Caribbean

Coordinates:14°31′32″N 75°49′06″W / 14.52556°N 75.81833°W / 14.52556; -75.81833

Caribbean
Caribbean general map.png
Area275,400 km2 (106,300 sq mi)
Population44,182,048[1][2]
Population density151.5/km2 (392/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsAfrican, European, Indian, Latino or Hispanic (Spanish, Portuguese, French, Mestizo, Mulatto, Pardo, and Zambo), Chinese, Jewish, Arab, Amerindian, Javanese,[3] Hmong, Multiracial
ReligionsChristianity, Hinduism, Islam, Afro-American religions, Traditional African religions, Rastafarianism, Native American religion, Judaism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (incl. Taoism and Confucianism), Bahá'í, Kebatinan, Sikhism, Irreligion, others
DemonymCaribbean, West Indian
Countries13 sovereign states
Dependencies
LanguagesEnglish, French, Spanish, Dutch, French Creoles, English Creoles, Dutch Creoles, Papiamento, Caribbean Hindustani, Chinese, among others
Time zonesUTC−5 to UTC−4
Internet TLDMultiple
Calling codeMultiple
Largest cities
UN M49 code029 – Caribbean
419Latin America
019Americas
001World

The Caribbean (/ˌkærɪˈbən, kəˈrɪbiən/, locally /ˈkærɪbiæn/;[5] Spanish: El Caribe; French: la Caraïbe; Haitian Creole: Karayib; Dutch: De Caraïben) is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea[6] and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean)[7] and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America and north of South America islets, reefs and cays.[8] Island arcs delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea:[9] the Greater Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (which includes the Leeward Antilles). They form the West Indies with the nearby Lucayan Archipelago (the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands), which are considered to be part of the Caribbean despite not bordering the Caribbean Sea. On the mainland, Belize, Nicaragua, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, and the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amapá in Brazil) are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.[10]

Geopolitically, the islands of the Caribbean (the West Indies) are often regarded as a region of North America, though sometimes they are included in Central America or left as a region of their own.[11][12] They are organized into 30 sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.[13] From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

Etymology and pronunciation

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.[14]

The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are /ˌkærɪˈbən/ (KARR-ə-BEE-ən), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and /kəˈrɪbiən/ (kə-RIB-ee-ən), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.[15] This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for more than 75 years.[16] It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer /ˌkærɪˈbən/ (KARR-ə-BEE-ən) while North American speakers more typically use /kəˈrɪbiən/ (kə-RIB-ee-ən),[17] but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too.[18][19][20][21] According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct".[22]

The Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead, /ˈkærɪbiæn/ (KARR-ih-bee-an).[5][22]

Definition

Map of the Caribbean (Panama not shown)

The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to Africa, slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.

