Epping, Essex

Epping
UK Epping highstreet.jpg
High Street, and church of St John the Baptist
Epping is located in Essex
Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown copyright and database right, CC BY-SA 3.0
Epping
Epping
Location within Essex
Area7.73 km2 (2.98 sq mi)
Population11,047 (civil parish, 2001)[1]
11,461 (civil parish 2011)[2]
• Density1,429/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
OS grid referenceTL455025
• London17 mi (27 km) SW
Civil parish
  • Epping
District
  • Epping Forest
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townEPPING
Postcode districtCM16
Dialling code01992
PoliceEssex
FireEssex
AmbulanceEast of England
UK Parliament
  • Epping Forest
WebsiteEpping Town Council

Epping is a market town and civil parish in the Epping Forest district of the County of Essex, England. The town is 17 miles (30 km) northeast from the centre of London, is surrounded by the northern end of Epping Forest, and on a ridge of land between the River Roding and River Lea valleys.

Epping is the terminus for London Underground's Central line. The town has a number of historic Grade I and II and Grade III listed buildings. The weekly market, which dates to 1253, is held each Monday.[3] In 2001 the parish had a population of 11,047[1] which increased to 11,461 at the 2011 Census.[2]

Epping became twinned with the German town of Eppingen in north-west Baden-Württemberg in 1981.[4]

History

High Street, Epping, in Leaves from a Hunting Diary in Essex (1900). St John's Church is at the left, and shows it before a new and present tower was constructed in 1909.

"Epinga", a small community of a few scattered farms and a chapel on the edge of the forest, is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086. However, the settlement referred to is known today as Epping Upland. It is not known for certain when the present-day Epping was first settled. By the mid-12th century a settlement known as Epping Heath (later named Epping Street), had developed south of Epping Upland as a result of the clearing of forest for cultivation. In 1253 King Henry III conveyed the right to hold a weekly market in Epping Street which helped to establish the town as a centre of trade and has continued to the present day (the sale of cattle in the High Street continued until 1961).[5]

The linear village of Epping Heath developed into a small main-road town and by the early 19th century development had taken place along what is now High Street and Hemnall Street. Hemnall Street was until 1894 in the parish of Theydon Garnon, as was the railway station.[6] Up to 25 stagecoaches and mailcoaches a day passed through the town from London en route to Norwich, Cambridge and Bury St. Edmunds. In the early 19th century, 26 coaching inns lined the High Street.[7] Two survive today as public houses: The George and Dragon and The Black Lion. The advent of the railways ended coach traffic and the town declined, but it revived after the extension of a railway branch line from Loughton in 1865 and the advent of the motor car.

A number of listed buildings, most dating from the 18th century, line both sides of the High Street although many were substantially altered internally during the 19th century. Some of the oldest buildings in the town are at each end of the Conservation Area, such as Beulah Lodge in Lindsey Street (17th century), and a group of 17th- and early 18th-century cottages numbered 98–110 on High Street.[8]

The original parish church, first mentioned in 1177, was All Saints' in Epping Upland, the nave and chancel of which date from the 13th Century.[9] In 1833, the 14th-century chapel of St John the Baptist in the High Road was rebuilt in the Gothic Revival style. It became the parish church of Epping in 1888 and was again rebuilt. A large tower was added in 1909.[10]

The town is known in some quarters for the Epping sausage, and, in the 18th and 19th centuries, for Epping butter.

Governance

Epping is part of the Epping Forest parliamentary constituency, represented by Conservative MP Eleanor Laing. From 1924 to 1945, the old Epping division of Essex (which included Woodford, Chingford, Harlow and Loughton as well as Epping) was represented by Winston Churchill. It now sits in the Epping and Theydon Bois division of Essex County Council which is Liberal Democrat held. The town is divided into two district council wards. Epping Hemnall encompasses most of the town south-east of Epping High Street (B1393) including Ivy Chimneys, Fiddlers Hamlet, Coopersale and Coopersale Street. The rest of Epping lies in Epping Lindsey and Thornwood ward, as does Thornwood in the adjacent parish of North Weald Bassett. Both wards elect three councillors each.

As well as the county and district councils, Epping has a town council consisting of 12 councillors, six each elected from Epping Hemnall and Epping Lindsey wards, one of which is elected Mayor of Epping and acts as Chairman of Council, as well as a civic and ceremonial head of the local community. Epping is a successor parish, created in 1974 when the Epping Urban District was abolished.

