Duke of Rothesay

Dukedom of Rothesay
Coat of Arms of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Arms of Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay
Creation datec. 1398
CreationThird
MonarchKing Robert III
PeeragePeerage of the United Kingdom
First holderDavid Stewart
Present holderPrince Charles
Remainder tothe 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
StatusExtant
Seat(s)Clarence House

Duke of Rothesay (/ˈrɒθ.si/ (listen); Scottish Gaelic: Diùc Baile Bhòid, Scots: Duik o Rothesay)[1] is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles. Charles' wife Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, is the current Duchess of Rothesay. Duke of Rothesay was a title of the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707, of the Kingdom of Great Britain from 1707 to 1801, and now of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is the title mandated for use by the heir apparent when in Scotland, in preference to the titles Duke of Cornwall (which also belongs to the eldest living son of the monarch, when and only when he is also heir apparent, by right) and Prince of Wales (traditionally granted to the heir apparent), which are used in the rest of the United Kingdom and overseas. The Duke of Rothesay also holds other Scottish titles, including those of Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. The title is named after Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, but is not associated with any legal entity or landed property, unlike the Duchy of Cornwall.

History

David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, the son of King Robert III of Scots, first held the dukedom from its creation in 1398. After his death, his brother James, later King James I, received the dukedom. Thereafter, the heir apparent to the Scottish Crown held the dukedom; an Act of the Parliament of Scotland passed in 1469 confirmed this pattern of succession.

The Earldom of Carrick existed as early as the 12th century. In 1306, Robert the Bruce, Earl of Carrick, became King Robert I of Scotland, with the earldom merging in the Crown. In the following years, successive Kings of Scots created several heirs apparent Earl of Carrick. The Act of 1469 finally settled the earldom on the eldest son of the Scottish monarch.

The office of the Great Steward of Scotland (also called High Steward or Lord High Steward) dates back to its first holder, Walter fitz Alan, in the 12th century. The seventh Great Steward, Robert, ascended the Scots throne as Robert II in 1371. Thereafter, only the heirs apparent to the Crown held the office. The 1469 Act also deals with this.

Between the 1603 Union and Edward VII's time as heir apparent, the style "Duke of Rothesay" appears to have dropped out of usage in favour of "Prince of Wales". It was Queen Victoria who mandated the title for use to refer to the eldest son and heir apparent when in Scotland, and this usage has continued since. This may have been as a result, direct or indirect, of the 1822 visit of King George IV to Scotland.

Lord of the Isles

Duke of Rothesay tartan, from the Vestiarium Scoticum.

Another of the non-peerage titles belonging to the heir apparent, that of Lord of the Isles, merits special mention. The Lords of the Isles, of the MacDonald family, originally functioned as vassals of the Scottish, or Norwegian, kings who ruled the Western Isles. The ambitious John MacDonald II, fourth Lord of the Isles, made a secret treaty in 1462 with King Edward IV of England, by which he sought to make himself an independent ruler.

In 1475, James III discovered the Lord of the Isles' actions, and the Lordship became subject to forfeiture. MacDonald later regained his position, but James IV again deprived him of his titles in 1493 after his nephew provoked a rebellion. In 1540 James V of Scotland granted the Lordship to the heirs apparent to the Crown.

Legal basis

An Act of the Parliament of Scotland passed in 1469 governs the succession to most of these titles. It provides that "the first-born Prince of the King of Scots for ever" should hold the dukedom. If the firstborn Prince dies before the King, the title is not inherited by his heir – it is only for the firstborn son, like the Duchy of Cornwall — nor is either inherited by the deceased duke's next brother, unless that brother also becomes heir apparent. Though the Act specified "King", eldest sons of queens regnant subsequently also held the dukedom. The interpretation of the word Prince, however, does not include women. The eldest son of the British Sovereign, as Duke of Rothesay, had the right to vote in elections for representative peers from 1707. (The 1707 Acts of Union between the Parliament of Scotland and Parliament of England formally unified both kingdoms to create the Kingdom of Great Britain). This right continued until 1963, when the UK Parliament abolished the election of representative peers.