Countries and territories of the Caribbean today

Islands in and near the Caribbean
Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations
FlagCountry or territory[24][25][26]SovereigntyStatusArea
(km2)[27]
Population
(2021 est.)[1][2]
Density
(people per km2)
Capital
AnguillaAnguillaUnited KingdomBritish overseas territory9115,753164.8The Valley
Antigua and BarbudaAntigua and BarbudaIndependentConstitutional monarchy44293,219199.1St. John's
ArubaArubaKingdom of the NetherlandsConstituent kingdom180106,537594.4Oranjestad
The BahamasThe Bahamas[28]IndependentConstitutional monarchy13,943407,90624.5Nassau
BarbadosBarbadosIndependentRepublic430287,025595.3Bridgetown
BonaireBonaireKingdom of the NetherlandsSpecial Municipality29420,10441.1Kralendijk
British Virgin IslandsBritish Virgin IslandsUnited KingdomBritish overseas territory15131,122152.3Road Town
Cayman IslandsCayman IslandsUnited KingdomBritish overseas territory26468,136212.1George Town
CubaCubaIndependentRepublic109,88611,256,372102.0Havana
CuraçaoCuraçaoKingdom of the NetherlandsConstituent kingdom444190,338317.1Willemstad
DominicaDominicaIndependentRepublic75172,41289.2Roseau
Dominican RepublicDominican RepublicIndependentRepublic48,67111,117,873207.3Santo Domingo
Federal Dependencies of VenezuelaFederal Dependencies of VenezuelaVenezuelaTerritories3422,1556.3Gran Roque
GrenadaGrenadaIndependentConstitutional monarchy344124,610302.3St. George's
GuadeloupeGuadeloupeFranceOverseas department and region of France1,628396,051246.7Basse-Terre
GuyanaGuyanaIndependentRepublic214,970804,5673.5Georgetown
HaitiHaitiIndependentRepublic27,75011,447,569361.5Port-au-Prince
JamaicaJamaicaIndependentConstitutional monarchy10,9912,827,695247.4Kingston
MartiniqueMartiniqueFranceOverseas department1,128368,796352.6Fort-de-France
MontserratMontserratUnited KingdomBritish overseas territory1024,41758.8Plymouth (Brades)[29]
Navassa IslandUnited States/HaitiTerritory (uninhabited)500.0n/a
Nueva EspartaNueva EspartaVenezuelaState1,151491,610La Asunción
Puerto RicoPuerto RicoUnited StatesCommonwealth8,8703,256,028448.9San Juan
SabaSabaKingdom of the NetherlandsSpecial municipality131,537[30]118.2The Bottom
Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa CatalinaSan Andrés and ProvidenciaColombiaDepartment52.575,1671431San Andrés
Saint BarthélemySaint BarthélemyFranceOverseas collectivity217,448354.7Gustavia
Saint Kitts and NevisSaint Kitts and NevisIndependentConstitutional monarchy26147,606199.2Basseterre
Saint LuciaSaint LuciaIndependentConstitutional monarchy539179,651319.1Castries
Collectivity of Saint MartinSaint MartinFranceOverseas collectivity5429,820552.2Marigot
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesIndependentConstitutional monarchy389104,332280.2Kingstown
Sint EustatiusSint EustatiusKingdom of the NetherlandsSpecial municipality212,739[30]130.4Oranjestad
Sint MaartenSint MaartenKingdom of the NetherlandsConstituent kingdom3444,0421176.7Philipsburg
Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and TobagoIndependentRepublic5,1301,525,663261.0Port of Spain
Turks and Caicos IslandsTurks and Caicos Islands[31]United KingdomBritish overseas territory94845,11434.8Cockburn Town
United States Virgin IslandsUnited States Virgin IslandsUnited StatesTerritory347100,091317.0Charlotte Amalie
Total235,66744,636,789189.4

History

Precolombian languages of the Antilles.Ciboney Taíno, Classic Taíno, and Iñeri were Arawakan, Karina and Yao were Cariban. Macorix, Ciguayo and Guanahatabey are unclassified.

The oldest evidence of humans in the Caribbean is in southern Trinidad at Banwari Trace, where remains have been found from seven thousand years ago. These pre-ceramic sites, which belong to the Archaic (pre-ceramic) age, have been termed Ortoiroid. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlement in Hispaniola dates to about 3600 BC, but the reliability of these finds is questioned. Consistent dates of 3100 BC appear in Cuba. The earliest dates in the Lesser Antilles are from 2000 BC in Antigua. A lack of pre-ceramic sites in the Windward Islands and differences in technology suggest that these Archaic settlers may have Central American origins. Whether an Ortoiroid colonization of the islands took place is uncertain, but there is little evidence of one.

