Developed country

  Developed countries
  Developing countries
  Data unavailable

World map showing country classifications as per the IMF[1] and the UN[2] (last updated 2022). "Developed economies" according to this classification scheme are shown in blue.

A developed country (or industrialized country, high-income country, more economically developed country (MEDC), advanced country[3][4]) is a sovereign state that has a high quality of life, developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. Most commonly, the criteria for evaluating the degree of economic development are gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), the per capita income, level of industrialization, amount of widespread infrastructure and general standard of living.[5] Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. A point of reference of US$20,000 in 2021 USD nominal GDP per capita for the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a good point of departure, it is a similar level of development to the United States in 1960.[6]

Developed countries have generally more advanced post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. They are contrasted with developing countries, which are in the process of industrialisation or are pre-industrial and almost entirely agrarian, some of which might fall into the category of Least Developed Countries. As of 2015, advanced economies comprise 60.8% of global GDP based on nominal values and 42.9% of global GDP based on purchasing-power parity (PPP) according to the IMF.[7]

Definition and criteria

Countries or territories by GDP (nominal) per capita in 2022.
  >$60,000
  $50,000 - $60,000
  $40,000 - $50,000
  $30,000 - $40,000
  $20,000 - $30,000
  $10,000 - $20,000
  $5,000 - $10,000
  $2,500 - $5,000
  $1,000 - $2,500
  $500 - $1,000
  <$500
  No data

Economic criteria have tended to dominate discussions. One such criterion is the income per capita; countries with the high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. Another economic criterion is industrialisation; countries in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry dominate would thus be described as developed. More recently, another measure, the Human Development Index (HDI), which combines an economic measure, national income, with other measures, indices for life expectancy and education has become prominent. This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. The index, however, does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking of some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.[8][9]

According to the United Nations Statistics Division:

There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.[10]

And it notes that:

The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.[11]

Similar terms

Terms linked to the concept developed country include "advanced country", "industrialized country", "'more developed country" (MDC), "more economically developed country" (MEDC), "Global North country", "first world country", and "post-industrial country". The term industrialized country may be somewhat ambiguous, as industrialisation is an ongoing process that is hard to define. The first industrialized country was the United Kingdom, followed by Belgium. Later it spread further to Germany, United States, France and other Western European countries. According to some economists such as Jeffrey Sachs, however, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century.[12]

Mathis Wackernagel calls the binary labeling of countries as "neither descriptive nor explanatory. It is merely a thoughtless and destructive endorsement of GDP fetish. In reality, there are not two types of countries, but over 200 countries, all faced with the same laws of nature, yet each with unique features."[13]

A 2021 analysis proposes the term emerged to describe markets, economies, or countries that have graduated from emerging market status, but have not yet reached the level equivalent to developed countries.[14] Multinational corporations from these emerging markets present unique patterns of overseas expansion and knowledge acquisition from foreign countries.

Economy lists by various criteria

Human Development Index (HDI)

Countries ranked in the "Very High" category of the Human Development Index (based on 2019 data, published in 2020)
  > 0.950
  0.900 – 0.949
  0.850 – 0.899
  0.800 – 0.849
  Not included

The UN HDI is a statistical measure that gauges an economy's level of human development. While there is a strong correlation between having a high HDI score and being a prosperous economy, the UN points out that the HDI accounts for more than income or productivity. Unlike GDP per capita or per capita income, the HDI takes into account how income is turned "into education and health opportunities and therefore into higher levels of human development."

Since 1990, Norway (2001–2006, 2009–2019), Japan (1990–1991 and 1993), Canada (1992 and 1994–2000) and Iceland (2007–2008) have had the highest HDI score.

