all Nations of the Great Lakes were invited. Selected French emissaries, clergies and soldiers, all well-perceived by the First Nations, were given this diplomatic task. The negotiations continued during the wait for the big conference; the neutrality of the Five Nations was discussed in Montreal in May 1701. The treaty of La Grande Paix de Montreal of July 21 to August 7 of 1701[4] was signed as a symbol of peace between the French and the First Nations. In the treaty, the Five Nations agreed to remain peaceful between the French and the British during times of war together. It was a huge example of peace between different nations and honouring an agreement.

Treaty ratification

The first delegations arrived in Montreal at the beginning of the summer of 1701, often after long, hard journeys. The ratification of the treaty was not agreed to immediately due to the discussions between the First Nations representatives and Governor Callière's dragging on, both sides being eager to negotiate as much as possible. The actual signing of the document took place on a big field prepared for the special occasion, just outside the city. The representatives of each Nation placed their clan's symbol, such as turtle, wolf or bear, at the bottom of the document. A great banquet followed the solemn occasion, with a peace pipe being shared by the chiefs, each of them praising peace in turn. This treaty, achieved through negotiations according to First Nations diplomatic custom, was meant to end ethnic conflicts. From then on, negotiation would trump direct conflict and the French would agree to act as arbiters during conflicts between signatory tribes. The Iroquois promised to be neutral in case of conflict between the French and English colonies.

Aftermath

The treaty was highly symbolic for the aboriginal nations as the Tree of Peace was now established among all the Great Lakes' nations. Commerce and exploratory expeditions quietly resumed in peace after the signing of the treaty. The French explorer Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, Sieur de Cadillac left Montreal to explore the Great Lakes region, founding Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit (now Detroit) in July. Jesuit priests resumed their spiritual mission-based work in the north. The Great Peace of Montreal is a unique diplomatic event in the history of both North and South America. The treaty is still considered valid by the Indigenous people of the American First Nations tribes involved.

The French in negotiating followed their traditional policy in North and South America, where their relationship with some of the natives was characterized by mutual respect and admiration and based on dialogue and negotiation. According to the 19th-century historian Francis Parkman: "Spanish civilization crushed the Indian; English civilization scorned and neglected him; French civilization embraced and cherished him" [5]

Attendees and signatories

  • Haudenosaunee
    • Onondaga, Seneca, Oneida and Cayuga, represented by Seneca orators (Tekanoet, Aouenan, and Tonatakout) and by Ohonsiowanne (Onondaga), Toarenguenion (Oneida), Garonhiaron (Cayuga), and Soueouon (Oneida), who were signatories.
    • Mohawk, Teganiassorens
    • Sault St. Louis (Kahnawake) Mohawk, represented by L'Aigle (The Eagle)
    • Iroquois of La Montagne, represented by Tsahouanhos[6]
  • Amikwa (Beaver People), represented by Mahingan, and spoken for by the Odawas in the debates
  • Cree, or at least one Cree band from the area northwest of Lake Superior
  • Meskwaki (the Foxes or Outagamis), represented by Noro & Miskouensa
  • Les Gens des terres (Inlanders), possibly a Cree-related group
  • Petun (Tionontati), represented by Kondiaronk, Houatsaranti and Quarante Sols (Huron of the St. Joseph)
  • Illinois Confederation, represented by Onanguice (Potawatomi) and possibly by Courtemanche
    • Kaskaskia
    • Peoria
    • Tamaroa
    • Maroa
    • Coiracoentantanons
    • Moingwena
  • Kickapoo (attendance is disputed by Kondiaronk)[6]
  • Mascouten, represented by Kiskatapi
  • Menominee (Folles Avoines), represented by Paintage
  • Miami people, represented by Chichicatalo
    • Miamis of the St. Joseph River (Sakiwäsipi)
    • Piankeshaw
    • Wea (Ouiatenon),
  • Mississaugas, represented on August 4 by Onanguice (Potawatomi)
  • Nippissing, represented by Onaganioitak
  • Odawa
    • Sable Odawas (Akonapi), represented by Outouagan (Jean Le Blanc) and Kinonge (Le Brochet)
    • Kiskakons (Culs Coupez), represented by Hassaki (speaker) and Kileouiskingie (signatory)
    • Sinago Odawas, represented by Chingouessi (speaker) and Outaliboi (signatory)
    • Nassawaketons (Odawas of the Fork), represented by Elaouesse
  • Ojibwe (Saulteurs), represented by Ouabangue
  • Potawatomi, represented by Onanguice and Ouenemek
  • Sauk, represented by Coluby (and occasionally by Onanguice)
  • Timiskamings from Lake Timiskaming
  • Ho-Chunk (Otchagras, Winnebago, Puants)
  • Algonquians
  • Abenaki, represented by Haouatchouath and Meskouadoue, likely speaking for the entire Wabanaki Confederacy[6]

See "Nindoodemag": The Significance of Algonquian Kinship Networks in the Eastern Great Lakes Region, 1600-1701 (pp. 23-52) by Heidi Bohaker for a discussion of the significance of these pictographical signatures.