DNA studies changed some of the traditional beliefs about pre-Columbian indigenous history. According to National Geographic, "studies confirm that a wave of pottery-making farmers—known as Ceramic Age people—set out in canoes from the northeastern coast of South America starting some 2,500 years ago and island-hopped across the Caribbean. They were not, however, the first colonizers. On many islands they encountered a foraging people who arrived some 6,000 or 7,000 years ago...The ceramicists, who are related to today's Arawak-speaking peoples, supplanted the earlier foraging inhabitants—presumably through disease or violence—as they settled new islands."[32]

Between 400 BC and 200 BC the first ceramic-using agriculturalists, the Saladoid culture, entered Trinidad from South America. They expanded up the Orinoco River to Trinidad, and then spread rapidly up the islands of the Caribbean. Some time after 250 AD another group, the Barancoid, entered Trinidad. The Barancoid society collapsed along the Orinoco around 650 AD and another group, the Arauquinoid, expanded into these areas and up the Caribbean chain. Around 1300 AD a new group, the Mayoid, entered Trinidad and remained the dominant culture until Spanish settlement.

At the time of the European discovery of most of the islands of the Caribbean, three major Amerindian indigenous peoples lived on the islands: the Taíno in the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas and the Leeward Islands, the Island Caribs and Galibi in the Windward Islands, and the Ciboney in western Cuba. The Taínos are subdivided into Classic Taínos, who occupied Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, Western Taínos, who occupied Cuba, Jamaica, and the Bahamian archipelago, and the Eastern Taínos, who occupied the Leeward Islands. Trinidad was inhabited by both Carib speaking and Arawak-speaking groups.

Soon after Christopher Columbus came to the Caribbean, both Portuguese and Spanish explorers began claiming territories in Central and South America. These early colonies brought gold to Europe; most specifically England, the Netherlands, and France. These nations hoped to establish profitable colonies in the Caribbean. Colonial rivalries made the Caribbean a cockpit for European wars for centuries.

The Battle of the Saintes between British and French fleets in 1782, by Nicholas Pocock

The Caribbean was known for pirates, especially between 1640 and 1680. The term "buccaneer" is often used to describe a pirate operating in this region. The Caribbean region was war-torn throughout much of its colonial history, but the wars were often based in Europe, with only minor battles fought in the Caribbean. Some wars, however, were born of political turmoil in the Caribbean itself.

Haiti was the first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powers (see Haitian Revolution). Some Caribbean nations gained independence from European powers in the 19th century. Some smaller states are still dependencies of European powers today. Cuba remained a Spanish colony until the Spanish–American War. Between 1958 and 1962, most of the British-controlled Caribbean became the West Indies Federation before they separated into many separate nations.

US interventions

The United States has conducted military operations in the Caribbean for at least 100 years.[33]

Since the Monroe Doctrine, the United States gained a major influence on most Caribbean nations. In the early part of the 20th century this influence was extended by participation in the Banana Wars. Victory in the Spanish–American War and the signing of the Platt Amendment in 1901 ensured that the United States would have the right to interfere in Cuban political and economic affairs, militarily if necessary. After the Cuban Revolution of 1959, relations deteriorated rapidly leading to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and successive US attempts to destabilize the island, based upon Cold War fears of the Soviet threat. The US invaded and occupied Hispaniola for 19 years (1915–34), subsequently dominating the Haitian economy through aid and loan repayments. The US invaded Haiti again in 1994 and in 2004 were accused by CARICOM of arranging a coup d'état to remove elected Haitian leader Jean-Bertrand Aristide. In 1965, 23,000 US troops were sent to the Dominican Republic to quash a local uprising against military rule (see Dominican Civil War). President Lyndon Johnson had ordered the invasion to stem what he deemed to be a "Communist threat." However, the mission appeared ambiguous and was roundly condemned throughout the hemisphere as a return to gunboat diplomacy. In 1983, the US invaded Grenada to remove populist left-wing leader Maurice Bishop. The US maintains a naval military base in Cuba at Guantanamo Bay. The base is one of five unified commands whose "area of responsibility" is Latin America and the Caribbean. The command is headquartered in Miami, Florida.

Foreign interventions by Cuba

A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country

From 1966 until the late 1980s, the Soviet government upgraded Cuba's military capabilities, and Cuban leader Fidel Castro saw to it that Cuba assisted with the independence struggles of several countries across the world, most notably Angola and Mozambique in southern Africa, and the anti-imperialist struggles of countries such as Syria, Algeria, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Vietnam.[34][35] Its Angolan involvement was particularly intense and noteworthy with heavy assistance given to the Marxist–Leninist MPLA in the Angolan Civil War. Cuba sent 380,000 troops to Angola and 70,000 additional civilian technicians and volunteers. (The Cuban forces possessed 1,000 tanks, 600 armored vehicles and 1,600 artillery pieces.)

