Ceiba pentandra

Ceiba pentandra
Kapok tree Honolulu.jpg
In Honolulu

Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Tracheophytes
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Rosids
Order:Malvales
Family:Malvaceae
Genus:Ceiba
Species:
C. pentandra
Binomial name
Ceiba pentandra
Synonyms[2]
  • Bombax cumanense Kunth
  • Bombax mompoxense Kunth
  • Bombax orientale Spreng.
  • Bombax pentandrum L.
  • Ceiba caribaea (DC.) A.Chev.
  • Ceiba guineensis (Schumach.) A.Chev.
  • Ceiba occidentalis (Spreng.) Burkill
  • Ceiba thonningii A.Chev.
  • Eriodendron caribaeum (DC.) G.Don
  • Eriodendron occidentale (Spreng.) G.Don
  • Eriodendron orientale Kostel.
  • Eriodendron pentandrum (L.) Kurz
  • Gossampinus alba Buch.-Ham.
  • Gossampinus rumphii Schott & Endl.
  • Xylon pentandrum (L.) Kuntze

Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously emplaced in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var guineensis) West Africa. A somewhat smaller variety was introduced to South and Southeast Asia, where it is cultivated.

The tree and the cotton-like fluff obtained from its seed pods are commonly known in English as kapok, a Malay-derived name which originally applied to Bombax ceiba, a native of tropical Asia.[3] In Spanish-speaking countries the tree is commonly known as "ceiba". The tree is cultivated for its cottonlike seed fibre, particularly in south-east Asia, and is also known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton or samauma.

Characteristics

Base of giant specimen in eastern Ecuador
Thorny buttress roots and trunk base

The tree grows to 240 ft (73 m) as confirmed by climbing and tape drop[4] with reports of Kapoks up to 77 meters (252 feet).[5] Trunks can often be up to 3 m (10 ft) in diameter above the extensive buttress roots. The very largest individuals, however, can be 5.8 m (19 ft) thick or more above the buttresses.[6][7][8][9]

The buttress roots can be clearly seen in photographs extending 12 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft) up the trunk of some specimens[10] and extending out from the trunk as much as 20 m (65 ft) and then continuing below ground to a total length of 50 m (165 ft)[11][12]

The trunk and many of the larger branches are often crowded with large simple thorns. These major branches, usually 4 to 6 in number, can be up to 1.8 m (6 ft) thick[13][14] and form a crown of foliage as much as 61 m (201 ft) in width.[15] The palmate leaves are composed of 5 to 9 leaflets, each up to 20 cm (8 in) long.

The trees produce several hundred 15 cm (6 in) pods containing seeds surrounded by a fluffy, yellowish fibre that is a mix of lignin and cellulose.

The referenced reports make it clear that C. pentandra is among the largest trees in the world.

Uses

Twigs laden with dehiscent fruit showing kapok

The commercial tree is most heavily cultivated in the rainforests of Asia, notably in Java (hence its nicknames), the Philippines, Malaysia, and Hainan Island in China, as well as in South America.

The flowers are an important source of nectar and pollen for honey bees and bats.

Bats are the primary pollinators of the night-blooming flowers.

Native tribes along the Amazon River harvest the fibre to wrap around their blowgun darts. The fibres create a seal that allows the pressure to force the dart through the tube.

The fiber is light, very buoyant, resilient, resistant to water, but very flammable. The process of harvesting and separating the fiber is labor-intensive and menial. It is difficult to spin, but is used as an alternative to down as filling in mattresses, pillows, upholstery, zafus, and stuffed toys such as teddy bears, and for insulation. It was previously much used in life jackets and similar devices until synthetic materials largely replaced the fiber. The seeds produce an oil that is used locally in soap and can be used as fertilizer.

Traditional medicinal uses

Ceiba pentandra bark decoction has been used as a diuretic, as an aphrodisiac, and to treat headache, as well as type II diabetes. It is used as an additive in some versions of the psychedelic drink Ayahuasca.