Epping Forest District Council's headquarters are located in the High Street, Epping.[11]

Geography

Epping is 17 miles (30 km) north-east of the centre of London, and towards the northern end of Epping Forest on a ridge of land between the River Roding and River Lea valleys. It is 3 miles (5 km) north-east of Loughton, 10 miles (16 km) north of Ilford, 5 miles (8 km) south of Harlow and 11 miles (20 km) north-west of Brentwood. Epping is north of the village of Theydon Bois.

The Town lies north-east of junction 26 (Waltham Abbey, Loughton A121) of the M25 motorway and south-west of junction 7 (Harlow) of the M11 motorway.

Community

Most of the population live in the built up area centred on and around the High Street (B1393) and Station Road. About a thousand people live in the village of Coopersale which, while physically separated from Epping by forest land, is still part of the civil parish. A few dozen households make up the hamlets of Coopersale Street and Fiddlers Hamlet. Much of the eastern part of the present parish was until 1895 in the parish of Theydon Garnon.[6]

Epping market attracts shoppers from surrounding villages and towns every Monday. A prominent building in Epping is the District Council's office with its clock tower, designed to bring balance to the High Street with the old Gothic Revival water tower at the southern end, built in 1872, and St John's Church tower in the centre. The centre of Epping on and around the High Street is a designated conservation area.[12]

Transport

A route 541 bus at Epping Tube Station
Railway track of the Epping Ongar Railway close to Epping tube station (Epping Forest Halt). Passengers cannot alight here due to the absence of a platform.

Epping is served by several rail, bus and road routes, as well as walking trails.

Rail and Tube

Epping tube station is a London Underground terminus, on the Central line.[13]

The station is in London fare zone 6, and accepts Oyster and contactless payment methods.[13] There is a car park at the station.[14] There is no Night Tube, as Central line services overnight on Fridays and Saturdays terminate at Loughton.[15]

The Central line links Epping directly with East London, Stratford, The City, Oxford Street, and destinations in West London.[13]

Until 1994, the Central line extended north from Epping to North Weald, Blake Hall (until 1981), and Ongar.[16][17] Much of the line is now served by a heritage railway - the Epping Ongar Railway. The heritage railway does not serve Epping tube station, but the museum runs a heritage London Bus to the Central line station on some open days.[18]

The nearest mainline stations to Epping are at Roydon, Harlow and Waltham Cross. Services from these stations are operated by Greater Anglia and link the area directly with London Liverpool Street, Stratford, Hertford, Cambridge and Stansted Airport.[19]

Bus

Epping is served by several bus routes.[20]

Central Connect operates the high-frequency 420 bus route between Harlow Bus Station and Ongar, via Epping tube station.

Other less frequent services include the 13A Waltham Cross to Epping St Margaret's Hospital, and the 418 Loughton to Epping service.

Road

Epping High Street is numbered the B1393. The route runs north-south through the town.

To the north, the B1393 carries traffic to the Hastingwood Interchange, where it meets the M11 motorway for Cambridge, Stansted Airport and London (Junction 7), as well as the A414 for Harlow and Chelmsford. Southbound traffic meets the Wake Arms roundabout for the A104 to Woodford and the North Circular Road, and the A121 for Loughton, Waltham Abbey and the M25 London Orbital.

The B181 runs east-west through Epping, between Roydon and North Weald.

The B182 runs along the south-western perimeter of the town, between Epping's Bell Common and Epping Upland.

These roads are maintained by Essex Highways.[21]

The M11 bypasses the town to the east, and the M25 bypasses Epping to the south. M25 traffic passes underneath Bell Common through a tunnel.

Walking and Cycling

Much of Epping Forest has unlimited walking access. The City of London Corporation, which looks after Epping Forest, has produced several waymarked walking routes for leisure.[22]

There are waymarked footpaths between the town and surrounding villages, such as Coopersale and Theydon Bois.

Epping and the surrounding forest is popular with cyclists.[23] There are no cycle lanes on the B1393, but road space is given to cyclists on the A104 between Walthamstow in London and the Wake Arms roundabout.

Education

  • Epping St John's School, the only secondary school in Epping, is a Catholic school. The school has an active charity fundraising group led by a Student Executive team. In 2020 two hundred students were awarded the Rotary Prize for 'Service to Schools was in Essex' by the local Epping Rotary Club.
  • Coopersale Hall School, a prep school at the end of Centre Drive Lane, Epping.[24]
  • Ivy Chimneys Primary School, a primary school located in Ivy Chimneys, Epping.
  • Epping Primary School
  • Coopersale and Theydon Garnon C.E. (Vol.Cont.) Primary School. A primary school located in Coopersale village.