Cuba's involvement in the Angolan Civil War began in the 1960s, when relations were established with the leftist Movement for the Popular Liberation of Angola (MPLA). The MPLA was one of three organizations struggling to gain Angola's independence from Portugal, the other two being UNITA and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA). In August and October 1975, the South African Defence Force (SADF) intervened in Angola in support of the UNITA and FNLA. On 14 October 1975, the SADF commenced Operation Savannah in an effort to capture Luanda from the south. On 5 November 1975, without consulting Moscow, the Cuban government opted for a direct intervention with combat troops (Operation Carlota) in support of the MPLA and the combined MPLA-Cuban armies managed to stop the South African advance by 26 November.

During the Ogaden War (1977–78) in which Somalia attempted to invade an Ethiopia affected by civil war, Cuba deployed 18,000 troops along with armored vehicles, artillery, T-62 tanks, and MiGs to assist the Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia. Cuban troops and warplanes played a major part in the expulsion of Somali regulars from the Ogaden.

In 1987–88, South Africa again sent military forces to Angola to stop an advance of MPLA forces (FAPLA) against UNITA, leading to the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale, where the SADF was unable to defeat the FAPLA and Cuban forces. Cuba also directly participated in the negotiations between Angola and South Africa, again without consulting Moscow. Within two years, the Cold War was over and Cuba's foreign policy shifted away from military intervention.

Geography and geology

The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Curaçao, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago.

Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.

The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico Trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[36]

The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.

Climate

Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean

The climate of the area is tropical, varying from tropical rainforest in some areas to tropical monsoon and tropical savanna in others. There are also some locations that are arid climates with considerable drought in some years, and the peaks of mountains tend to have cooler temperate climates.

Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents, such as the cool upwellings that keep the ABC islands arid. Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east, creating both rain forest and semi arid climates across the region. The tropical rainforest climates include lowland areas near the Caribbean Sea from Costa Rica north to Belize, as well as the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, while the more seasonal dry tropical savanna climates are found in Cuba, northern Colombia and Venezuela, and southern Yucatán, Mexico. Arid climates are found along the extreme northern coast of Venezuela out to the islands including Aruba and Curacao, as well as the northwestern tip of Yucatán.

While the region generally is sunny much of the year, the wet season from May through November sees more frequent cloud cover (both broken and overcast), while the dry season from December through April is more often clear to mostly sunny. Seasonal rainfall is divided into "dry" and "wet" seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. The air temperature is hot much of the year, varying from 25 to 33 C (77 F to 90 F) between the wet and dry seasons. Seasonally, monthly mean temperatures vary from only about 5 C (7 F) in the northern most regions, to less than 3 C in the southernmost areas of the Caribbean.

Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin during the 2017 hurricane season.

Sea surface temperatures change little annually, normally running from 30 °C (87 °F) in the warmest months to 26 °C (76 °F) in the coolest months. The air temperature is warm year round, in the 70s, 80s and 90s, and only varies from winter to summer about 2–5 degrees on the southern islands and about a 10–20 degrees difference on the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts.

