List of cryptids

This is a list of cryptids, which are animals that cryptozoologists believe may exist somewhere in the wild, but are not believed to exist by mainstream science. Cryptozoology is a pseudoscience, which primarily looks at anecdotal stories, and other claims rejected by the scientific community. While biologists regularly identify new species following established scientific methodology, cryptozoologists focus on entities mentioned in the folklore record and rumor. Entities that may be considered cryptids by cryptozoologists include Bigfoot, Yeti, the chupacabra, the Jersey Devil, the Loch Ness Monster, and the Mokele-mbembe.

Scholars have noted that the Cryptozoology subculture rejected mainstream approaches from an early date, and that adherents often express hostility to mainstream science. Scholars have studied cryptozoologists and their influence (including the pseudoscience's association with Young Earth creationism),[1][2] noted parallels in cryptozoology and other pseudosciences such as ghost hunting and ufology, and highlighted uncritical media propagation of cryptozoologist claims.



Aquatic or semi-aquatic

NameOther namesDescriptionPurported locationDepiction
Brosno dragon[3]BrosnyaLake monsterLake Brosno, Russia
Cadborosaurus[4]CaddySea animalPacific Coast of North AmericaCadborosaurus October 1937.jpg
Champ[3][5]Champtanystropheus americanus, ChampyLake monsterLake Champlain, North AmericaArtistic representation of Sandra Mansi's 1977 photograph of "Champ" lake monster.jpg
Dobhar-chú[6]Water HoundExtra-large otter-like carnivorous aquatic mammalIreland
Igopogo[3]Kempenfelt KellyLake monsterLake Simcoe, Ontario (Canada)
Isshii[3]IssieLake monsterJapan
Kusshii[3]KussieLake monsterJapanKussharoko Teshikaga Hokkaido Japan10n.jpg
Labynkyr Devil[7][8][9]Labynkyrsky ChertLake monsterOymyakonsky Ulus, Sakha Republic, Russia
Loch Ness Monster[10]NessieLake monsterLoch Ness, ScotlandSculpture of the Loch Ness monster as a plesiosaurus
Loveland Frog[11]Loveland frogman, Loveland lizardHumanoid frogLoveland, OhioLoveland frog.png
Mamlambo[3]Lake monsterSouth Africa
Manipogo[3]WinnipogoLake monsterLake Manitoba, Canada
Mokele-mbembe[12]Dinosaur (lake, river and/or swamp monster)Republic of the CongoMokele-mbembe ill artlibre jnl.png
Nahuelito[3]Nahuel Huapi Lake MonsterLake monsterNahuel Huapi Lake, ArgentinaNahuelito crop.jpg
Ogopogo[3][5]N'ha•a•itk, NaitakaLake monsterLake Okanagan, Canada
Sea serpents[14]Sea animals, dinosaursAll bodies of waterSoe Orm 1555.jpg
Selma[3]SeljordsormenLake monsterLake Seljord, Telemark, Norway
Seljord komm.svg
Steller's sea ape[15]Sea animalPacific Ocean


NameOther namesDescriptionPurported locationDepiction
Almas[3][5]Abnauayu, almasty, albasty, bekk-bok,
biabin-guli, golub-yavan, gul-biavan, auli-avan,
kaptar, kra-dhun, ksy-giik, ksy-gyik, ochokochi,
mirygdy, mulen, voita, wind-man, Zana
Non-human ape or hominidAsia/Caucasus
Barmanou[3]Barmanu, Big Hairy OneApe or hominidMiddle East/Asia
Beast of Bodmin Moor[16]Large felidCornwall, England
Beast of Exmoor[17]Big catEngland
Bigfoot[18]SasquatchLarge and hairy ape-like creatureUnited States and CanadaPie Grande.jpg
British big cats[16]Alien big cats (ABCs), phantom cats, mystery cats, English lions,
Beast of Bodmin, Beast of Exmoor
Carnivorous mammalGreat Britain
Bukit Timah Monkey Man[19]BTM, BTMMForest-dwelling hominid or other primateSingapore
Chuchunya[20][3]Large hominidRussia
Chupacabra[21]Chupacabras (Spanish for goat-sucker)Puerto Rico (originally),
South and Central America,
Southern North America
Chupacabra (artist's rendition).jpg
Dover Demon[22]Dover, Massachusetts
Elwetritsch[23]BirdlikeGermany20180905Marktbrunnen Neustadt4.jpg
Fouke Monster[24]Jonesville Monster, Southern Sasquatch, Boggy Creek MonsterHominid or other primateArkansas, United States
Honey Island Swamp monster[25]Letiche, Tainted KeitreHominid or other primateLouisiana, United States
Lizard Man of Scape Ore Swamp[26]Lizard Man of Lee CountyBipedalSouth Carolina, United States
Michigan Dogman[27]Humanoid dogWexford County, Michigan
Minhocão[3]Big EarthwormCaecilianSouth America
Mongolian death worm[17]Allghoi (or orghoi) khorkhoiWorm-like animalGobi Desert (Asia)Allghoikhorkhoi.jpg
Monkey-man of Delhi[17]Black MonkeyBig black monkeyOld Delhi, India
Orang Mawas[3]Mawas, Orang Dalam, Hantu Jarang GigiPrimateMalaysia
Skunk ape[28]Stink Ape, Myakka Ape, Myakka Skunk ApePrimateFlorida, United StatesShealy ape.jpg
Yeren[29][28]Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese WildmanPrimate (possible hominin)China
Yeti[30]Abominable SnowmanLarge and hairy human-like entity, various other descriptionsHimalayas (Asia)B5bugerbear.jpg
Yowie[31]Large and hairy human-like entity, various other descriptionsAustraliaYowie-statue-Kilcoy-Queensland.JPG


