Conte II Cabinet

Conte II Cabinet
Flag of Italy.svg
66th Cabinet of Italy
Giuseppe Conte Quirinale (cropped).jpg
Date formed5 September 2019 (2019-09-05)
Date dissolved13 February 2021 (2021-02-13) (528 days)
People and organisations
Head of stateSergio Mattarella
Head of governmentGiuseppe Conte
No. of ministers21 (incl. Prime Minister)
Ministers removed3 resigned
Total no. of members24
Member partiesM5S, PD, LeU (Art.1SI),
IV (18 September 2019–14 January 2021)
Status in legislatureCoalition government
Opposition partiesLega, FI, FdI,
IV (since 14 January 2021)
History
Election(s)2018 election
Legislature term(s)XVIII Legislature (2018–present)
Incoming formation2019 government formation
PredecessorConte I Cabinet
SuccessorDraghi Cabinet

The Conte II Cabinet was the 66th cabinet of the Italian Republic and the second cabinet led by Giuseppe Conte.[1][2][3] The government was sworn in on 5 September 2019.[4]

The cabinet is supported by the anti-establishment Five Star Movement (M5S) and the centre-left Democratic Party (PD), along with the leftist parliamentary group Free and Equal (LeU). On 17 September, the centrist party Italia Viva (IV), which splintered from the PD on that day, announced its support for the coalition, as well.

The government has been referred to as the "yellow-red government" (governo giallorosso), based on the customary colours of the main supporting parties.[5][6][7]

The Conte II Cabinet is the one with the lowest average age of its members in the history of the Italian Republic.[8]

On 13 January 2021, after weeks of disagreements within the government coalition, the two ministers of IV resigned from their posts. Having lost the full support of one of the parties forming the government, Prime Minister Conte resigned on 26 January 2021.[9][10][11]

Supporting parties

Beginning of term

At the time of the government formation, its ministers and other members were part of the following three parties.

PartyPositionMain ideologyLeader
Five Star Movement (M5S)Big tentPopulismLuigi Di Maio
Democratic Party (PD)Centre-leftSocial democracyNicola Zingaretti
Free and Equal (LeU)[a]Left-wingDemocratic socialismSeveral leaders
  1. ^ Political alliance between Article One (led by Roberto Speranza) and Italian Left (led by Claudio Grassi).

The government also obtained the support of the Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE), and one of its senators, Ricardo Merlo, was appointed as undersecretary in the cabinet.[12] The government received also the external support of the following minor parties: Popular Civic List (CP), the Italian Socialist Party (PSI), Italia in Comune (IiC), the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) and the Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT).[13][14]

2019–2021

From 18 September 2019 to 13 January 2021, the government ministers and other members were from the following four parties.

PartyPositionMain ideologyLeader
Five Star Movement (M5S)Big tentPopulismVito Crimi (acting)
Democratic Party (PD)Centre-leftSocial democracyNicola Zingaretti
Italia Viva (IV)CentreLiberalismMatteo Renzi
Free and Equal (LeU)[a]Left-wingDemocratic socialismSeveral leaders
  1. ^ Political alliance between Article One (led by Roberto Speranza) and Italian Left (led by Nicola Fratoianni).

On 17 September, former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi led a breakaway group outside the PD and formed Italia Viva, which confirmed its support to the government.[15]

End of term

At the time of its resignation, the government ministers and other members are from the following three parties.

PartyPositionMain ideologyLeader
Five Star Movement (M5S)Big tentPopulismVito Crimi (acting)
Democratic Party (PD)Centre-leftSocial democracyNicola Zingaretti
Free and Equal (LeU)[a]Left-wingDemocratic socialismSeveral leaders
  1. ^ Political alliance between Article One (led by Roberto Speranza) and Italian Left (led by Nicola Fratoianni).

On 13 January, former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi announced the withdrawal of his party’s support to the cabinet.[16]

History

Background

Conte with President Sergio Mattarella at the Quirinal Palace in August 2019

After the 2018 general election the Five Star Movement (M5S), which had come first in the election, and the League agreed to form a coalition government led by Giuseppe Conte, the Conte I Cabinet.