The following countries ranked from 1 to 66 in the year 2021 are considered to be of "very high human development":[15]

Table of countries by HDI
RankNationHDI
2021 data (2022 report)​[15]Change since 2015​[16]2021 data (2022 report)​[15]Average annual growth (2010–2021)​[16]
1Steady  Switzerland0.962Increase 0.19%
2Steady Norway0.961Increase 0.19%
3Steady Iceland0.959Increase 0.56%
4Increase (3) Hong Kong0.952Increase 0.44%
5Increase (3) Australia0.951Increase 0.27%
6Steady Denmark0.948Increase 0.34%
7Decrease (2) Sweden0.947Increase 0.36%
8Increase (6) Ireland0.945Increase 0.40%
9Decrease (5) Germany0.942Increase 0.16%
10Decrease (1) Netherlands0.941Increase 0.24%
11Steady Finland0.940Increase 0.29%
12Decrease (1) Singapore0.939Increase 0.29%
13Increase (2) Belgium0.937Increase 0.25%
13Decrease (3) New Zealand0.937Increase 0.15%
15Decrease (2) Canada0.936Increase 0.25%
16Decrease (1) Liechtenstein0.935Increase 0.22%
17Increase (3) Luxembourg0.930Increase 0.18%
18Decrease (3) United Kingdom0.929Increase 0.17%
19Steady Japan0.925Increase 0.27%
19Increase (3) South Korea0.925Increase 0.35%
21Decrease (3) United States0.921Increase 0.10%
22Steady Israel0.919Increase 0.25%
23Increase (4) Malta0.918Increase 0.58%
23Increase (1) Slovenia0.918Increase 0.28%
25Decrease (4) Austria0.916Increase 0.14%
26Increase (9) United Arab Emirates0.911Increase 0.80%
27Steady Spain0.905Increase 0.38%
28Decrease (3) France0.903Increase 0.27%
29Increase (3) Cyprus0.896Increase 0.41%
30Decrease (1) Italy0.895Increase 0.13%
31Decrease (2) Estonia0.890Increase 0.30%
32Decrease (6) Czechia0.889Increase 0.20%
33Decrease (2) Greece0.887Increase 0.19%
34Decrease (1) Poland0.876Increase 0.37%
35Increase (3) Bahrain0.875Increase 0.73%
35Increase (1) Lithuania0.875Increase 0.35%
35Increase (2) Saudi Arabia0.875Increase 0.64%
38Increase (2) Portugal0.866Increase 0.40%
39Increase (1) Latvia0.863Increase 0.42%
40Decrease (6) Andorra0.858Increase 0.11%
40Increase (5) Croatia0.858Increase 0.40%
42Increase (1) Chile0.855Increase 0.46%
42Increase (1) Qatar0.855Increase 0.23%
44NA[a] San Marino0.853NA[a]
45Decrease (5) Slovakia0.848Increase 0.09%
46Increase (1) Hungary0.846Increase 0.20%
47Decrease (4) Argentina0.842Increase 0.09%
48Increase (6) Turkey0.838Increase 1.03%
49Increase (3) Montenegro0.832Increase 0.27%
50Decrease (1) Kuwait0.831Increase 0.20%
51Decrease (3) Brunei0.829Increase 0.01%
52Decrease (2) Russia0.822Increase 0.29%
53Decrease (4) Romania0.821Increase 0.16%
54Decrease (3) Oman0.816Increase 0.32%
55Decrease (2) Bahamas0.812Increase 0.00%
56Increase (4) Kazakhstan0.811Increase 0.51%
57Decrease (2) Trinidad and Tobago0.810Increase 0.23%
58Increase (4) Costa Rica0.809Increase 0.43%
58Steady Uruguay0.809Increase 0.25%
60Decrease (3) Belarus0.808Increase 0.21%
61Steady Panama0.805Increase 0.37%
62Increase (1) Malaysia0.803Increase 0.39%
63Increase (7) Georgia0.802Increase 0.50%
63Increase (2) Mauritius0.802Increase 0.55%
63Increase (4) Serbia0.802Increase 0.41%
66Increase (6) Thailand0.800Increase 0.75%

High-income economies

Some institutions have produced lists of developed countries: the UN (list shown above), the CIA,[17] and some providers of stock market indices (the FTSE Group, MSCI, S&P, Dow Jones, STOXX, etc.). The latter is not included here because its association of developed countries with countries with both high incomes and developed markets is not deemed as directly relevant.[Note 1]

However, many other institutions have created more general lists referred to when discussing developed countries. For example, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identifies 39 "advanced economies".[18][19] The OECD's 37 members are known as the "developed countries club".[20][21][22] The World Bank identifies 81 "high income countries".[23] Other standards, such as the 30-50 Club (GDP per capita over $30,000 and population over 50 million) have been developed to categorize highly developed and influential countries.

