Federal republic

A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.[1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defense, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics.[2] Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.

Contemporary

CountryOfficial name and styleAdministrative divisionsForm of government
 ArgentinaArgentine RepublicProvinces (23) and autonomous city (1)Presidential system
 Austria[3]Republic of AustriaStates (9)Parliamentary republic
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[4]Bosnia and HerzegovinaEntities (2) and self-governing district (1)Parliamentary republic
 Brazil[5]Federative Republic of BrazilStates (26) and federal district (1)Presidential system
 ComorosUnion of the ComorosAutonomous islands (3)Presidential system
 Ethiopia[6]Federal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaRegions (10) and chartered cities (2)Parliamentary republic
 Germany[7]Federal Republic of GermanyStates (16)Parliamentary republic
 India[8]Republic of IndiaStates (28) and union territories (8)Parliamentary republic
 IraqRepublic of IraqGovernorates (19)Parliamentary republic
 Mexico[9]United Mexican StatesStates (31) and autonomous entity (1)Presidential system
 MicronesiaFederated States of MicronesiaStates (4)Presidential system
   Nepal[10]Federal Democratic Republic of NepalProvinces (7)Parliamentary republic
 Nigeria[11]Federal Republic of NigeriaStates (36) and federal territory (1)Presidential system
 Pakistan[12]Islamic Republic of PakistanProvinces (4), autonomous territories (2) and federal territory (1)Parliamentary republic
 Russia[13]Russian FederationFederal subjects (85)Semi-presidential system
 SomaliaFederal Republic of SomaliaFederal member states (5)Parliamentary republic
 South SudanRepublic of South SudanStates (10), administrative areas (2) and area with special administrative status (1)Presidential system
 SudanRepublic of the SudanStates (18)Provisional government
  Switzerland[14]Swiss ConfederationCantons (26)Parliamentary republic
 United States[15]United States of AmericaStates (50) and federal district (1)Presidential system
 Venezuela[16]Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaStates (23) and capital district (1)Presidential system

Historical

CountryOfficial name and stylePeriod of federal form of governmentAdministrative divisions
 Dutch RepublicRepublic of the Seven United Netherlands1581–1795Provinces
 Gran ColombiaRepublic of Colombia1819–1831
Federal Republic of Central AmericaFederal Republic of Central America1823–1838
Granadine ConfederationGranadine Confederation1858–1863
United States of ColombiaUnited States of Colombia1863–1886States
Republic of ChinaRepublic of China1912–1928Provinces
Mountainous Republic of the Northern CaucasusMountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus1917–1922Republics
 Weimar RepublicGerman Reich1919–1933States
 East GermanyGerman Democratic Republic1949–1952States
 Soviet Union[a]Union of Soviet Socialist Republics1922–1991Republics
 Yugoslavia[17]Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1963)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1963–1992)
1945–1992Republics
 Serbia and MontenegroFederal Republic of Yugoslavia1992–2003Constituent republics
 BurmaUnion of Burma1948–1962States
 IndonesiaRepublic of the United States of Indonesia1949–1950[b]States
 CameroonFederal Republic of Cameroon1961–1972
 Czechoslovak Socialist Republic[17]Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960)
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1990)
1969–1990Republics
Czech and Slovak Federative RepublicCzech and Slovak Federative Republic1990–1992Republics

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Nominally a federal union of multiple national republics; in practice its government and economy were highly centralized until its final years.
  2. ^ The states lived on until a final treaty in 1956 in which Republic of South Maluku and the State of Eastern Sumatra agreed to devolve into the Republic of Indonesia.
  1. ^ "republic".
  2. ^ Forum of Federations: [1], Schram, Sanford. Handbook of Federal Countries: United States, pg 373–391, 2005.
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook: Austria, 14 May 2009
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 May 2009
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook: Brazil, 14 May 2009
  6. ^ CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia, 14 May 2009
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook: Germany, 14 May 2009
  8. ^ CIA World Factbook: India, 14 May 2009
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook: Mexico, 14 May 2009
  10. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nepal, 14 May 2009
  11. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nigeria, 14 May 2009
  12. ^ CIA World Factbook: Pakistan, 14 May 2009
  13. ^ "Text of the Russian constitution in English". Constituteproject.org.
  14. ^ CIA World Factbook: Switzerland, 14 May 2009
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook: United States, 14 May 2009
  16. ^ CIA World Factbook: Venezuela, 14 May 2009
  17. ^ a b "The CIA World Factbook officially dated October 15, 1991". Archived from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-02-05.

Media files used on this page

Flag of Austria.svg
Flag of Austria with the red in the Austrian national colours which was official ordered within the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) in the characteristic “Pantone 032 C” (since May 2018 the Red is ordered in the characteristic “Pantone 186 C”.)
Flag of Brazil.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Ethiopia.svg
Flag of Ethiopia
Flag of India.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence:
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
Flag of the United States.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Statenvlag.svg
Flag of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (known as the Hollandsche Vlag or Statenvlag).
Replaced orange with red, please see this discussion on the German Wikipedia for more information.
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Flag of Germany with a 3:2 ratio, instead of 3:5. The 3:2 version was used by the German Confederation and the Weimar Republic. See Flags of the World for more information.
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).
The design (blazon) is defined in Article 4 of the Constitution for the Republic of Yugoslavia (1946). [1]
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992–2006).svg
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro, was adopted on 27 April 1992, as flag of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003).
Flag of Yugoslavia (1992–2003); Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (2003–2006).svg
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro, was adopted on 27 April 1992, as flag of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2003).
Flag of the Gran Colombia.svg
Author/Creator: Milenioscuro, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of the Gran Colombia, used between October 6, 1821 and December 17, 1831.
Flag of the Mountain Republic.svg
Author/Creator: Arsenekoumyk, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Flag of the Mountain Republic
Flag of the Federal Republic of Central America.svg
Author/Creator: Huhsunqu, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Flag of the Federal Republic of Central America
Flag of China (1912–1928).svg
National Flag of the Republic of China, used between 1912–1928. Also known as "Five-colored flag".
Flag of Cameroon (1961-1975).svg
Flag of Cameroon, 1961-75