Climate of Antarctica

Surface temperature of Antarctica in winter and summer from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on Earth. The continent is also extremely dry (it is a desert), averaging 166 mm (6.5 in) of precipitation per year. Snow rarely melts on most parts of the continent, and, after being compressed, becomes the glacier ice that makes up the ice sheet. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, because of the katabatic winds. Most of Antarctica has an ice-cap climate (Köppen classification EF) with very cold, generally extremely dry weather.

Temperature

The highest temperature ever recorded on Antarctica was 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) recorded at Signy Research Station, Signy Island on 30 January 1982.[1][2]

The highest temperature on the Antarctic mainland was 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) at the Esperanza station (Argentina) on 6 February 2020.[3]

The Antarctic temperature changes during the last several glacial and interglacial cycles of the present ice age

The lowest air temperature record, the lowest reliably measured temperature on Antarctica was set on 21 July 1983, when a temperature of −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) was observed at Vostok Station.[1][4] For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (19.3 °F) colder than subliming dry ice (at sea level pressure). The elevation of the location is 3,488 meters (11,444 feet).

Satellite measurements have identified even lower ground temperatures, with −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) having been observed at the cloud-free East Antarctic Plateau on 10 August 2010.[5]

The lowest recorded temperature of any location on Earth's surface at81°48′S 63°30′E / 81.8°S 63.5°E / -81.8; 63.5 was revised with new data in 2018 in nearly 100 locations, ranging from −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F)[6] to −98 °C (−144.4 °F).[7] This unnamed part of the Antarctic plateau, between Dome A and Dome F, was measured on 10 August 2010, and the temperature was deduced from radiance measured by the Landsat 8 and other satellites. It was discovered during a National Snow and Ice Data Center review of stored data in December 2013[8] but revised by researchers on 25 June 2018.[9][10] This temperature is not directly comparable to the –89.2 °C reading quoted above, since it is a skin temperature deduced from satellite-measured upwelling radiance, rather than a thermometer-measured temperature of the air 1.5 m (5 ft) above the ground surface.

The mean annual temperature of the interior is −57 °C (−70.6 °F). The coast is warmer; on the coast Antarctic average temperatures are around −10 °C (14.0 °F) (in the warmest parts of Antarctica) and in the elevated inland they average about −55 °C (−67.0 °F) in Vostok.[11][12] Monthly means at McMurdo Station range from −26 °C (−14.8 °F) in August to −3 °C (26.6 °F) in January.[13] At the South Pole, the highest temperature ever recorded was −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) on 25 December 2011.[14] Along the Antarctic Peninsula, temperatures as high as 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) have been recorded, though the summer temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F) most of the time. Severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean. East Antarctica is colder than West Antarctica because of its higher elevation. The Antarctic Peninsula has the most moderate climate. Higher temperatures occur in January along the coast and average slightly below freezing.

Precipitation

Map of average annual precipitation on Antarctica (mm liquid equivalent)

The total precipitation on Antarctica, averaged over the entire continent, is about 166 millimetres (6.5 inches) per year (Vaughan et al., J Climate, 1999). The actual rates vary widely, from high values over the Peninsula (15 to 25 inches a year) to very low values (as little as 50 millimetres (2.0 inches) in the high interior (Bromwich, Reviews of Geophysics, 1988). Areas that receive less than 250 millimetres (9.8 inches) of precipitation per year are classified as deserts. Almost all Antarctic precipitation falls as snow.[15] Rainfall is rare and mainly occurs during the summer in coastal areas and surrounding islands.[15] Note that the quoted precipitation is a measure of its equivalence to water, rather than being the actual depth of snow. The air in Antarctica is also very dry. The low temperatures result in a very low absolute humidity, which means that dry skin and cracked lips are a continual problem for scientists and expeditioners working on the continent.

Weather condition classification

The weather in Antarctica can be highly variable, and the weather conditions can often change dramatically in short periods of time. There are various classifications for describing weather conditions in Antarctica; restrictions given to workers during the different conditions vary by station and nation.[16][17][18]

Ice cover

Nearly all of Antarctica is covered by a sheet of ice that is, on average, at least 1,500 m (5,000 ft) thick. Antarctica contains 90% of the world's ice and more than 70% of its fresh water. If all the land-ice covering Antarctica were to melt — around 30×10^6 km3 (7.2×10^6 cu mi) of ice — the seas would rise by over 60 m (200 ft).[19] The Antarctic is so cold that even with increases of a few degrees, temperatures would generally remain below the melting point of ice. Higher temperatures are expected to lead to more precipitation, which takes the form of snow. This would increase the amount of ice in Antarctica, offsetting approximately one third of the expected sea level rise from thermal expansion of the oceans.[20] During a recent decade, East Antarctica thickened at an average rate of about1.8 cm (1116 in) per year while West Antarctica showed an overall thinning of0.9 cm (38 in) per year.[21] For the contribution of Antarctica to present and future sea level change, see sea level rise. Because ice flows, albeit slowly, the ice within the ice sheet is younger than the age of the sheet itself.