Aruba: Latitude 12°N

Climate data for Oranjestad, Aruba (1981–2010, extremes 1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.5
(90.5)
33.0
(91.4)
33.9
(93.0)
34.4
(93.9)
34.9
(94.8)
35.2
(95.4)
35.3
(95.5)
36.1
(97.0)
36.5
(97.7)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95.0)
34.8
(94.6)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F)30.0
(86.0)
30.4
(86.7)
30.9
(87.6)
31.5
(88.7)
32.0
(89.6)
32.2
(90.0)
32.0
(89.6)
32.6
(90.7)
32.7
(90.9)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
30.4
(86.7)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.7
(80.1)
26.8
(80.2)
27.2
(81.0)
27.9
(82.2)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.6
(83.5)
29.1
(84.4)
29.2
(84.6)
28.7
(83.7)
28.1
(82.6)
27.2
(81.0)
28.1
(82.6)
Average low °C (°F)24.5
(76.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.0
(77.0)
25.8
(78.4)
26.5
(79.7)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
26.4
(79.5)
25.8
(78.4)
25.0
(77.0)
25.9
(78.6)
Record low °C (°F)21.3
(70.3)
20.6
(69.1)
21.4
(70.5)
21.5
(70.7)
21.8
(71.2)
22.7
(72.9)
21.2
(70.2)
21.3
(70.3)
22.1
(71.8)
21.9
(71.4)
22.0
(71.6)
20.5
(68.9)
20.5
(68.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)39.3
(1.55)
20.6
(0.81)
8.7
(0.34)
11.6
(0.46)
16.3
(0.64)
18.7
(0.74)
31.7
(1.25)
25.8
(1.02)
45.5
(1.79)
77.8
(3.06)
94.0
(3.70)
81.8
(3.22)
471.8
(18.58)
Source: DEPARTAMENTO METEOROLOGICO ARUBA,[37] (extremes)[38]

Puerto Rico: Latitude 18°N

Climate data for San Juan, Puerto Rico
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)33
(92)
36
(96)
36
(96)
36
(97)
36
(96)
36
(97)
35
(95)
35
(95)
36
(97)
36
(97)
37
(98)
36
(96)
34
(94)
Average high °C (°F)28
(83)
29
(84)
29
(85)
30
(86)
31
(87)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(89)
31
(88)
30
(86)
29
(84)
30
(86)
Average low °C (°F)22
(72)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(74)
24
(76)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
26
(78)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
24
(75)
Record low °C (°F)16
(61)
17
(62)
16
(60)
18
(64)
18
(64)
19
(66)
21
(69)
20
(68)
21
(69)
19
(67)
18
(65)
17
(62)
16
(61)
Average precipitation mm (inches)95
(3.7)
60
(2.4)
49
(1.9)
118
(4.6)
150
(5.9)
112
(4.4)
128
(5.0)
138
(5.4)
146
(5.7)
142
(5.6)
161
(6.3)
126
(5.0)
1,431
(56.3)
Source: The National Weather Service[39]

Cuba: at Latitude 22°N

Climate data for Havana
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)32.5
(90.5)
33.0
(91.4)
35.9
(96.6)
36.4
(97.5)
36.9
(98.4)
37.2
(99.0)
38.0
(100.4)
36.1
(97.0)
37.5
(99.5)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95.0)
34.8
(94.6)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)25.8
(78.4)
26.1
(79.0)
27.6
(81.7)
28.6
(83.5)
29.8
(85.6)
30.5
(86.9)
31.3
(88.3)
31.6
(88.9)
31.0
(87.8)
29.2
(84.6)
27.7
(81.9)
26.5
(79.7)
28.8
(83.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)22.2
(72.0)
22.4
(72.3)
23.7
(74.7)
24.8
(76.6)
26.1
(79.0)
27.0
(80.6)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
27.4
(81.3)
26.1
(79.0)
24.5
(76.1)
23.0
(73.4)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F)18.6
(65.5)
18.6
(65.5)
19.7
(67.5)
20.9
(69.6)
22.4
(72.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
24.1
(75.4)
23.8
(74.8)
23.0
(73.4)
21.3
(70.3)
19.5
(67.1)
21.6
(70.9)
Record low °C (°F)5.1
(41.2)
5.6
(42.1)
5.4
(41.7)
11.5
(52.7)
16.8
(62.2)
19.7
(67.5)
18.2
(64.8)
19.3
(66.7)
19.1
(66.4)
11.9
(53.4)
10.0
(50.0)
7.5
(45.5)
5.1
(41.2)
Average rainfall mm (inches)64.4
(2.54)
68.6
(2.70)
46.2
(1.82)
53.7
(2.11)
98.0
(3.86)
182.3
(7.18)
105.6
(4.16)
99.6
(3.92)
144.4
(5.69)
180.5
(7.11)
88.3
(3.48)
57.6
(2.27)
1,189.2
(46.84)
Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN),[40] Climate-Charts.com[41]
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts

Island groups

Lucayan Archipelago[c]

Greater Antilles

Lesser Antilles

Historical groupings

Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 18th century

All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:

The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.