In August 2019, Matteo Salvini, Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the League, announced a motion of no confidence against the government, after growing tensions within the majority. Salvini's move came right after a vote in the Senate regarding the progress of the Turin–Lyon high-speed railway, in which the League, along with the largest opposition parties, voted against an attempt of the M5S to block the construction works.[17] Many political analysts believe the no confidence motion was an attempt to force early elections to improve his party's standing in Parliament, due to its increasing support in opinion polls, ensuring Salvini could become the next Prime Minister.[18] On 20 August, following the parliamentary debate in which Conte harshly accused Salvini of being a political opportunist who "had triggered the political crisis only to serve his personal interest",[19] the Prime Minister tendered his resignation to President Sergio Mattarella.[20]

Government formation

On 21 August, Mattarella started consultations with parliamentary groups. On the same day, the national board of the Democratic Party (PD) officially and unanimously opened to the prospect of a cabinet with the M5S,[19] based on pro-Europeanism, green economy, sustainable development, fight against economic inequality and a new immigration policy.[21] However, the talks resulted in a unclear outcome, the President announced a second round of consultations starting on 27 August.[22]

Negotiations between PD and M5S started,[23] while Free and Equal (LeU), a left-wing parliamentary group, announced its support too.[24] On 28 August, PD's leader Nicola Zingaretti announced at the Quirinal Palace his favourable position on forming a new government with the Five Stars with Conte at its head.[25] On same day, Mattarella summoned Conte to the Quirinal Palace for 29 August to give him the task of forming a new cabinet.[26] On 3 September, M5S members voted through the so-called "Rousseau Platform" in favor of an agreement with the PD, with Conte Prime Minister, with more than 79% of the vote out of nearly 80,000 voters.[27]

The government at the Quirinal Palace for the oath

On 4 September Conte announced the ministers of this new cabinet, which was sworn in on the following day.[28] At its start, the government was composed of 21 ministers, 14 men and 7 women, a majority of whom are from Southern Italy.[29][30]

Investiture votes

On 9 September 2019 the Chamber of Deputies approved the government with 343 votes in favour, 263 against and 3 abstentions.[31][32] On the following day the Senate followed suit, with 169 in favour, 133 against and 5 abstentions.[33][34]

9–10 September 2019
Investiture votes for Conte II Cabinet
House of ParliamentVotePartiesVotes
Chamber of Deputies
(Present: 609[a] of 630,
Majority: 304)
checkY YesM5S (208), PD (109), LeU (14), CPAPPSIAC (4), +EuCD (3), Others (5)
343 / 609
☒N NoLega (121), FI (95), FdI (33), NcIUSEI (4), Others (10)
263 / 609
AbstentionSVPPATT (3)
3 / 609
Senate of the Republic
(Present: 307[b] of 321,
Majority: 152)
checkY YesM5S (104), PD (49), Aut (4), LeU (4), Others (8)
169 / 307
☒N NoLega (57), FI (56), FdI (18), +Eu (1), Others (1)
133 / 307
AbstentionAut (3), M5S (1), PD (1)
5 / 307
  1. ^ Absent (16): FI (4), Lega (3), M5S (3), PD (2), FdI (1), Others (3)
    On institutional leave (4): M5S (4)
  2. ^ Absent (8): FI (5), M5S (1), Others (2)
    On institutional leave (5): M5S (1), PD (1), Lega (1), Aut (1), Others (1)
    President (1)

Italia Viva and M5S crises

In September 2019 former Prime Minister Matteo Renzi lead a split from the PD, and formed a party called Italia Viva. The new party had two ministers (Teresa Bellanova and Elena Bonetti) and one undersecretary, and kept its support for the Conte II government.[35]

In December 2019 the Minister of Education and Research, Lorenzo Fioramonti, resigned after disagreements with the rest of the cabinet regarding the recently approved 2020 budget bill. Fioramonti considered the share of funds dedicated to education and research to be insufficient.[36] For the designation of the new Minister, Prime Minister Conte decided to split the Ministry of Education, University and Research into two. The Ministry of Public Education went to the former undersecretary Lucia Azzolina (M5S), whereas the Ministry of University and Research went to the dean of the University of Naples Federico II, Gaetano Manfredi (Ind).[37]

In January 2020, the Five Star Movement suffered multiple parliamentary defections and a sizeable decrease in popularity with respect to the 2018 elections.[38] Luigi Di Maio resigned from his position as M5S political leader, retaining his position as foreign minister.[39]

Coronavirus outbreak

In February 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have spread to northern Italian regions. In a few weeks, it spread to the rest of the country, with major concentration of cases in the regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont and Veneto. The government faced the subsequent health crisis by imposing gradually stricter measures of social distancing and quarantine, until a nationwide lockdown was imposed on 9 March, restricting the movement of people except for reasons of necessity, health, or work.[40][41]

January 2021 political crisis

On 13 January 2021, after weeks of disagreements between IV and the rest of the government regarding the handling of the Next Generation EU funds, all three cabinet members of IV (Minister of Agriculture Teresa Bellanova, Minister of Family Elena Bonetti and Undersecretary for Economy Ivan Scalfarotto) resigned from their posts.