Commemoration

A square in Old Montreal was renamed Place de la Grande-Paix-de-Montréal to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the peace. Several locations in Quebec are named for the Petun leader Kondiaronk, one of the architects of the peace, including the Kondiaronk Belvedere in Mount Royal Park overlooking downtown Montreal.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Francis, Daniel. Voices and Visions. Oxford University Press. p. 82.
  2. ^ Charlotte Gray The Museum Called Canada: 25 Rooms of Wonder Random House, 2004
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-28. Retrieved 2013-09-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Gilles, Havard (2001). Great Peace of Montreal of 1701 : French-Native Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queens University Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 0-7735-2219-0.
  5. ^ Quoted in Cave, p.42
  6. ^ a b c Havard, Gilles; Aronoff, Phyllis; Scott, Howard (2001). The Great Peace of Montreal of 1701: French-native Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 119–121. ISBN 9780773522190. Retrieved 1 February 2016.

References

Media files used on this page

Royal Standard of the King of France.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Standard, raised in the presence of the King of France (used as a state flag by the Kingdom of France under the absolute monarchy). Used from around 1638 to 1790
Pavillon royal de la France.svg
Author/Creator: Oren neu dag (talk), Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal flag of France before the Revolution (heraldic banner of "France modern")
Grande Paix de Montréal 21 Signature des PANGICHÉAS ou PIANKASHAWS.svg
Une perche surmontée d'un scalp sert de signature pour le village des Pangichéas (Piankashaws).
Grande Paix Montreal.jpg
Copie du traité de paix de 1701. (Le document original du traité de paix de 1701 semble avoir disparu.) Pictogrammes des nations signataires : 1. Ouentsiouan représente la nation iroquoise des Onontagués et signe un échassier. 2. Pour les Tsonnontouan, c'est Tourengouenon qui appose la signature de la tortue. 3. Pour les Onneeiouts, la signature représente une fourche au milieu de laquelle se trouve une pierre. 4. Chez les Goyogouins (« peuple de la grande pipe », le dessin d'une pipe va de soi! 5. La marque de Kondiaronk, dit le Rat (un rat musqué), figure sur le traité de 1701. Un autre chef huron a pu apposer cette marque au nom de ce grand chef, mort deux jours avant la signature du traité. 6. L'ours, la signature du chef Kinongé, dit le Brochet, pour les Outaouais du Sable. 7. La marque des Abénaquis de l'Acadie, par le chef Mescouadoué. 8. L'ours, la marque des Outaouais Sinagos. 9. Pour les Gens du Sault, l'ours également, signature apposée par Haronhiateka. 10. La signature du chef des Gens de la Montagne est un chevreuil. 11. Le chef Kileouiskingié signe d'un poisson pour les Outaouais Kiskarons. 12. La fourche représente le lieu où vivent les Outaouais de la Fourche, à la confluence de trois rivières. 13. Représentés par Onanguicé, chef pouteouatami, les Mississagués (nation ojibwée) signent d'un oiseau-tonnerre. 14. Les Amikoués apposent la marque du castor. 15. Pour les Sauteux (Ojibwés), le chef Ouabangué appose la marque d'une grue. 16. Chez les Algonquins, on trouve deux signatures : un échassier ou une grue et, à côté, un être humain. 17. Une perche surmontée d'un scalp sert de signature pour le village des Pangichéas (Piankashaws). 18. La marque de Chichicatalo, chef très respecté chez les Miamis, regroupe deux symboles, dont une grue. 19. La marque du chef Outilirine pourrait représenter les Cris. En langue Crie, le suffixe -irin signie « homme ». 20. Représentés par Onanguicé, les Koueras Koueatenons (groupe illinois) signent d'un arc et d'une flèche. 21. La marque du village des Peorias (nation illinoise) est une tortue à longue queue. 22. L'emblème des Tapouaroas (groupe illinois). 23. L'emblème des Monisgouenars (nation illinoise), établi à la rivière des Moines. 24. Le village des Marouas (groupe illinois), signe d'une grenouille. 25. Pour les Pouteouatamis, la marque d'un chicot et trois racines. 26. Pour les Kaskaskias (nation illinoise), une plume encochée. 27. La marque du village des Ouiatanons (nation miamie) est une carrière. 28. L'esturgeon est la marque des Sakis (Sauks). 29. Chez les Outagamis, ou Renards, la signature est celle du... renard. 30. L'oiseau-tonnerre représente le symbole clanique des Puants. 31. La marque des Malominis (Folles Avoines) est celle d'un oiseau-tonnerre tenant une tige de folle avoine. 32. Le chevalier de Callière, Brochart de Champigny, et autres. (Notes tirées de : Alain Beaulieu et Roland Viau, La Grande Paix, Chronique d'une saga diplomatique, Montréal, Éditions Libre Expression, 2001, pp. 109-111.)
Armoiries de Montréal 1938.svg
Coat of arms of Montreal 1938-2017 (includes French fleur-de-lis, English rose, Scottish thistle, and Irish shamrock).
Grande Paix de Montréal 03 Signature des ONONTAGUÉS.svg
Signataire du traité de la Grande Paix de Montréal le August 0004.
Grande Paix de Montréal 13 Signature des SAUTEUX.svg
Marque : une grue. Le chef Ouabangué signe le traité.
Grande Paix de Montréal 17 Signature des PUANTS.svg
Marque : un oiseau-tonnerre

Les Puants sont la seule nation de langue siouenne à Montréal.

