Coronavirus diseases

Coronavirus diseases are caused by viruses in the coronavirus subfamily, a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, the group of viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold (which is also caused by other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses),[1] while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS and COVID-19.[2][3] As of 2021, 45 species are registered as coronaviruses,[4] whilst 11 diseases have been identified, as listed below.

Coronaviruses are known for their shape resembling a stellar corona, such as that of the Sun visible during a total solar eclipse; corona is derived from the Latin word corōna, meaning 'garland, wreath, crown'.[5] It was coined by Professor Tony Waterson[6][7][8] in a meeting with his colleagues June Almeida and David Tyrrell, the founding fathers of coronavirus studies, and was first used in a Nature article in 1968,[9] with approval by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Viruses three years later.[10]

The first coronavirus disease was discovered in the late 1920s, however, the most recent common ancestor of coronaviruses is estimated to have existed as recently as 8000 BCE.[11] Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s, through a variety of experiments in the United States and the United Kingdom.[12] A common origin in human coronaviruses are bats.[13]


Structural view of a coronavirus

Listed diseases primarily affect humans unless otherwise noted.

Coronavirus diseases
DiseaseCauseFirst identifiedDetails
Avian infectious bronchitisAvian coronavirus (IBV)1920s[14] (isolated in 1938)[15]Originated from North America.[14]
Transmissible gastroenteritisTransmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)1965 (recognized in 1946)[16]Infects pigs,[16] cats,[17] and dogs.[18]
Common cold, pneumonia, bronchiolitis, etc.Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)1930s (isolated in 1965)[19]Likely originated from bats.[20]
Murine encephalitisJHM (named after John Howard Mueller), a murine coronavirus[21]1949[22]
Common coldHuman coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)1967[23]Likely originated from rodents, then transmitted to humans through cattle.[24]
Acute infectious diarrheaPorcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)1971[25]Caused outbreaks in 1972[26] and 1978,[27] 2010, 2013, 2014, and 2015.[28] Infects pigs and sows.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), a strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV)2002Caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak. Likely originated from horseshoe bats.[29]
Common coldHuman coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1)2004Originated from Hong Kong.[30]
Respiratory infectionHuman coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)2004Originated from Amsterdam, Netherlands.[31] Likely originated from tricolored bats.[32]
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus (MERS-CoV)2012Caused outbreaks in 2012, 2015, and 2018. Likely originated from the Middle East, particularly Jeddah.[33]
Porcine diarrheaHKU152014Discovered in Hong Kong.[34]
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of SARSr-CoV2019Cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. Originated from Wuhan, China;[35] possibly from horseshoe bats, pangolins, or both.[36]