Seed oil

A vegetable oil can be pressed from the seeds. The oil has a yellow colour and a pleasant, mild odour and taste,[16] resembling cottonseed oil. It becomes rancid quickly when exposed to air. Kapok oil is produced in India, Indonesia and Malaysia. It has an iodine value of 85–100; this makes it a nondrying oil, which means that it does not dry out significantly when exposed to air.[16] The oil has some potential as a biofuel and in paint preparation.

Religion and folklore

The tree is a sacred symbol in Maya mythology.[17]

Sacred tree in Palo, Arará and Santería.[18][19]

According to the folklore of Trinidad and Tobago, the Castle of the Devil is a huge C. pentandra growing deep in the forest in which Bazil the demon of death was imprisoned by a carpenter. The carpenter tricked the devil into entering the tree in which he carved seven rooms, one above the other, into the trunk. Folklore claims that Bazil still resides in that tree.[20]

Most masks coming from Burkina Faso, especially those of Bobo and Mossi people, are carved from C. pentandra timber.[21]

Symbolism

Ceiba pentandra is the national emblem of Guatemala,[17] Puerto Rico,[22] and Equatorial Guinea. It appears on the coat of arms and flag of Equatorial Guinea.[23]

The Cotton Tree is a landmark in downtown Freetown, Sierra Leone, and is considered a symbol of freedom for the slaves that immigrated there.

Saigon, one of a number of older names for Ho Chi Minh City, may be derived from Sài (Sino-Vietnamese "palisade" etc.) and the Vietnamese name for the Kapok tree (bông) gòn, although, in this instance, the tree intended may well be, not the New World Ceiba pentandra, but the Old World Bombax ceiba.

Gallery

See also

  • The Great Kapok Tree
  • Xtabay
  • Parque de la Ceiba
  • Fiber crop

References

  1. ^ Rivers, M.C.; Mark, J. (2017). "Ceiba pentandra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T61782438A61782442. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T61782438A61782442.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Ceiba pentandra". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  3. ^ "Bombax ceiba (PROSEA)". Pl@ntUse. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  4. ^ <anonymous> (May 22, 2010). "Very huge tree in Thailand". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  5. ^ "mayanodyssey.com - Informationen zum Thema mayanodyssey". www.mayanodyssey.com.
  6. ^ David G. Campbell, LAND OF GHOSTS (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 2005) p. 129.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2017-02-03.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Peru Journals". www.drwren.com.
  9. ^ http://www.ecology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/amazonCeiba-big-tree-rf223.jpg
  10. ^ Dr. Al C. Carder, FOREST GIANTS OF THE WORLD (Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1995) p. 145 (Photo plate 123 with caption).
  11. ^ Peter A. Furley D. Phil. and Walter W. Newey Ph.D., GEOGRAPHY OF THE BIOSPHERE (London: Butterworth, 1983) p. 279.
  12. ^ Michael Bright et al, 1000 WONDERS OF NATURE (London: Reader's Digest Assoc., 2001) p. 332.
  13. ^ Linda Gamlin and Anuschka de Rohan, MYSTERIES OF THE RAINFOREST (Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Assoc., 1998) p. 79.
  14. ^ Ivan T. Sanderson and David Loth, IVAN T. SANDERSON'S BOOK OF GREAT JUNGLES (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965) p. 78.
  15. ^ Dr. Al C. Carder, GIANT TREES OF WESTERN AMERICA AND THE WORLD (Madeira Park, British Columbia: Harbour Publishing, 2005) p. 129. Measured by Prof. Robert van Pelt in 2003.
  16. ^ a b "Kapok seed oil". www.tis-gdv.de.
  17. ^ a b Hellmuth, Nicholas (March 2011). "Ceiba pentandra" (PDF). Revue Magazine.
  18. ^ Cabrera, Lydia (2006). El Monte. Editorial Letras Cubanas. p. 171ff. ISBN 978-959-10-1546-4.
  19. ^ Ramírez Cabrera, Luis E. (2014). Diccionario básico de religiones de origin africano en Cuba. Editorial Oriente. p. 77. ISBN 978-959-11-0972-9.
  20. ^ "Tobago's Avatar – 'The tree of life'". Tobago News. 2012-03-01. Archived from the original on 2013-06-30.
  21. ^ Bontadi, Jarno; Bernabei, Mauro (March 2016). "Inside the Dogon Masks: The Selection of Woods for Ritual Objects". IAWA Journal / International Association of Wood Anatomists. 37: 84–97 – via Researchgate.
  22. ^ Philpott, Don (2003). Landmark Puerto Rico. Hunter Publishing, Inc. p. 14. ISBN 9781901522341.
  23. ^ Berry, Bruce. "Equatorial Guinea". CRW Flags. Retrieved 2013-04-27.