World Bank high-income economies

World Bank high-income economies in 2019

According to the World Bank the following 80 countries and territories are classified as "high-income economies". As of the 2022 fiscal year, high-income economies are those that had a GNI per capita of $12,696 or more in 2020.[23]

36 countries and territories in Europe:

20 countries and territories in the Americas:

15 countries and territories in Asia:

eight countries and territories in Oceania:

one country in Africa:

nine former high-income economies:[24]

* Between 1994 and 2009, as a part of the  Netherlands Antilles.

# Dissolved on 10 October 2010, succeeded by Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

High-income OECD members

According to the World Bank, the following 34 members are classified as "OECD High-Income":[25][26]

26 countries in Europe:

three countries in the Americas:

three countries in Asia:

two countries in Oceania:

Development Assistance Committee members

Member nations of the Development Assistance Committee

There are 29 OECD member countries and the European Union—in the Development Assistance Committee (DAC),[27] a group of the world's major donor countries that discuss issues surrounding development aid and poverty reduction in developing countries.[28] The following OECD member countries are DAC members:

23 countries in Europe:

two countries in the Americas:

two countries in Asia:

two countries in Oceania:

IMF advanced economies

  Countries described as Advanced Economies by the IMF

According to the International Monetary Fund, 40 countries and territories are officially listed as "advanced economies",[1][29] with the addition of 7 microstates and dependencies modified by the CIA which were omitted from the IMF version :[17]

28 countries and dependencies in Europe classified by the IMF, 6 others given by the CIA :

seven countries and territories in Asia:

three countries and territories in the Americas classified by the IMF, one territory given by the CIA :

two countries in Oceania:

d The CIA has modified an older version of the IMF's list of 38 Advanced Economies, noting that the IMF's Advanced Economies list "would presumably also cover the following nine smaller countries of Andorra, Bermuda, Faroe Islands, Guernsey, Holy See, Jersey, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino[...]". San Marino (2012) and Andorra (2021) were later included in the IMF's list.[17]

Paris Club members

Permanent members of the Paris Club

There are 22 permanent members in the Paris Club (French: Club de Paris), a group of officials from major creditor countries whose role is to find coordinated and sustainable solutions to the payment difficulties experienced by debtor countries.

15 countries in Europe:

three countries in the Americas:

three countries in Asia:

one country in Oceania:

Comparative table (2022)

Comparative table of countries with a "very high" human development (0.800 or higher), according to UNDP; "advanced" economies, according to the IMF; "high income" economies, according to the World Bank; and income per capita (purchasing power parity) higher than $22,000, according to the IMF.

