Deep cerebellar nuclei

Deep cerebellar nuclei
Gray707.png
Sagittal section through right cerebellar hemisphere. The right olive has also been cut sagittally. (Nucleus dentatus labeled at center top.)
Diagram of the Microanatomy of Human Cerebellar Cortex.svg
Microcircuitry of the cerebellum. Excitatory synapses are denoted by (+) and inhibitory synapses by (-).
MF: Mossy fiber.
DCN: Deep cerebellar nuclei.
IO: Inferior olive.
CF: Climbing fiber.
GC: Granule cell.
PF: Parallel fiber.
PC: Purkinje cell.
GgC: Golgi cell.
SC: Stellate cell.
BC: Basket cell.
Details
Part ofCerebellum
PartsDentate nucleus, Emboliform nucleus, Fastigial nucleus, Globose nucleus
ArterySuperior cerebellar
Identifiers
Latinnuclei cerebelli
MeSHD002529
NeuroNames682
NeuroLex IDbirnlex_1568
TA98A14.1.07.406
TA25835
FMA72249
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The cerebellum has four deep cerebellar nuclei embedded in the white matter in its center.

Inputs

These nuclei receive inhibitory (GABAergic) inputs from Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex and excitatory (glutamatergic) inputs from mossy fiber and climbing fiber pathways. Most output fibers of the cerebellum originate from these nuclei. One exception is that fibers from the flocculonodular lobe synapse directly on vestibular nuclei without first passing through the deep cerebellar nuclei. The vestibular nuclei in the brainstem are analogous structures to the deep nuclei, since they receive both mossy fiber and Purkinje cell inputs.

Specific nuclei

From lateral to medial, the four deep cerebellar nuclei are the dentate, emboliform, globose, and fastigii. Some animals, including humans, do not have distinct emboliform and globose nuclei, instead having a single, fused interposed nucleus. In animals with distinct emboliform and globose nuclei, the term interposed nucleus is often used to refer collectively to these two nuclei.

Topography

In general, each pair of deep nuclei is associated with a corresponding region of cerebellar surface anatomy.

  • The dentate nuclei are deep within the lateral hemispheres,
  • the interposed nuclei are located in the paravermal (intermediate) zone,
  • and the fastigial nuclei are in the vermis.

These structural relationships are generally maintained in the neuronal connections between the nuclei and associated cerebellar cortex,

  • with the dentate nucleus receiving most of its connections from the lateral hemispheres,
  • the interposed nuclei receiving inputs mostly from the paravermis,
  • and the fastigial nucleus receiving primarily afferents from the vermis.

References

  • Ryan Splittgerber (2019). Snell's Clinical Neuroanatomy (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ISBN 978-1496346759.

External links

Media files used on this page

Sobo 1909 658.png
A cross-section of the cerebellum in the direction of the brachia conjunctiva.

cerebellar notch, however, it passes over gradually into the superior vermis, so that the surface of the whole vermis represents about three-fourths of a circle and is marked with distinct transverse

fissures.
Diagram of the Microanatomy of Human Cerebellar Cortex.svg
Author/Creator: Svenskbygderna (talk) , Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Diagram of the cerebellar circuitry. Excitatory synapses are denoted by (+) and inhibitory synapses by (-).
  • MF: Mossy fibers
  • DCN: Deep cerebellar nuclei
  • IO: Inferior Olive
  • CF: Climbing fiber
  • CFC: Climbing fiber collateral
  • GC: Granule Cell
  • PF: Parallel fiber
  • PC: Purkinje Cell
  • GgC: Golgi Cell
  • SC: Stellate Cell
  • BC: Basket Cell
Sobo 1909 657.png
The boundaries of the fourth ventricle exposed by a partial removal of the cerebellum.

The vermis of the cerebellum, excepting the lingula and the nodule, has been cut away, and the posterior halves of the hemispheres removed by an almost vertical section. The tonsil and the biventral lobe have also been removed

from the left hemisphere to expose the posterior medullary velum.