Dukes of Rothesay

Holders of the Dukedom of Rothesay, with the processes by which they became Dukes of Rothesay and by which they ceased to hold the title:

Duke of RothesayParentFromToOther title held while Duke
DavidRobert III1398 (created)1402 (death)Earl of Atholl (1398), Baron Renfrew (?), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (trad.)
JamesRobert III1404 (created)1406 (acceded as James I)Earl of Carrick (1404)
AlexanderJames I1430 (birth?)1430 (death)
JamesJames I1431 (created)1437 (acceded as James II)
JamesJames II1452 (birth?)1460 (acceded as James III)
JamesJames III1473 (birth)1488 (acceded as James IV)Earl of Carrick and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
JamesJames IV1507 (birth)1508 (death)Earl of Carrick and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
ArthurJames IV1509 (birth)1510 (death)Duke of Albany (1509), Earl of Carrick and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
JamesJames IV1512 (birth)1513 (acceded as James V)Earl of Carrick and Baron/Lord Renfrew, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
JamesJames V1540 (birth)1541 (death)Earl of Carrick and Baron/Lord Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
James CharlesMary1566 (birth)1567 (acceded as James VI)Earl of Carrick and Baron/Lord Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469)
Henry FrederickJames VI1594 (birth)1612 (death)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1610), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Earl of Carrick and Baron Renfrew (1469), Lord of the Isles (1540), Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1469) (The italicised henceforth "Earl of Carrick, etc. 1469 & 1540)"
Charles, 1st Duke of Albany, 1st Duke of YorkJames VI1612 (death of brother Henry)1625 (acceded as Charles I)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1616), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Albany (1600), Duke of York (1605), Marquess of Ormond (1600), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Ross, Lord Ardmannoch (1600)
Prince Charles JamesCharles I1629 (birth)1629 (death)Duke of Cornwall (1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)
CharlesCharles I1630 (birth)1649 (acceded as Charles II)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1638), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)
James Francis EdwardJames VII1688 (birth)1702 (attainted)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1688–1702), Duke of Cornwall (1337–1702), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)
George, 1st Duke of CambridgeGeorge I1714 (father's accession)1727 (acceded as George II)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1714), Hereditary Prince of Hanover, Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Cambridge, Marquess of Cambridge (1706), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Milford Haven, Viscount Northallerton, Baron Tewkesbury (1706)
Frederick, 1st Duke of EdinburghGeorge II1727 (father's accession)1751 (death)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1729), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of Ely (1726), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1726)
GeorgeGeorge III1762 (birth)1820 (acceded as George IV)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1762), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)
Albert EdwardVictoria1841 (birth)1901 (acceded as Edward VII)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1841), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Dublin (1850)
George, 1st Duke of YorkEdward VII1901 (father's accession)1910 (acceded as George V)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1901), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of York (1892), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540), Earl of Inverness, Baron Killarney (1892)
EdwardGeorge V1910 (father's accession)1936 (acceded as Edward VIII)Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1910), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)
CharlesElizabeth II1952 (mother's accession)IncumbentPrince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1958), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Edinburgh (1947), Earl of Carrick, etc. (1469 & 1540)

Family tree

Current holder

Since 1952 Charles, Prince of Wales, has held the title of Duke of Rothesay, and uses it when in Scotland. He has the formal Scottish style of HRH The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay.

The personal arms of the current Duke were bestowed upon him in 1974 by the Queen. The escutcheon features on the 1st and 4th quarters the arms of the Great Steward of Scotland, with the 2nd and 3rd quarters featuring the arms of the Lord of the Isles.[2] The arms of the current Duke are distinguished from those of Clan Stewart of Appin through the addition of an inescutcheon displaying the arms of the heir apparent to the King of Scots, namely the Royal arms of Scotland with a three-point label. The full achievement of the current Duke's arms are a variation of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland used prior to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

References

  1. ^ Robert Lindsay (1814). J.G. Dalyell (ed.). "The Cronicles of Scotland". Books.google.ie. p. 638. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
  2. ^ "Standards". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 November 2021.