NameOther namesDescriptionPurported locationDepiction
Jersey Devil[10]Leeds DevilWinged bipedal horseUnited States, mainly the South Jersey Pine Barrens, as well as other parts of New Jersey and southeastern PennsylvaniaJersey Devil Philadelphia Post 1909.jpg
Mothman[32]Popularized by John A. Keel's book The Mothman PropheciesWinged bipedalMason County, West Virginia, United StatesMothman Artist's Impression.png
Thunderbird[33][34]Giant birdNorth AmericaVintage Thunderbird latch hooked rug.jpg

See also


  1. ^ Hill, Sharon A. (2017). Scientifical Americans: The Culture of Amateur Paranormal Researchers. McFarland. p. 66. ISBN 9781476630823.
  2. ^ Card, Jeb J. (2016). "Steampunk Inquiry: A Comparative Vivisection of Discovery Pseudoscience". In Card, Jeb J.; Anderson, David S. (eds.). Lost City, Found Pyramid: Understanding Alternative Archaeologies and Pseudoscientific Practices. University of Alabama Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780817319113. Creationists have embraced cryptozoology and some cryptozoological expeditions are funded by and conducted by creationists hoping to disprove evolution.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "The world's greatest imaginary animals". Salon. 19 October 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  4. ^ Loxton et al.
  5. ^ a b c Shermer, Michael; Linse, Pat (November 2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 72. ISBN 9781576076538.
  6. ^ "Ireland's hound of deep - Dobhar Chu". Irish Central News. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  7. ^ Lallanilla, Marc (4 February 2013). "Reports Surface of Monster Lurking in Russian Lake". Live Science. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  8. ^ "Divers preparing for icy waters of Russia's 'Loch Ness'". The Siberian Times. 5 March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  9. ^ "Meet the creature found by divers in Russia's Loch Ness, famed for legends of monsters". The Siberian Times. 21 April 2014. Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  10. ^ a b Velasquez, S.J. (31 October 2015). "The monster you should never find". BBC Online. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  11. ^ Haupt, R. (30 June 2015). "Skeptoid #473: The Loveland Frog". Skeptoid. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  12. ^ Loxton et al.
  13. ^ Greenland, Felicity; Hayward, Philip (23 September 2020). "Ningen: The generation of media-lore concerning a giant, sub-Antarctic, aquatic humanoid and its relation to Japanese whaling activity" (PDF). Shima: The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures. 14 (1): 133–151. doi:10.21463/shima.14.1.10. hdl:10453/144607. ISSN 1834-6057. S2CID 216324017.
  14. ^ Loxton et al.
  15. ^ Nickell, Joe (Winter 2016–2017). "Steller's Sea Ape: Identifying an Eighteenth-Century Cryptid". Skeptical Briefs. Vol. 26, no. 4. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.
  16. ^ a b "Fantastic Cryptids And Where To Find Them". Forbes. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  17. ^ a b c "Cryptozoology: What else is out there?". TNT Magazine. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  18. ^ Loxton et al.
  19. ^ "On the hunt for the elusive Bukit Timah Monkey Man". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  20. ^ O'Carroll, Eoin (28 September 2018). "Bigfoot and beyond: Why tales of wild men endure". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  21. ^ Regal, Brian (15 October 2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia: A Critical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35508-0.
  22. ^ Sullivan, Mark (29 October 2006). "Decades later, the Dover Demon still haunts". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  23. ^ Press, Clayton. "Oliver Laric Celebrates the Year of the Dog at Metro Pictures". Forbes. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  24. ^ Dunning, B. (4 March 2014). "Skeptoid #404: The Boggy Creek Monster". Skeptoid. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  25. ^ Frances, Leary (December 2003). "The Honey Island Swamp Monster: The Development and Maintenance of Folk and Commodified Belief Tradition" (PDF) (Memorial University of Newfoundland): 4–6. Retrieved 18 March 2021. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  26. ^ Laycock, Joseph P. (11 July 2018). "A Search for Mysteries and Monsters in Small Town America". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  27. ^ Hudson, Alison (28 July 2015). "Skeptoid #477: Wag the Dogman". Skeptoid. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  28. ^ a b Lack, Caleb W.; Rousseau, Jacques (8 March 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8261-9426-8.
  29. ^ "It's the monstrous new trend sweeping travel – what is cryptid-tourism?". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  30. ^ Loxton & Prothero 2015.
  31. ^ Lack, Caleb W.; Rousseau, Jacques (8 March 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-8261-9426-8.
  32. ^ Kantrowitz, Lia; Fitzmaurice, Larry; Terry, Josh (16 January 2018). "People Keep Seeing the Mothman in Chicago". Vice. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  33. ^ Nez, Noah (18 July 2012). "Thunderbirds". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  34. ^ "The mythic child-stealing Thunderbirds of Illinois". Atlas Obscura. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 11 December 2018.