External links

Media files used on this page

Status iucn3.1 LC.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Wiktionary-logo-en-v2.svg
Author/Creator: Dan Polansky based on work currently attributed to Wikimedia Foundation but originally created by Smurrayinchester, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A logo derived from File:WiktionaryEn.svg, a logo showing a 3 x 3 matrix of variously rotated tiles with a letter or character on each tile. The derivation consisted in removing the tiles that form the background of each of the shown characters. File:WiktionaryEn.svg is under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike, created by Smurrayinchester, and attributed to Wikimedia Foundation. This is the version without the wordmark.
JfCeiba pentandraKapokfvf 07.JPG
Author/Creator: Judgefloro, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ceiba pentandra - in south-east Asia, and is also known as the Java cotton, Java kapok, silk-cotton, Samauma, or ceiba or bulak in Tagalog; Family Bombacaceae Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn White silk cotton tree;Ji bei Ceiba caribaea (DC.) A. Chev. in Barangay Bagong Sikat,]Cabiao, Nueva Ecija.
Bombax LalBagh.JPG
Very Large Cotton-Silk Kapok in Lal Bagh gardens in Bangalore (Bangaluru), India
Ceiba pentandra fruit in hg.jpg
Author/Creator: Hannes Grobe Hgrobe 10:16, 25 May 2006 (UTC), Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Kapok fruit of Ceiba pentandra, Madeira, Portugal
Ceiba pentandra IMG 2766.jpg
Author/Creator: Ariel Rodríguez-Vargas, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
La Ceiba pentandra, conocida localmente como Bonga o Bongo en Chiriquí, Panama, es un árbol de gran dimensión.
Ceiba pentandra 0005.jpg
(c) Atamari, CC BY-SA 3.0
White-flowered silk cotton tree
Ceiba pentandra (2287675871).jpg
Author/Creator: Dinesh Valke from Thane, India, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0

Bombacaceae (baobab family) » Ceiba pentandra

SAY-buh -- Latinized form of the South American name for this tree pen-TAN-druh -- meaning, five stamens

commonly known as: true kapok tree, white silk cotton tree • Bengali: schwetsimul • Hindi: safed savara, safed semul • Marathi: safeta savara • Sanskrit: shweta shalmali • Tamil: panji tannaku, shalmali • Telugu: tella buruga • Urdu: sambal