In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands

Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras

Biodiversity

The Caribbean islands have one of the most diverse eco systems in the world. The animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International's biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests, to tropical rainforest, to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world's coral reefs[42] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[43] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.

For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.[44] That checklist includes more than 11,250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.[45] Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;[46] for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;[47] for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;[48] for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.[49]

Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[50] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.

Saona Island, Dominican Republic

The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500–700 species of reef-associated fishes[51] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.[52] According to a UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.[53]

Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region's staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.[54]

The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.[55]

Plants and animals

Demographics

Indigenous groups

A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape. Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late 19th century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Taíno of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)[56] led to a decline in the Amerindian population.[57] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as enslaved Africans were brought from West Africa,[58] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba, as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England. Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[59]

The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[60] Immigrants from India, China, Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants.[61] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[62] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[63]

In Haiti and most of the French, Anglophone and Dutch Caribbean, the population is predominantly of African origin; on many islands there are also significant populations of mixed racial origin (including Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Mestizo, Quadroon, Cholo, Castizo, Criollo, Zambo, Pardo, Asian Latin Americans, Chindian, Cocoa panyols, and Eurasian), as well as populations of European ancestry: Dutch, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese, Indian descent, and Javanese Indonesians, form a significant minority in parts of the region. Indians form a plurality of the population in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.

The Spanish-speaking Caribbean populations are primarily of European, African, or racially mixed origins. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. Cuba also has a European majority, along with a significant population of African ancestry. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed-race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.

Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago

Jamaica has a large African majority, in addition to a significant population of mixed racial background, and has minorities of Chinese, Europeans, Indians, Latinos, Jews, and Arabs. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans, Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Jews, Latinos, and Europeans along with the native indigenous Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix of the Caribbean has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Mulatto-Creole, Mestizo, Pardo, Zambo, Dougla, Chindian, Afro-Asians, Eurasian, Cocoa panyols, and Asian Latinos.

Language

Spanish (64%), French (25%), English (14%), Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, although a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found in virtually every Caribbean country. Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani, Chinese, Javanese, Arabic, Hmong, Amerindian languages, other African languages, other European languages, and other Indian languages can also be found.

Religion

Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
(c) Attribution not necessary on any *.wikipedia.org or *.wikimedia.org pages, CC BY-SA 3.0
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago

Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).[64] Other religions in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (incl. Taoism and Confucianism), Bahá'í, Jainism, Sikhism, Kebatinan, Traditional African religions, Yoruba (incl. Trinidad Orisha), Afro-American religions, (incl. Santería, Palo, Umbanda, Brujería, Hoodoo, Candomblé, Quimbanda, Orisha, Xangô de Recife, Xangô do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo, Santo Daime, Obeah, Candomblé, Abakuá, Kumina, Winti, Sanse, Cuban Vodú, Dominican Vudú, Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun).

Politics

Regionalism

Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)

Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[65] The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)[66] which is located in Guyana.

Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways."[67] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.

The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action."[68] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.[68]

Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean."[69] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.

Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other.

