Global Polio Eradication Initiative
|Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI)|
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is an initiative created in 1988, just after the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate the disease poliomyelitis. Led by the World Health Organization, it is the largest international public health initiative in history.
In 1987 Rotary International had begun a campaign to raise U.S. $100 million by its 100th anniversary, for the purpose of dealing with global polio. The following year the World Health Assembly voted for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. At the time there were 125 countries with endemic polio. Efforts were built upon those used to control wild poliovirus in the Americas in the early 1980s and lessons from smallpox eradication. Its first coordinator was Nick Ward.
Strategy and structure
The strategy for the eradication of polio rests on immunising every at risk child until there is no one left for the disease to transmit to and the disease eventually dies out. The Initiative is spearheaded by the following organisations in the form of multistakeholder governance:
- WHO (World Health Organization) who are responsible for planning, technical direction, surveillance and eradication certification.
- Rotary International whose responsibilities include fundraising, advocacy, and volunteer recruitment.
- The CDC who are in charge of deploying scientists and public health experts to WHO and UNICEF.
- UNICEF is in charge of the distribution of the vaccine and helping countries develop communication and awareness strategies.
- The Gates Foundation as well provided a large portion of the funding.
Key tactics used by the GPEI include strengthening childhood immunisation through oral vaccines, conducting surveillance through investigation of acute flaccid paralysis cases among children under 15 years old (in order to determine areas where the virus is truly eradicated), and conducting "mop up" campaigns in areas where cases of polio have been identified.
At the peak of its work, the programme directly employed 4000 people across 75 countries and managed a budget of near U.S. $1 billion.
As of 2021, the GPEI had raised 18 billion dollars in funding with annual contributions around 800 million to 1 billion dollars. Around 30% of the funding came from the Gates Foundation 30% from developed governments, 27% from countries at risk of polio, and the rest was made up of donations from non profits, private funders, and other foundations. 
In 1995 the Global Certification Commission was created to oversee the certification of the eradication of wild-type poliovirus transmissions. Certification for the six WHO regions requires all of the countries in that region to be certified by the commission. By the year 2000 both the regions of the Western Pacific and the Americas met the criteria to be certified free of polio transmissions. By 2012 the initial number of estimated cases in 1988 of 350,000 across 125 endemic countries had dropped to 650 confirmed cases. As of 2020 five of the six WHO regions are now certified polio eradicated (Europe, the Americas, Africa, South-East Asian, Western Pacific Region). India was certified polio free in 2014. and Africa was declared polio free in 2020. The only countries with endemic polio are Afghanistan and Pakistan as of 2021.
- Eradication of infectious diseases
- The Final Inch, a short documentary about the effort to eradicate polio
- List of diseases eliminated from the United States
- Aylward, Bruce; Tangermann, Rudolf (December 30, 2011). "The global polio eradication initiative: Lessons learned and prospects for success". Vaccine. Smallpox Eradication after 30 Years: Lessons, Legacies and Innovations. 29: D80–D85. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.10.005. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 22486981.
- Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J.; et al. (December 16, 2010). "Economic analysis of the global polio eradication initiative". Vaccine. 29 (2): 334–343. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.10.026. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 21029809.
- Brookes, Tim (2007). The End of Polio?: Behind the Scenes of the Campaign to Vaccinate Every Child on the Planet. American Public Health Association. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-87553-186-1.
- Hall, Robert G. (2011). "5. Political and social determinants of disease eradication". In Cochi, Stephen L.; Dowdle, Walter R. (eds.). Disease Eradication in the 21st Century: Implications for Global Health. Cambridge: The MIT Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-0-262-01673-5.
- "Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication". Fifteenth meeting of the European Regional Certification Commission Copenhagen, 19–21 June 2002, p. 25
- "Unicef's Engagement in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative" (PDF). Unicef.org. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- Wassilak/Orenstein, Steven/Walter (2010). "Challenges faced by the global polio eradication initiative". Expert Review of Vaccines. 9 (5): 447–449. doi:10.1586/erv.10.45. PMID 20450316. S2CID 37377866.
- Aylward, Bruce (2011). "2. Lessons from the late stages of the global polio eradication initiative". In Cochi, Stephen L.; Dowdle, Walter R. (eds.). Disease Eradication in the 21st Century: Implications for Global Health. Cambridge: The MIT Press. pp. 13–24. ISBN 978-0-262-01673-5.
- "GPEI-Historical Contributions, 1988-2020".
- "Vaccination funding landscape". Givewell.org. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- Technical Consultative Group to the World Health Organization on the Global Eradication of Poliomyelitis (2002). ""Endgame" Issues for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 34 (1): 72–77. doi:10.1086/338262. PMID 11731948.
- "Marking five years of polio-free certification, WHO South-East Asia Region uses polio legacy to enhance overall immunization".
- "Africa eradicates wild poliovirus".
- "Data Monitoring". Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
Media files used on this page
During a polio outbreak vaccination campaign, Dr. Sohail Ahmed, a Pakistan FELTP graduate, checks children for a finger mark indicating polio vaccination. Submitted by Sohail Ahmed – Pakistan.
During a polio campaign, Dr. Muhammad Furqan Nabil gives a morning briefing on how to vaccinate children, finger marking, and filing of records. Submitted by Furqan Nabil – Pakistan.
In April 2014, Nigeria FELTP resident Dr. Mariam Florence Ogo examines a 12-year-old child affected by polio during a supportive supervision visit at an underserved mobile settlement in Manjekin, Adamawa, Nigeria. Nigeria FELTP residents are working to eradicate polio from Nigeria through the National Stop Transmission of Polio program. Submitted by Mariam Florence Ogo – Nigeria.
Author/Creator: Anxietycello, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Dracunculiasis and Poliomyelitis cases per year. Data from WHO.
During a polio eradication campaign in Egypt, an FETP resident supervises the vaccination of children at a health office in Gharbia, in April 2014. Influenza health education poster apper in the background. Submitted by Mai Mohamed – Egypt.
As part of a USAID-supported polio initiative, a vaccinator in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) administers the oral polio vaccine March 23 in the Commune of Ndjili, Kinshasa. On that day, Minister of Health, Victor Makwenge Kaput officially launched a vaccination campaign against the wild polio virus in the capital city.Photo Credit: USAID/A. Mukeba