Morphometric data for Antarctica (from Drewry, 1983)
SurfaceArea
(km²)
PercentMean ice thickness
(m)
Volume
(km³)
Percent
Inland ice sheet11,965,70085.972,45029,324,70097.00
Ice shelves1,541,71011.08475731,9002.43
Ice rises78,970.5767053,100.18
Glacier ice (total)13,586,380 2,16030,109,800¹
Rock outcrop331,6902.38
Antarctica (total)13,918,070100.002,16030,109,800¹100.00
¹The total ice volume is different from the sum of the component parts because individual figures have been rounded.
Regional ice data (from Drewry and others, 1982; Drewry, 1983)
RegionArea
(km²)
Mean ice
thickness
(m)
Volume
(km³)
East Antarctica
Inland ice9,855,5702,63025,920,100
Ice shelves293,510400117,400
Ice rises4,0904001,600
West Antarctica (excluding Antarctic Peninsula)
Inland ice sheet1,809,7601,7803,221,400
Ice shelves104,86037539,300
Ice rises3,5503751,300
Antarctic Peninsula
Inland ice sheet300,380610183,200
Ice shelves144,75030043,400
Ice rises1,570300500
Ross Ice Shelf
Ice shelf525,840427224,500
Ice rises10,3205005,100
Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf
Ice shelf472,760650307,300
Ice rises59,44075044,600

Ice shelves

Antarctic ice shelves, 1998

About 75% of the coastline of Antarctica is ice shelf. The majority of ice shelf consists of floating ice, and a lesser amount consists of glaciers that move slowly from the land mass into the sea. Ice shelves lose mass through breakup of glacial ice (calving), or basal melting due to warm ocean water under the ice.[22]

Melting or breakup of floating shelf ice does not directly affect global sea levels; however, ice shelves have a buttressing effect on the ice flow behind them. If ice shelves break up, the ice flow behind them may accelerate, resulting in increasing melt of the Antarctic ice sheet and an increasing contribution to sea level rise.

Known changes in coastline ice around the Antarctic Peninsula:

  • 1936–1989: Wordie Ice Shelf significantly reduced in size.
  • 1995: Ice in the Prince Gustav Channel disintegrated.
  • Parts of the Larsen Ice Shelf broke up in recent decades.
    • 1995: The Larsen A ice shelf disintegrated in January 1995.
    • 2001: 3,250 km2 (1,250 sq mi) of the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated in February 2001. It had been gradually retreating before the breakup event.
    • 2015: A study concluded that the remaining Larsen B ice-shelf will disintegrate by the end of the decade, based on observations of faster flow and rapid thinning of glaciers in the area.[23]

The George VI Ice Shelf, which may be on the brink of instability,[24] has probably existed for approximately 8,000 years, after melting 1,500 years earlier.[25] Warm ocean currents may have been the cause of the melting.[26] Not only are the ice sheets losing mass, they are losing mass at an accelerating rate.[27]

Climate change

Temperature change due to climate change in Antarctica is not stable over the whole continent. West Antarctica is warming rapidly, while the inland regions are cooled by the winds in Antarctica. Water in the West Antarctic has warmed by 1 °C since year 1955. Further increase in temperature in water and on land will affect the climate, ice mass and life on the continent and have global implications. Present-day greenhouse gas concentrations are higher than ever according to ice cores from Antarctica, which indicates that warming on this continent is not part of a natural cycle and attributable to anthropogenic climate change.