Sport

Epping Town played in the Isthmian League until folding during the 1984–85 season. Epping FC currently play in the Essex Olympian Football League. Both have played at Stonards Hill. There are two cricket clubs at the south of the town: Epping Cricket Club at Lower Bury Lane, and Epping Foresters Cricket Club at Bell Common which is partly in the neighbouring parish of Epping Upland. Epping Foresters ground is on top of the M25 motorway (Bell Common Tunnel).

Notable people

See also

Sign showing twin towns of Epping

References

  1. ^ a b Parish Profile : Epping Archived 13 November 2004 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2 September 2016.
  3. ^ [1] Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Epping Town Guide". Eppingtowncouncil.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  5. ^ "Epping – Economic history and local government | A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (pp. 127–132)". British-history.ac.uk. 22 June 2003. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  6. ^ a b "Theydon Garnon: Introduction | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Epping – Introduction and manors | A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (pp. 114–127)". British-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  8. ^ EPPING Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "History of the Church". Eppinguplandchurch.org.uk. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  10. ^ "Epping – Churches, schools and charities | A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (pp. 132–140)". British-history.ac.uk. 25 June 1912. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  11. ^ information@eppingforestdc.gov.uk. "Epping Forest District Council Home Page". Eppingforestdc.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  12. ^ "Epping Conservation Area" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
  13. ^ a b c "Tube map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  14. ^ "Epping Underground Station". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 16 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  15. ^ "Night Tube and London Overground map" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  16. ^ "A Brief History of the Epping Ongar Railway". Epping Ongar Railway. Archived from the original on 20 November 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  17. ^ "London Underground map 1970". The London Tube Map Archive/Clarksbury.com. 1970. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  18. ^ "Visit". Epping Ongar Railway. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  19. ^ "National Rail train operators" (PDF). National Rail. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  20. ^ "Epping, outside Council Offices". Bus Times. Archived from the original on 16 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  21. ^ "Highways Information Map". Essex Highways. Archived from the original on 3 November 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  22. ^ "Walking and running in Epping Forest". City of London Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 August 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  23. ^ "Cycling in Epping Forest". City of London Corporation. Archived from the original on 25 September 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  24. ^ "Coopersale Hall School". Retrieved 14 April 2016.

Further reading

  • Epping Forest District Council (2005). Key Facts: 2001 Census (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2006.
  • Epping Town Guide. Plus Publishing Services (on behalf of Epping Town Council. 2002.
  • Jenkins (2001). Churchill. Macmillan. pp. 391–392. ISBN 0-330-48805-8.
  • Parish Profile: Epping – information about Epping from the 2001 census (PDF file)

External links

Media files used on this page

Essex UK location map.svg
Contains Ordnance Survey data © Crown copyright and database right, CC BY-SA 3.0

Map of Essex, UK with the following information shown:

  • Administrative borders
  • Coastline, lakes and rivers
  • Roads and railways
  • Urban areas

Equirectangular map projection on WGS 84 datum, with N/S stretched 160%

Geographic limits:

  • West: 0.06W
  • East: 1.32E
  • North: 52.11N
  • South: 51.42N
Flag of Essex.svg
Flag of Essex
Boundary (104857493).jpg
Author/Creator: Mike Knell from Zürich, Switzerland, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
A couple of hundred metres from Epping station. Across the fence - the London Underground. Note the electrification beginning again.
'Leaves from a Hunting Diary in Essex' p.265 - Epping High Street, Essex.jpg
High Street, Epping, Essex in Leaves from a Hunting Diary in Essex (1900). St John's Church is at the left, and shows it before a new and present tower was constructed in 1909.
Epping tube 01.jpg
Author/Creator: Oxyman, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Two Optare Solos run by Arriva Shires & Essex, their 2473 and 2474 (YJ56 ATY and YJ56 ATZ) at Epping tube station.
UK Epping highstreet.jpg
Author/Creator: PGA, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
High Street in Epping (Essex, UK)
Epping and Eppingen (420184318).jpg
Author/Creator: Ben Scicluna from England, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Signpost in Epping (United Kingdom), reading Twinned with Eppingen, Germany