Having lost the full support of one of the parties forming the government, Prime Minister Conte narrowly won a confidence vote at the Senate with a 156–140 tally, including 16 abstension votes from the IV senators, falling short of the absolute majority of 161 votes.[42]

Due to that, and unable to find enough votes in Parliament to move ahead with the current government, on 26 January 2021 Conte tended his resignations to President Sergio Mattarella, who asked him to stay in office to handle current affairs (as is customary in Italian politics).[9][10][11]

Party breakdown

Beginning of term

Ministers

9
9
1
3

Ministers and other members

2019–2021

Ministers

9
7
2
1
4

Ministers and other members

End of term

Ministers

9
7
1
4

Ministers and other members

Geographical breakdown

Beginning of term

A choropleth map showing the number of ministers from each region.

2019–2021

End of term

Council of Ministers

The Council of Ministers is composed of the following members:[43][1][2]

OfficeNamePartyTerm
Prime MinisterGiuseppe ConteIndependent[a]2019–2021
Minister of Foreign AffairsLuigi Di MaioFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister of the InteriorLuciana LamorgeseIndependent2019–2021
Minister of JusticeAlfonso BonafedeFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister of DefenceLorenzo GueriniDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister of Economy and FinanceRoberto GualtieriDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister of Economic DevelopmentStefano PatuanelliFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister of AgricultureTeresa BellanovaDemocratic Party / Italia Viva2019–2021
Minister of the EnvironmentSergio CostaIndependent[a]2019–2021
Minister of Infrastructure and TransportPaola De MicheliDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister of Labour and Social PoliciesNunzia CatalfoFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister of Education, University and ResearchLorenzo FioramontiFive Star Movement2019
Lucia Azzolina (Public Education)Five Star Movement2020–2021
Gaetano Manfredi (University and Research)Independent2020–2021
Minister of Cultural Heritage and ActivitiesDario FranceschiniDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister of HealthRoberto SperanzaFree and Equal (Art.1)2019–2021
Minister for Parliamentary RelationsFederico D'IncàFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister of Public AdministrationFabiana DadoneFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister of Regional AffairsFrancesco BocciaDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister for the SouthGiuseppe ProvenzanoDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister for Family and Equal OpportunitiesElena BonettiDemocratic Party / Italia Viva2019–2021
Minister of European AffairsVincenzo AmendolaDemocratic Party2019–2021
Minister for Sport and Youth PoliciesVincenzo SpadaforaFive Star Movement2019–2021
Minister for Technological InnovationPaola PisanoFive Star Movement2019–2021
Secretary of the Council of MinistersRiccardo FraccaroFive Star Movement2019–2021
  1. ^ a b Proposed by the Five Star Movement.