Antarctica has lost 2720 ± 1390 gigatons of ice during the period from 1992 to 2017, and estimations are that in year 2100 the sea level will rise by 25 cm just from the water bound in ice in Antarctica. The melting of the Antarctic ice sheet, particularly the West Antarctic, will shift ocean currents and have a global impact. Climate change affects the biodiversity on the continent, although the extent of this is uncertain as many species in Antarctica remain undiscovered. There are documented changes to flora and fauna on the continent already. Changes include increase in population size in plants, and adaptation to new habitat by penguins. Increase in temperature lead to melting of permafrost, which contributes to release of greenhouse gases and chemicals that trapped in the ice.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "WMO verifies highest temperatures for Antarctic Region". 1 March 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  2. ^ "WMO verifies one temperature record for Antarctic continent and rejects another". World Meteorological Organization. 1 July 2021. Archived from the original on 2 July 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  3. ^ "WMO verifies one temperature record for Antarctic continent and rejects another". The World Meteorological Organization (WMO). 1 July 2021. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  4. ^ "World: Lowest Temperature - ASU World Meteorological Organization". asu.edu. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010.
  5. ^ Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Jonathan Amos, BBC News, 9 December 2013.
  6. ^ Natasha Vizcarra (9 December 2013). "Landsat 8 helps unveil the coldest place on Earth". National Snow and Ice Data Center. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  7. ^ Natasha Vizcarra (25 May 2018). "New study explains Antarctica's coldest temperatures". The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).
  8. ^ Jonathan Amos (9 December 2013). "Coldest spot on Earth identified by satellite". BBC News Science & Environment. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
  9. ^ Ted Scambos (25 May 2018). "Scambros et al 2018" (PDF). The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).
  10. ^ NOT CORRECTED. "BBC Corrections and Clarifications page". Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  11. ^ "Antarctic weather". www.antarctica.gov.au. Archived from the original on 5 November 2016.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Antarctica Climate data and graphs, South Pole, McMurdo and Vostok". coolantarctica.com. Archived from the original on 9 October 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
  14. ^ Matthew A. Lazzara (28 December 2011). "Preliminary Report: Record Temperatures at South Pole (and nearby AWS sites…)". Archived from the original on 30 December 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
  15. ^ a b "La Antártida" (in Spanish). Dirección Nacional del Antártico. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  16. ^ "Weathering The Conditions" (PDF). The Antarctic Sun. 18 October 1997. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 June 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  17. ^ Jim Scott. "Weather and Travel" (PDF). Welcome to McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  18. ^ "Field Manual" (PDF). Antarctica New Zealand. New Zealand Government. p. 37. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  19. ^ "Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis". Grida.no. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  20. ^ "Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis". Grida.no. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
  21. ^ Davis CH, Li Y, McConnell JR, Frey MM, Hanna E (2005). "Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise". Science. 308 (5730): 1898–1901. Bibcode:2005Sci...308.1898D. doi:10.1126/science.1110662. PMID 15905362. S2CID 31797055.
  22. ^ E. Rignot; S. Jacobs; J. Mouginot; B. Scheuchl (2013). "Ice-Shelf Melting Around Antarctica". Science. 341 (6143): 266–270. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..266R. doi:10.1126/science.1235798. PMID 23765278. S2CID 206548095. Archived from the original on 13 July 2015.
  23. ^ NASA (14 May 2015). "NASA Study Shows Antarctica's Larsen B Ice Shelf Nearing Its Final Act". Archived from the original on 9 June 2015.
  24. ^ Bentley, Mike; Hodgson, Dominic. "Millennial-scale variability of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula". Natural Environment Research Council. Archived from the original on 12 September 2002. Retrieved 8 June 2015.
  25. ^ Bentley, M.J. (1), Hjort, C. (2) Ingolfsson, O. (3) and Sugden, D.E. (4). "Holocene Instability of the George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula". Archived from the original on 20 October 2004. Retrieved 8 June 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ "Press Release – New Year's Honours for British Antarctic Survey Personnel". British Antarctic Survey. 5 January 2006. Archived from the original on 15 December 2006.
  27. ^ "NASA - Is Antarctica Melting?". www.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 12 December 2016.

Sources

  • D. G. Vaughan; G. J. Marshall; W. M. Connolley; J. C. King; R. M. Mulvaney (2001). "Devil in the detail". Science. 293 (5536): 1777–9. doi:10.1126/science.1065116. PMID 11546858. S2CID 129175116.
  • M.J. Bentley; D.A. Hodgson; D.E. Sugden; S.J. Roberts; J.A. Smith; M.J. Leng; C. Bryant (2005). "Early Holocene retreat of the George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula". Geology. 33 (3): 173–6. Bibcode:2005Geo....33..173B. doi:10.1130/G21203.1.

Further reading

External links

Climate

Climate change in Antarctica

Antarctic ice

Media files used on this page

Antarctica (orthographic projection).svg
Author/Creator: Heraldry, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Antarctica (orthographic projection)
Antarctica ice shelves.png
Antarctic principal geographic features, with ice shelves labeled Source:Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of Antarctica. USGS Fact Sheet 050-98. Retrieved on February 28.
Five Myr Climate Change.svg
Author/Creator: Dragons flight (Robert A. Rohde), svg by Jo, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0

reconstruction of the past 5 million years of climate history, based on oxygen isotope fractionation (serving as a proxy for the total global mass of glacial ice sheets). See the discussion below for a summary of the methods and models used.

Note that the resolution of the graph has suffered in the conversion from png to svg. Use the original png if possible.

Also note that in 2010, User:SeL media switched the orientation of the time axis and the vertical axes, apparently without discussion, and some descriptions of the image may refer to the older version, resulting in confusion of 'right' and 'left' in the image.
File-Dgv-surfbal-1.gif
Author/Creator:

William M. Connolley (talk)

, Licence: Cc-by-sa-3.0

Map of average annual precipitation (liquid equivalent, mm) on Antarctica with more legible legend

Antarctic surface temperature.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0