Origin: Tropical America

References: Dave's GardenZipcode ZooMytho-FleursM.M.N.P.D.
Kapok tree Honolulu.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Kapok (Ceiba pentandra) 2.jpg
Author/Creator: Mokkie, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ceiba pentandra. Common names: Silk Cotton Tree. Java Cotton Tree. Kapok Tree. 吉贝木棉 (Chinese)
Ceiba Tree - panoramio.jpg
(c) Juan Ortega, CC BY 3.0
Ceiba Tree
Kapok bark I IMG 2556.jpg
(c) I, J.M.Garg, CC BY-SA 3.0
Black-hooded Oriole, Oriolus xanthornus- Adult male in Kapok Ceiba pentandra tree in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Identified by Jimfbleak
Ceiba pentandra 22zz.jpg
Author/Creator: Photo by David J. Stang, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location taken: Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Miami, FL USA. Names: Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn., árbol Capoc, Albero del kapok, Bông gòn, Bulak, Buma, Capoc, Capoquer, Ceiba, Ceibo, Cotton Silk Tree, Cotton Tree, Fromager, Kapok, Kapok arbo, Kapok Tree, Kapokbaum, Kapokboom, Kapokier, Kapokkipuu, Kapokovec, Kapoktree, Kapuk, Kapuk randu,<SP>Lupuna, Mafumeira, Mapou, Pochote, Puchowiec pięciopręcikowy, Randu, Rimi, Samauma, Samauma-Da-Várzea, Silk Cotton Tree, Silk Cotton-Tree, Silk-Cottontree, Tikrasis kapokmedis, Vavae, White Silk Cotton Tree, White Silk-Cottontree, Бавовняне дерево, Хлопковое дерево, सेमर, இலவு, తెల్లబూరుగ, นุ่น, カポック, 吉贝, 美丽异木 Classification: Plantae > Magnoliophyta > Magnoliopsida<SP>> Malvales > Malvaceae > Ceibeae > Ceiba > Ceiba pentandra.
Ceiba pentandra 0011.jpg
(c) Atamari, CC BY-SA 3.0
White-flowered silk cotton tree
吉貝木棉 Ceiba pentandra 20211016172200 08.jpg
Author/Creator: Ping an Chang, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Photo taken in October 2021. Taiwan.
Ceiba pentandra (324596620).jpg
Author/Creator: Dinesh Valke from Thane, India, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0

Common name: White Silk Cotton Tree, True Kapok Tree, {Schwetsimul, Setsimul (Bengali)} {Safed Semul सफेद सेमुल, Safed savara सफेद सावरा (Hindi)}, Safeta savara सफेत सावरा (Marathi), Shweta shalmali श्वेत शालमली (Sanskrit), {Panji tannaku பஞ்சித்தணக்கு, Shalmali ல்மலி (Tamil)}, Tella buruga (Telugu), Sambal (Urdu)

Botanical name: Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. - [ (SAY-buh) latinized form of the South American name for this tree; (pen-TAN-druh) five stamens ] Synonyms: Bombax guineensis Schum. & Thonn. • Bombax occidentale Spreng. • Bombax orientale Spreng. • Bombax pentandrum L. • Ceiba caribaea (DC.) A. Chev. • Ceiba guineensis (Schum. & Thonn.) A. Chev. • Ceiba occidentalis (Spreng.) Burkill • Ceiba thonningii A. Chev. • Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. • Eriodendron caribaeum G. Don • Eriodendron guineense G. Don & Thonn. • Eriodendron orientale Kostel • Eriodendron pentandrum (L.) Kurz • Xylon pentandrum (L.) Kuntze Family: Bombacaceae (baobab family)

Origin: Tropical America

Ceiba flowers open in the evening and are pollinated by pollen- and nectar-feeding bats.

Ceiba is also the national tree of both Guatemala and Puerto Rico.

Courtesy: - Dave's Garden - Zipcode Zoo - EcoPort - Mytho-Fleurs - Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database