Developed Countries
CountriesHDI[30]IMF[31]WB[32]Per capita PPP 2021[33]
2020
 AndorraYes since 2003Yes since 2020Yes since 1990Yes before 2010
2015
 LithuaniaYes since 2005Yes since 2015Yes since 2012Yes since 2011
2014
 LatviaYes since 2005Yes since 2014Yes since 2012Yes since 2013
2011
 EstoniaYes since 2003Yes since 2011Yes since 2006Yes since 2010
2010
 IsraelYes since 1991Yes since 1997[34]Yes since 1987Yes since 2004
 SloveniaYes since 1998Yes since 2007Yes since 1997Yes since 2004
2009
 Czech RepublicYes since 2001Yes since 2009Yes since 2006Yes since 2005
 SlovakiaYes since 2006Yes since 2009Yes since 2007Yes since 2007
2008
 MaltaYes since 2003Yes since 2008Yes since 2002Yes since 2005
2005
 PortugalYes since 2005Yes since 1989[35]Yes since 1994Yes since 2004
 South KoreaYes since 1999Yes since 1997[36]Yes since 2001Yes since 2005
2003
 GreeceYes since 2001Yes since 1989[35]Yes since 1996Yes since 2003
2001
 CyprusYes since 2001Yes since 2001Yes since 1988Yes since 2000
2000
 New ZealandYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 2000
1999
 SingaporeYes since 1999Yes since 1997[36]Yes since 1987Yes since 1990
 SpainYes since 1995Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1999
1997
 FinlandYes since 1994Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1997
 IrelandYes since 1996Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1997
 United KingdomYes since 1992Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1997
1996
 IcelandYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1996
1995
 ItalyYes since 1995Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1993
 SwedenYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1995
1994
 AustraliaYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1994
 BelgiumYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1994
 CanadaYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1994
 FranceYes since 1993Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1994
1992
 AustriaYes since 1992Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1992
 GermanyYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1992
 JapanYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1992
 LuxembourgYes since 1992Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1985
1991
 DenmarkYes since 1991Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1991
 NetherlandsYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1991
1989
 United StatesYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1989
1987
 NorwayYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1985
  SwitzerlandYes before 1990Yes since 1945Yes since 1987Yes since 1984
In process
CountriesHDI[30]IMF[31]WB[32]per capita PPP 2021[33]
 RomaniaYes since 2013NoYes since 2021Yes since 2016
 PanamaYes since 2019NoYes since 2021Yes since 2014
 CroatiaYes since 2007NoYes since 2017Yes since 2014
 UruguayYes since 2014NoYes since 2012Yes since 2016
 BahamasYes since 2016NoYes since 1987Yes since 1996
 HungaryYes since 2005NoYes since 2014Yes since 2010
 KuwaitYes since 2014NoYes since 1987Yes before 1980
 ChileYes since 2007NoYes since 2012Yes since 2013
 San MarinoNoYes since 2012Yes since 2000Yes before 2004
 BahrainYes since 2012NoYes since 2001Yes since 1981
 OmanYes since 2012NoYes since 2007Yes since 1990
 PolandYes since 2003NoYes since 2009Yes since 2011
 Saudi ArabiaYes since 2010NoYes since 2004Yes before 1980
 United Arab EmiratesYes since 2004NoYes since 1987Yes before 1980
 TaiwanNo dataYes since 1997[36]Yes since 1987Yes since 2002
 BruneiYes since 1999NoYes since 1990Yes before 1985
 QatarYes since 1996NoYes since 1987Yes before 1980
Other recognitions
CountriesHDI[30]IMF[31]WB[32]per capita PPP 2021[33]
 Costa RicaYes since 2019NoNoYes since 2021
 MauritiusYes since 2019NoNoYes since 2021
 ArgentinaYes since 2006NoNoYes since 2021
 MontenegroYes since 2013NoNoYes since 2021
 BulgariaYes since 2015NoNoYes since 2018
 MalaysiaYes since 2016NoNoYes since 2012
 TurkeyYes since 2015NoNoYes since 2013
 KazakhstanYes since 2015NoNoYes since 2013
 Saint Kitts and NevisNoNoYes since 2012Yes since 2014
 SeychellesNoNoYes since 2014Yes since 2013
 RussiaYes since 2013NoNoYes since 2011
 BarbadosYes since 2011NoYes since 2006No
 Trinidad and TobagoNoNoYes since 2006Yes since 2005
 LiechtensteinYes since 2000NoYes since 1994No data
 GuyanaNoNoNoYes since 2021
 MaldivesNoNoNoYes since 2021
 GeorgiaYes since 2019NoNoNo
 SerbiaYes since 2019NoNoNo
 NauruNoNoYes since 2019No
 PalauYes since 2013NoNoNo
 Antigua and BarbudaNoNoYes since 2012No
 BelarusYes since 2012NoNoNo
 MonacoNo dataNoYes since 1994No data

Rankings

The list below features some outstanding countries selected from the comparative table above with average data of quality (best place in rankings) and quantity (considered in how many of the 35 rankings) with an average between quality and quantity greater than 60%.