  • Loxton, Daniel; Prothero, Donald (2013). Abominable Science: Origins of Yeti, Nessie, and other Famous Cryptids. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-52681-4.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of cryptid at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Cryptozoology at Wikimedia Commons

Media files used on this page

Author/Creator: Dan Polansky based on work currently attributed to Wikimedia Foundation but originally created by Smurrayinchester, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A logo derived from File:WiktionaryEn.svg, a logo showing a 3 x 3 matrix of variously rotated tiles with a letter or character on each tile. The derivation consisted in removing the tiles that form the background of each of the shown characters. File:WiktionaryEn.svg is under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike, created by Smurrayinchester, and attributed to Wikimedia Foundation. This is the version without the wordmark.
Pie Grande.jpg
Artistic depiction of Bigfoot. Drawing made by user LeCire for its use on Wikipedia, pencil technique with digital enhancement.
Loveland frog.png
Author/Creator: Tim Bertelink, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Artist's impression of a Loveland frog at the side of the road
Lochneska poboba museumofnessie (cropped).jpg
Author/Creator: StaraBlazkova, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Nessie replica in Scotland.
Mokele-mbembe ill artlibre jnl.png
Author/Creator: JNL, Licence: FAL
Mokèlé-mbèmbé is a legendary animal from Africa. It has never been seen by a scientific expedition yet, but this "las dinosaur" has advocates...
Cadborosaurus October 1937.jpg
"Cadborosaurus willsi" carcass from October, 1937
Mothman Artist's Impression.png
Author/Creator: Tim Bertelink, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Artist's impression of the mothman
20180905Marktbrunnen Neustadt4.jpg
Author/Creator: AnRo0002, Licence: CC0
Elwetritsche von Gernot Rumpf beim Marktbrunnen in Neustadt an der Weinstraße
Vintage Thunderbird latch hooked rug.jpg
Author/Creator: Billvolckening, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Collection of Bill Volckening, Portland, Oregon.
Nahuelito crop.jpg
Nahuelito en el lago Nahuel Huapi
Dobhar-chu encounter.jpg
(c) Bango Art at en.wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0
Artist Impression by Eye Witness Sean Corcoran. This creature was encountered on Omey Island, Connemara, Co. Galway, Ireland.
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Lizard King at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Sasquatch Yeti Bigfoot Bugerbear Yowie
Chupacabra (artist's rendition).jpg
Author/Creator: Jeff Carter / HowStuffWorks, Licence: CC BY 2.5
An artist's rendition of the cryptid known as the chupacabra. The image was labelled for re-use by uploader Jeff Carter on Flickr.
Shealy ape.jpg
Author/Creator: Tarbtano35, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Picture of a supposed skunk ape by David Shealy
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Pieter0024 at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 1.0
This is an image for the article about the Allghoi Khorkhoi
Seljord komm.svg
Coat of arms of the Norwegian municipality of Seljord, Telemark.
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC0
Artistic rendering of ningen cryptid
Artistic representation of Sandra Mansi's 1977 photograph of "Champ" lake monster.jpg
Author/Creator: BRad06, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Artistic representation of Sandra Mansi's 1977 photograph of "Champ" monster. Illustration by Benjamin Radford.