On les appelle aussi Otchagras ou Winnebagos (Ouinipégons), « le Peuple de l’Eau corrompue ».
Grande Paix de Montréal 32 Signature des ABÉNAKIS DE L'ACADIE.svg
La marque des Abénaquis de l'Acadie, par le chef Mescouadoué.
Coat of Arms of France.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of France
Grande Paix de Montréal 07 LES HURONS-WYANDOT-Marque-du-Rat.svg
Kondiaronk venait juste de décéder à la signature du traité de Paix. On a apposé sa marque pour lui.
Grande Paix de Montréal 24 Signature des CRIS.svg
La marque du chef Outilirine pourrait représenter les Cris. En langue Crie, le suffixe -irin signie « homme ».
Grande Paix de Montréal 15 Signature des SAKIS (OU SAUKS).svg
Marque : un esturgeon Les Sakis ou Sauks sont le « Peuple de l’embouchure » ou « le Peuple de la Terre jaune », dont le territoire se situe entre les lacs Supérieur et Michigan.
Grande Paix de Montréal 10 LES OUTAOUAIS KISKAKONS.svg
Marque : un poisson représente les Kiskakons. Kileouiskingié signe le traité.
Grande Paix de Montréal 14 Signature des AMIKOUÉS.svg
Marque : le castor. Les Amikoués ou « Nez percés » habitent la rive nord du lac Huron (île Manitoulin).
Grande Paix de Montréal 33 Signature des ALGONQUINS.svg
Chez les Algonquins, on trouve deux signatures : un échassier ou une grue et, à côté, un être humain.
Grande Paix de Montréal 34 Signature des gens du Sault.svg
Pour les Gens du Sault, l'ours également, signature apposée par Haronhiateka.
Grande Paix de Montréal 05 Signature des ONNÉIOUTS.svg
Signataire du traité de la Grande Paix de Montréal le August 0004.
Grande Paix de Montréal 11 LES OUTAOUAIS DE LA FOURCHE.svg
Marque : Une fourche représente La Fourche, à la confluence de trois rivières.
Grande Paix de Montréal 20 Signature des MALOUMINIS (FOLLES AVOINES).svg
La marque des Malouminis (Folles Avoines) est celle d'un oiseau-tonnerre tenant une tige de folle avoine.
Grande Paix de Montréal 27 Signature des PEORIAS.svg
La marque du village des Peorias (nation illinoise) est une tortue à longue queue.
Grande Paix de Montréal 31 Signature des KASKASKIAS.svg
Pour les Kaskaskias (nation illinoise), une plume encochée.
Grande Paix de Montréal 08 LES OUTAOUAIS DU SABLE.svg
Marque : un ours. Le chef Kinongé, dit le Brochet, signe le traité.
Grande Paix de Montréal 30 Signature des MAROUAS.svg
Le village des Marouas (groupe illinois), signe d'une grenouille.
Grande Paix de Montréal 22 Signature des MIAMIS.svg
La marque de Chichicatalo, chef très respecté chez les Miamis, regroupe deux symboles, dont une grue.
Grande Paix de Montréal 29 Signature des MONISGOUENARS.svg
L'emblème des Monisgouenars (nation illinoise), établi à la rivière des Moines.
InnuNation.svg
Author/Creator: TaraTaylorDesign, Licence: CC0
Flag of Innu Nation of Quebec and Labrador
Grande Paix de Montréal 04 Signature des TSONNONTOUANS.svg
Signataire du traité de la Grande Paix de Montréal le August 0004.
Grande Paix de Montréal 28 Signature des TAPOUAROAS.svg
L'emblème des Tapouaroas (groupe illinois).
Grande Paix de Montréal 26 Signature des Koueras Koueatenons.svg
Représentés par Onanguicé, les Koueras Koueatenons (groupe illinois) signent d'un arc et d'une flèche.
Grande Paix de Montréal 23 Signature des OUIATANONS.svg
La marque du village des Ouiatanons (nation miamie) est une carrière.
Grande Paix de Montréal 16 Signature des OUTAGAMIS ou RENARDS.svg
Marque : un renard Les Outagamis ou Renards s’appellent eux-mêmes Meskwakihug, « Peuple de la terre rouge ».
Grande Paix de Montréal 25 Signature des POUTÉOUATAMIS.svg
Pour les Pouteouatamis, la marque d'un chicot et trois racines.
Grande Paix de Montréal 01 Signature du Chevalier de Callières.svg
Signataire du traité de la Grande Paix de Montréal le August 0004.
Grande Paix de Montréal 06 LES GOYOGOUINS.svg
Les Goyogouins sont appelés la nation de la Grande Pipe.
Grande Paix de Montréal 35 Signature des gens de la montagne.svg
La signature du chef des Gens de la Montagne est un chevreuil.