Media files used on this page

Flag of Scotland.svg
Flag of Scotland. Ratio 3:5. The blue used is "royal" blue (Pantone 300), following the Scottish Parliament's recommendation of 2003. See also the traditional colour: Flag of Scotland (traditional).svgFlag of Scotland (1542–2003).svg.
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Inescutcheon of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Inescutcheon of the Duke of Rothesay
Coronet of a British Duke.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coronet of a British Duke
Rothesay.ogg
Author/Creator: Mutt Lunker, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Pronunciation of "Rothesay".
Royal Standard of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Author/Creator: Proof02, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Standard of the Duke of Rothesay
Shield of Arms of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of the Duke of Rothesay as shown on "His Royal Highness's Scottish Banner". Text from official web-site of the Prince of Wales[1]:
"The Prince of Wales had the idea of incorporating his Scottish titles - Duke of Rothesay, Lord of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland - into a banner. It was designed in 1974 by Sir Iain Moncrieffe in his capacity as Albany Herald and approved by The Queen later that year. The standard, exclusively for use when The Prince is in Scotland, was first flown on 21st July 1976, when he visited Loch Kishorn, Wester Ross, to launch the Ninian Central oil platform production dock, the site of which was part of the ancient lordship of the Isles. The standard is also known as His Royal Highness's Scottish Banner. The first and fourth quarterings of the banner - blue and white chequered band across a gold background - represent the Great Steward of Scotland. The second and third quarterings - a black galley with red flags on a white background - represent the Lord of the Isles. Superimposed in the centre is a small gold shield with the red Lion Rampant within a red Royal Tressure on it, charged with a blue label of 3 points. This represents the Dukedom of Rothesay"
Charles Prince of Wales.jpg
Author/Creator: Mark Jones, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Prince Charles attending church with his family at Sandringham on Christmas Day 2017
Saint Patrick's Saltire.svg
This is "Saint Patrick's saltire", the third component of the Union Flag. It represents Ireland and is called "Saint Patrick's cross/saltire", though whether this was originally an authentic symbol of Saint Patrick is historically quite doubtful.
Prince of Rothesay tartan (Vestiarium Scoticum).png
Author/Creator: Celtus, Licence: CC BY 2.5
"Prince of Rothesay" tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum. Modern thread count: W4 R64 G4 R6 G4 R8 G32 R8 G32 R8 G4 R6 G4 R64 W2 R2 W4.
Personal Banner of the Duke of Rothesay.svg
Author/Creator: Proof02, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Heraldic banner "His Royal Highness's Scottish Banner" of the Duke of Rothesay (heir to Scottish throne). Text from official web-site of the Prince of Wales[1]:
"The Prince of Wales had the idea of incorporating his Scottish titles - Duke of Rothesay, Lord of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland - into a banner. It was designed in 1974 by Sir Iain Moncrieffe in his capacity as Albany Herald and approved by The Queen later that year. The standard, exclusively for use when The Prince is in Scotland, was first flown on 21st July 1976, when he visited Loch Kishorn, Wester Ross, to launch the Ninian Central oil platform production dock, the site of which was part of the ancient lordship of the Isles. The standard is also known as His Royal Highness's Scottish Banner. The first and fourth quarterings of the banner - blue and white chequered band across a gold background - represent the Great Steward of Scotland. The second and third quarterings - a black galley with red flags on a white background - represent the Lord of the Isles. Superimposed in the centre is a small gold shield with the red Lion Rampant within a red Royal Tressure on it, charged with a blue label of 3 points. This represents the Dukedom of Rothesay"