Desarrollo paises2.jpg
Outstanding countries
RankCountryQUALITYQUANTITYDemocracyCorruption[37]Quality of living[38]Quality of digital living[39]Cost of living[40]HDI[41]per capita PPP[42]Peace[43]Prosperity[44]Economic Freedom Heritage[45]Human Freedom Fraser[46]Politic/Social Freedom House[47]CompetitivenessDoing Business[48]Gay friendly[49]Energy transition [50]Environmental Performance[51]Green Future[52]Happiness[53]Social Progress[54]Global Talent[55]PISA science [1]PISA readPISA mathsMobile internet speed[56]Fixed internet speedResilience [57]Fragile state[58]E-gov[59]English skills[60]Cities in motion[61]Press freedom[62]Rule of law[63]Good Government[64]Labor rights[65]
20222022201920212022202120212022202120222021202220192019202120212022202220222021202120202020202020222022202220222020202120212022202120222022
1-(SUMRanks /(#Ranks

*100))

COUNT.IF (Ranks;

<100)

/#Ranks

full> score 70top 100> score 0.6low top 100> very high>220001.82nd green on map> mostly free> score 8> score 90> score 60> score 60> score 7 score 70> score 60 green> score 6.4 tier 2< 2nd quartile> score 400> score 400> score 400> 30mb> 80mb> score 90> green> very high> high> relative high< score 70> score 70> score 0.6< rating 2
1 Denmark0,921,006181761013411036104531223525191385151362149
2 Sweden0,891,004423136271826311938105159774201117212171068143479
3 Netherlands0,861,00118111173814216811744214111135861627951915111018286536
4 Finland0,860,973131372112314496211201006361277616183412149225319
5 Norway0,860,97142514831817214131179182100581928201922082135121269
6  Switzerland0,840,9797288625115211353614491445124281113152616251114100236
7 Germany0,800,941510396562016916152172210100138141011162120291005132511716589
8 Austria0,780,94201312163181751122212621275581001114172828222510091415218319129
9 New Zealand0,780,9121323781431284241911481001001012161311283514194810023117936
10 Ireland0,740,89713332481233123592424181001012131315238201001001892710033610119
11 Canada0,740,89121332075162512151565142311001001515613961215232182810030191213100
12 Australia0,710,8691811177482227161281416141010017100121110161730161002012510017391317100
13 United Kingdom0,700,8618114110771327341324142598572417181215151736100131001001001241610100
14 France0,660,8610022397602626100221003410015321009127201921252326242516181931326231636
15 Belgium0,660,8610018282558142122231002311224618100100111916182023152638102041641231421100
16 Portugal0,630,8610010037304638456283118163439210010018100252827252937182716357527262536
17 Estonia0,640,83100138619452940331774183118100100141001002124558281002825322554111436
18 Luxembourg0,650,801491815712311007510101872100100610061583438341429373313100218100100
19 Singapore0,670,7710042568511291411001001210010010010027303222192415114910017336
20 Japan0,640,80171849126719361019100151262910010010019100919615640122419141004100151536
21 Iceland0,640,745131001001004161101312172626101010013414353626100100100312100515100199
22 Spain0,580,801001004318482541292410025412330210010013292032301003549111710017332532212636
23 South Korea0,600,7716100772612330422919100100135100100100101001727897322302123719432019100
24 Czech Republic0,550,7710010069283827388272123383241100100100100182225222622100100232939273920222236
25 Lithuania0,530,7710010081164434393733171910039111001001001003427353133353939312720241009182936
26 Italy0,470,711001004127552932323110026433058100100100173123363933324810029100373542100100349
27 Latvia0,460,69100100901001003750353018211004119100121510010034332930245410042100492610022243036
28 United States0,510,63100100345821791002025151002610010010010016242191338229100100910024210018100
29 Slovenia0,470,6610010074100522237726323242353710010071002226311422132710039172310010010010023100
30 Slovakia0,400,661001008029403948203510010010042451001001810010033394142335910035244820622710010036
31 Malta0,400,601001001001006628281002527271003888210041003328234345393430372222100100100100100100
32 Israel0,350,511001001004841933100321001001002035100100100100932204238421003234100301001001001002736
33 Cyprus0,300,491001008610010033341003423293044541001001001001002930475145171003610018100100100100100100
34 Greece0,250,4610010089100413254100431001001005979100100100100100314744434523100451004219100100100100100
35 Andorra0,090,141001001001006936191001001001002310010010010010010010010010010010010010035100100100100100100100100100

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Developed Countries Glossary Archived 20 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine entry reads: "The following countries are classified by FTSE as developed countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States."
  2. ^ Geographically a part of Asia, geopolitically a part of Europe.

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