Composition

OfficePortraitNameTerm of officeParty
Prime MinisterGiuseppe Conte 2019 Official.jpgGiuseppe Conte5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Independent
Undersecretaries
  • Mario Turco (M5S) – Delegated to Economic Planning and Investment
  • Andrea Martella (PD) – Delegated to Publishing and Information
  • Pietro Benassi (Ind.) – Delegated to Information and Security (since 22 January 2021)
Minister of Foreign AffairsLuigi Di Maio 2019 Official.jpgLuigi Di Maio5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Deputy Ministers
Undersecretaries
Minister of the InteriorLuciana Lamorgese crop.jpgLuciana Lamorgese5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Independent
Deputy Ministers
  • Vito Crimi (M5S)
  • Matteo Mauri (PD)
Undersecretaries
Minister of JusticeAlfonso Bonafede 2019.jpgAlfonso Bonafede5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Undersecretaries
  • Vittorio Ferraresi (M5S)
  • Andrea Giorgis (PD)
Minister of DefenceLorenzo Guerini 2019 Official.jpgLorenzo Guerini5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Undersecretaries
  • Angelo Tofalo (M5S)
  • Giulio Calvisi (PD)
Minister of Economy and FinanceRoberto Gualtieri 2019.jpgRoberto Gualtieri5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Deputy Ministers
Undersecretaries
  • Alessio Villarosa (M5S)
  • Pierpaolo Baretta (PD)
  • Maria Cecilia Guerra (LeU/Art.1)
Minister of Economic DevelopmentStefano Patuanelli5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Deputy Minister
  • Stefano Buffagni (M5S)
Undersecretaries
  • Alessandra Todde (M5S)
  • Mirella Liuzzi (M5S)
  • Gian Paolo Manzella (PD)
  • Alessia Morani (PD)
Minister of Agricultural, Food and Forestry PoliciesTeresa Bellanova 2109.jpgTeresa Bellanova5 September 2019 – 14 January 2021[b]
Italia Viva
Before 18 September 2019:
Democratic Party
Giuseppe Conte 2019 Official.jpgGiuseppe Conte
(Acting)
14 January 2021 – 13 February 2021Independent
Undersecretaries
  • Giuseppe L'Abbate (M5S)
Minister of the EnvironmentSergio Costa 2019.jpgSergio Costa5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Independent
Undersecretaries
  • Roberto Morassut (PD)
Minister of Infrastructure and TransportPaola De Micheli 2019.jpgPaola De Micheli5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Deputy Minister
  • Giancarlo Cancelleri (M5S)
Undersecretaries
  • Roberto Traversi (M5S)
  • Salvatore Margiotta (PD)
Minister of Labour and Social PoliciesNunzia Catalfo 2019.jpgNunzia Catalfo5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Undersecretaries
  • Stanislao Di Piazza (M5S)
  • Francesca Puglisi (PD)
Minister of Education, University and Research[c]Lorenzo Fioramonti5 September 2019 – 30 December 2019[d]Five Star Movement
Giuseppe Conte 2019 Official.jpgGiuseppe Conte
(Acting)
30 December 2019 – 10 January 2020Independent
Deputy Minister
Undersecretaries
  • Lucia Azzolina (M5S)
  • Giuseppe De Cristofaro (LeU/SI)
Minister of Public Education[c]Lucia Azzolina 2020.jpgLucia Azzolina10 January 2020 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Deputy Minister
Undersecretary
  • Giuseppe De Cristofaro (LeU/SI)
Minister of University and Research[c]Gaetano Manfredi 2020 (cropped).jpgGaetano Manfredi10 January 2020 – 13 February 2021Independent
Minister of Cultural Heritage and Activities and TourismDario Franceschini5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Undersecretaries
  • Anna Laura Orrico (M5S)
  • Lorenza Bonaccorsi (PD)
Minister of HealthRoberto Speranza 2020.jpgRoberto Speranza5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Free and Equal
(Art.1)
Deputy Minister
Undersecretaries
  • Sandra Zampa (PD)
Minister for Parliamentary Relations
(without portfolio)
Federico D'Incà (cropped).jpgFederico D'Incà5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Undersecretaries
  • Gianluca Castaldi (M5S)
  • Simona Malpezzi (PD)
Minister of Public Administration
(without portfolio)
Fabiana Dadone5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Minister of Regional Affairs and Autonomies
(without portfolio)
Francesco Boccia 2019.jpgFrancesco Boccia5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Minister for the South
(without portfolio)
Giuseppe Provenzano September 2019.jpgGiuseppe Provenzano5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Minister for Family and Equal Opportunities
(without portfolio)
Elena Bonetti cropped.jpgElena Bonetti5 September 2019 – 14 January 2021[e]Italia Viva
Before 18 September 2019:
Democratic Party
Giuseppe Conte 2019 Official.jpgGiuseppe Conte
(Acting)
14 January 2021 – 13 February 2021Independent
Minister of European Affairs
(without portfolio)
Vincenzo Amendola (cropped).jpgVincenzo Amendola5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Democratic Party
Undersecretaries
  • Laura Agea (M5S)
Minister for Sport and Youth Policies
(without portfolio)
Vincenzo Spadafora 2019.jpgVincenzo Spadafora5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Minister for Technological Innovation
(without portfolio)
Paola Pisano 2019.jpgPaola Pisano5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
Secretary of the Council of Ministers
(Undersecretary to the Presidency of the Council of Ministers)
Riccardo Fraccaro5 September 2019 – 13 February 2021Five Star Movement
  1. ^ Scalfarotto resigned during a press conference in which Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva, withdrew his support to the government.
  2. ^ Bellanova resigned during a press conference in which Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva, withdrew his support to the government.
  3. ^ a b c On 28 December 2019, after the resignation of former Minister of Education, University and Research, Lorenzo Fioramonti, the prime minister split the Ministry into a Ministry of Public Education and a Ministry of University and Research.
  4. ^ Fioramonti resigned after disagreements on the 2020 financial budget bill. According to Fioramonti, the approved bill allocated insufficient funds for education and research.
  5. ^ Bonetti resigned during a press conference in which Matteo Renzi, leader of Italia Viva, withdrew his support to the government.