Note: Identification or description may not be accurate; it is subject to your review.
Ceiba Nassau 1900.jpg
Ceiba or silk cotton tree, Nassau, Bahama Islands
Ceiba pentandra L. Gaertn.jpg
Author/Creator: Arquitectogarcia, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
nombre comun; Ceiba
Louise van Panhuys, plantage Nut en Schadelijk met grote kankantriboom, 1813.jpg
Aquarel van een landschap met een grote boom bij de plantage Nut en Schadelijk in Suriname, geschilderd door Louise van Panhuys tijdens haar verblijf in Suriname als echtgenote van een plantagehouder (1811-1816). Collectie Universiteitsbibliotheek Frankfurt am Main.
Louise van Panhuys, kankantriboom, in de verte bananenbomen, 1813.jpg
Aquarel van een landschap met een grote kapokboom (kankantri) in Suriname, geschilderd door Louise van Panhuys tijdens haar verblijf in Suriname als echtgenote van een plantagehouder (1811-1816). Collectie Universiteitsbibliotheek Frankfurt am Main.
吉貝木棉 Ceiba pentandra 20211016172200 09.jpg
Author/Creator: Ping an Chang, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Photo taken in October 2021. Taiwan.
Ceiba pentandra IMG 2772.jpg
Author/Creator: Ariel Rodríguez-Vargas, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
La Ceiba pentandra, conocida localmente como Bonga o Bongo en Chiriquí, Panama, es un árbol de gran dimensión.
Ceiba pentranda (17161121825).jpg
Author/Creator: Dick Culbert from Gibsons, B.C., Canada, Licence: CC BY 2.0
The huge buttresses of a giant Kapok tree in Sacha Reserve, eastern Ecuador.
Ceiba pentandra fruit out hg.jpg
Author/Creator: Hannes Grobe Hgrobe 10:18, 25 May 2006 (UTC), Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Kapok fruit (closed) of Ceiba pentandra, Madeira, Portugal
Ceiba pentandra MS 4330.jpg
Author/Creator: Marco Schmidt [1], Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flower of Ceiba pentandra, Ouagadougou University Campus, Burkina Faso
Malvales - Ceiba pentandra - 8.jpg
Author/Creator: Emőke Dénes, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The cotton-like fluffs of the Java cotton or Java kapok (Ceiba pentandra) on the ground, at the Monte Albán, Oaxaca, Mexico.
Ceiba (Ceiba pentandra) (14550008361).jpg
Author/Creator: Alejandro Bayer Tamayo from Armenia, Colombia, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Ceiba (Ceiba pentandra)
Peter Murray-Rust in front of Ceiba pentandra in Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro - 20140823 115944.jpg
Author/Creator: Daniel Mietchen, Licence: CC0
Peter Murray-Rust in front of Ceiba pentandra in the Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro.
Chiapa de Corzo - 1000jähriger Ceiba-Baum 2.jpg
Author/Creator: Wolfgang Sauber, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Chiapa de Corzo ( Chiapas ). 1000-year-old Ceiba pentandra tree at the market square.
Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. (9327946214).jpg
Author/Creator: Dinesh Valke from Thane, India, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0

Bombacaceae (baobab family) » Ceiba pentandra

SAY-buh -- Latinized form of the South American name for this tree pen-TAN-druh -- bearing five stamens

commonly known as: true kapok tree, white silk cotton tree • Bengali: schwetsimul • Gujarati: સફેદ શીમળો safed shimlo • Hindi: सफेद सावरा safed savara, सफेद सेमुल safed semul, शाल्मलि shalmali • Malayalam: പഞ്ഞിമരം panjimaram, ശീമപ്പൂള siimappuula • Marathi: पांढरी सावर pandhari savar, सफेत सावरा safeta savara • Sanskrit: श्वेत शालमली shweta shalmali • Tamil: பஞ்சித்தணக்கு panji tannaku, ல்மலி shalmali • Telugu: తెల్ల బూరుగ tella buruga • Urdu: سيمل semal, شالملي shalmali

Native to: tropical America

References: Dave's GardenZipcode ZooMytho-FleursM.M.N.P.D.
Kapok-Ceiba pentandra 03.JPG
Author/Creator: Philstone, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ceiba pentandra near Mahajanga at Madasgascar
Ceiba pentandra - flor (7554287938).jpg
Author/Creator: Tyrrhium, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Ceiba pentandra - flor
Malvales - Ceiba pentandra - 10.jpg
Author/Creator: Emőke Dénes, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Java cotton or Java kapok (Ceiba pentandra) bark at the Monte Albán, Oaxaca, Mexico.