See also


  1. ^ Palmenberg AC, Spiro D, Kuzmickas R, Wang S, Djikeng A, Rathe JA, Fraser-Liggett CM, Liggett SB (2009). "Sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 324 (5923): 55–59. Bibcode:2009Sci...324...55P. doi:10.1126/science.1165557. PMC 3923423. PMID 19213880.
  2. ^ Alfarouk, Khalid O.; AlHoufie, Sari T. S.; Ahmed, Samrein B. M.; Shabana, Mona; Ahmed, Ahmed; Alqahtani, Saad S.; Alqahtani, Ali S.; Alqahtani, Ali M.; Ramadan, AbdelRahman M.; Ahmed, Mohamed E.; Ali, Heyam S.; Bashir, Adil; Devesa, Jesus; Cardone, Rosa A.; Ibrahim, Muntaser E.; Schwartz, Laurent; Reshkin, Stephan J. (21 May 2021). "Pathogenesis and Management of COVID-19". Journal of Xenobiotics. 11 (2): 77–93. doi:10.3390/jox11020006. PMC 8163157. PMID 34063739.
  3. ^ "Common Human Coronaviruses". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 27 May 2020. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  4. ^ "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. International Union of Microbiological Societies. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  5. ^ "Definition of corona". Section Behind the Word. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  6. ^ "Europe PMC". Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  7. ^ "The woman who discovered the first coronavirus". BBC News. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  8. ^ Group, British Medical Journal Publishing (6 January 1979). "Medicine and Books". Br Med J. 1 (6155): 45–50. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.6155.45. ISSN 0007-1447. PMID 21009845.
  9. ^ Almeida JD, Berry DM, Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Mallucci L, McIntosh K, Tyrrell DA (November 1968). "Virology: Coronaviruses". Nature. 220 (5168): 650. Bibcode:1968Natur.220..650.. doi:10.1038/220650b0. [T]here is also a characteristic "fringe" of projections 200 A long, which are rounded or petal shaped ... This appearance, recalling the solar corona, is shared by mouse hepatitis virus and several viruses recently recovered from man, namely strain B814, 229E and several others.
  10. ^ Lalchhandama K (2020). "The chronicles of coronaviruses: the bronchitis, the hepatitis and the common cold". Science Vision. 20 (1): 43–53. doi:10.33493/scivis.20.01.04.
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  15. ^ Bushnell, L. D.; Brandly, C. A. (1 January 1933). "Laryngotracheitis in Chicks*". Poultry Science. 12 (1): 55–60. doi:10.3382/ps.0120055. ISSN 0032-5791.
  16. ^ a b Doyle, L. P.; Hutchings, L. M. (1946). "A transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 108: 257–259. ISSN 0003-1488. PMID 21020443. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  17. ^ Wolfe, L. G.; Griesemer, R. A. (1966). "Feline infectious peritonitis". Pathologia Veterinaria. 3 (3): 255–270. doi:10.1177/030098586600300309. ISSN 0031-2975. PMID 5958991. S2CID 12930790.
  18. ^ Binn, L. N.; Lazar, E. C.; Keenan, K. P.; Huxsoll, D. L.; Marchwicki, R. H.; Strano, A. J. (1974). "Recovery and characterization of a coronavirus from military dogs with diarrhea". Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the United States Animal Health Association (78): 359–366. ISSN 0082-8750. PMID 4377955. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
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  21. ^ Pappenheimer, Alwin M. (1 May 1958). "Pathology of Infection with the JHM Virus". JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 20 (5): 879–891. doi:10.1093/jnci/20.5.879. ISSN 0027-8874. PMID 13539633. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  22. ^ Cheever, F. Sargent; Daniels, Joan B.; Pappenheimer, Alwin M.; Bailey, Orville T. (31 August 1949). "A murine virus (JHM) causing disseminated encephalomyelitis with extensive destruction of myelin". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 90 (3): 181–194. doi:10.1084/jem.90.3.181. ISSN 0022-1007. PMC 2135905. PMID 18137294.
  23. ^ McIntosh, K; Becker, WB; Chanock, RM (24 October 1967). "Growth in suckling-mouse brain of "IBV-like" viruses from patients with upper respiratory tract disease". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 58 (6): 2268–73. Bibcode:1967PNAS...58.2268M. doi:10.1073/pnas.58.6.2268. PMC 223830. PMID 4298953.
  24. ^ Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela (2017). "Molecular Evolution of Human Coronavirus Genomes". Trends in Microbiology. 25 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.001. ISSN 0966-842X. PMC 7111218. PMID 27743750.
  25. ^ Oldham, J (1972). "Letter to the editor". Pig Farming. 72 (October Suppl): 72–73.
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  27. ^ Wood, E. N. (19 March 1977). "An apparently new syndrome of porcine epidemic diarrhoea". Veterinary Record. 100 (12): 243–244. doi:10.1136/vr.100.12.243. ISSN 0042-4900. PMID 888300. S2CID 45192183. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  28. ^ Antas, Marta; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz (24 October 2019). "Current Status of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED) in European Pigs". Journal of Veterinary Research. 63 (4): 465–470. doi:10.2478/jvetres-2019-0064. ISSN 2450-7393. PMC 6950429. PMID 31934654.
  29. ^ editor, Robin McKie Science (10 December 2017). "Scientists trace 2002 Sars virus to colony of cave-dwelling bats in China". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  30. ^ Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Chu, Chung-ming; Chan, Kwok-hung; Tsoi, Hoi-wah; Huang, Yi; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Cai, James J.; Luk, Wei-kwang; Poon, Leo L. M. (2005). "Characterization and Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Coronavirus, Coronavirus HKU1, from Patients with Pneumonia". Journal of Virology. 79 (2): 884–895. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.2.884-895.2005. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 538593. PMID 15613317.
  31. ^ Abdul-Rasool, Sahar; Fielding, Burtram C (25 May 2010). "Understanding Human Coronavirus HCoV-NL63". The Open Virology Journal. 4: 76–84. doi:10.2174/1874357901004010076. ISSN 1874-3579. PMC 2918871. PMID 20700397.
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Media files used on this page

Coronaviruses 004 lores.jpg
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that have a halo, or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under an electron microscope.
  • The coronavirus is now recognized as the etiologic agent of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Additional specimens are being tested to learn more about this coronavirus, and its etiologic link with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. It was previously stated on the CDC website for a coloured version of the image that this depicts the (Avian) Infectious bronchitis virus, but now states that it depicts Human coronavirus 229E.
Issoria lathonia.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Author/Creator: User:FoeNyx © 2004 (artistic illustration), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
VIH - HIV / SIDA - AIDS viruses.
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The rod of Asclepius as depicted in the WHO logo.