References

  1. ^ a b "Here is Italy's new cabinet in full". www.thelocal.it. 4 September 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b Barigazzi, Jacopo (4 September 2019). "Italy's Conte presents Cabinet list, with MEP Gualtieri as finance minister". POLITICO. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
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  4. ^ "Conte Bis, lunedì alle 11 dibattito fiducia alla Camera". Adnkronos (in Italian). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
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  8. ^ "Governo Conte 2, è un esecutivo di 40enni: il più giovane della storia repubblicana. Per Di Maio record alla Farnesina". Il Fatto Quotidiano. 4 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b Johnson, Miles (26 January 2021). "Italy's PM Conte resigns as government crisis intensifies". Financial Times. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  10. ^ a b "Italy's PM Conte to resign on Tuesday, hopes to form new government". Italy's PM Conte to resign on Tuesday, hopes to form new government. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
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  12. ^ Riccardo Merlo (MAIE) confermato sottosegretario agli steri
  13. ^ La Camera vota la fiducia con 343 sì, il premier replica alla Camera fra le proteste. Alzata anche una sedia
  14. ^ Governo, il Conte bis incassa la fiducia alla Camera. Il discorso del premier
  15. ^ Amante, Angelo; Ciociola, Andrea (17 September 2019). "Former Italy PM Renzi leads breakaway from PD, still backs government". Reuters. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
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  22. ^ "Crisi di governo, secondo giro di consultazioni al Colle". Tgcom24.
  23. ^ "Ecco l'accordo sul Conte bis: Zingaretti dà il via libera, nodo su ministeri e manovra". Fanpage.
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Foto della deputata Fabiana Dadone
Alfonso Bonafede 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Alfonso Bonafede
Paola Pisano 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Paola Pisano
Giuseppe Provenzano September 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Giuseppe Provenzano
Luciana Lamorgese crop.jpg
Author/Creator: Ministero dell'Interno, Licence: CC BY 3.0 it
Luciana Lamorgese
Roberto Speranza 2020.jpg
Author/Creator: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Roberto Speranza in 2020
Luigi Di Maio 2019 Official.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY 3.0 it
Luigi Di Maio
Nunzia Catalfo 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Nunzia Catalfo
Lucia Azzolina 2020.jpg

Lucia Azzolina in 2020
Federico D'Incà (cropped).jpg
Author/Creator: Pietro Giammona, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
ritratto frontale del ministro per i rapporti con il parlamento governo Conte II Federico D'Incà
Regional Composition of the Italian Council of Ministers (Conte II Cabinet 2019).svg
The number of ministers from the 20 regions in the Conte II Cabinet.
Gaetano Manfredi 2020 (cropped).jpg

Il Ministro dell'Università e della Ricerca Gaetano Manfredi alla cerimonia di inaugurazione dell’Anno Accademico 2020/2021 dell’Università degli Studi di Macerata(Foto Francesco Ammendola - Ufficio Stampa e Comunicazione della Presidenza della Repubblica)
Vincenzo Spadafora 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Vincenzo Spadafora
Francesco Boccia 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Francesco Boccia
Giuseppe Conte 2019 Official.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Giuseppe Conte in 2019.
Mattarella Conte 2019.jpg

Sergio Mattarella and Giuseppe Conte in 2019.
Sergio Costa 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY 3.0 it
Sergio Costa
Elena Bonetti cropped.jpg
Author/Creator: Mariodelarosa, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Elena bonetti a milano
Lorenzo Guerini 2019 Official.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY 3.0 it
Lorenzo Guerini
Roberto Gualtieri 2019.jpg
Author/Creator: Governo Italiano, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Roberto Gualtieri