United States-EU trade dispute

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the Lomé Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[70] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[71]

During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[72]

Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[73][74]

African Union relations

Many Caribbean nations have sought to deepen ties with the continent of Africa. The African Union-bloc has referred to the Caribbean as the potential "Sixth Region" of the African Union.[75] Some Caribbean states have already moved to join Africa institutions including Barbados which became a member of the African Export Import Bank.[76] And the Caribbean Development Bank signing a cooperation strategic partnership agreement with the African Development Bank (AfDB)[77]

Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and Association of Caribbean States

Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

Bolivarian Alliance

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.[78]

Regional institutions

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:

Cuisine

Favourite or national dishes

Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico

See also

Geography:

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f Sometimes included.
  2. ^ The Lucayan Archipelago is sometimes excluded from the definition of the "Caribbean" and instead classified as a part of North Atlantic; this is primarily a geological rather than cultural or political distinction.
  3. ^ The Lucayan Archipelago is excluded from some definitions of "Caribbean" and instead classified as Atlantic; this is primarily a geological rather than cultural or environmental distinction.

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Bibliography

  • Engerman, Stanley L. "A Population History of the Caribbean", pp. 483–528 in A Population History of North America Michael R. Haines and Richard Hall Steckel (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2000,ISBN 0-521-49666-7.
  • Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003ISBN 1-58826-663-X.

Further reading

  • Develtere, Patrick R. 1994. "Co-operation and development: With special reference to the experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean" ACCO,ISBN 90-334-3181-5
  • Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006.
  • Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2003.
  • Heuman, Gad. The Caribbean: Brief Histories. London: A Hodder Arnold Publication, 2006.
  • de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, Oxford University Press, 1972.
  • Knight, Franklin W. The Modern Caribbean (University of North Carolina Press, 1989).
  • Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing.ISBN 0-201-52396-5
  • Langley, Lester D. The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century. London: University of Georgia Press, 1989.
  • Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship. Westview Press, 1994.
  • Palmie, Stephan, and Francisco A. Scarano, eds. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples (University of Chicago Press; 2011); 660 pp.; writings on the region since the pre-Columbia era.
  • Ramnarine, Tina K. Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean Diaspora. London, Pluto Press, 2007.
  • Rowntree, Lester/Martin Lewis/Marie Price/William Wyckoff. Diversity Amid Globalization: World Regions, Environment, Development, 4th edition, 2008.

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Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
North America (orthographic projection).svg
Author/Creator: Heraldry, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
North America (orthographic projection)
Waves in pacifica 1.jpg
Author/Creator: Brocken Inaglory, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Sea Storm in Pacifica, w:California
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Epiphytes (Dominica).jpg
© Hans Hillewaert, CC BY-SA 3.0
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica W.I.
Caribbean general map.png
Author/Creator: Kmusser, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Map of the Caribbean Sea and its islands.
Flag of Nueva Esparta.svg
Bandera del Estado de Nueva Esparta, integrante de Venezuela.
Attack near Playa Giron. April 19, 1961. - panoramio.jpg
(c) Rumlin, CC BY 3.0
Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs invasion, 19 April 1961.
Calebassier.jpg
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Losphin at French Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY 1.0
DOLPHIN Rony c'est ma photo prise en Martinique. Je suis le propriétaire et je la laisse à qui veut la prendre un geste de patriotisme pour lutter contere le payant.
Guanaja Honduras.jpg
Author/Creator: Denise Clarke, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Beautiful Guanaja Honduras, one of the bay islands off the north coast in the Caribbean
DR1965-5 (8161964889).jpg
Author/Creator: USMC Archives from Quantico, USA, Licence: CC BY 2.0

A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.

From the Marine Corps Archives & Special Collections. OFFICIAL USMC PHOTOGRAPH
Jumping frog.jpg
Author/Creator: Keven Law from Los Angeles, USA, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Green & Black Poison Frog, Deep Sea World, Edinburgh, Scotland, Monday 3rd November 2008. Dendrobates auratus, also known as the green and black poison dart frog.
Anastrepha suspensa 5193019.jpg

Anastrepha suspensa Loew


Common Name: Caribbean fruit fly
Photographer: Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, United States
Contact: Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Descriptor: Adult(s)

Image taken in: Florida, United States
The Battle of the Saints, 12 April 1782 RMG BHC0444.jpg
The Battle of the Saints, 12 April 1782

By 1782, and towards the end of the War of American Independence the chief aspiration of the French in the West Indies was the capture of Jamaica. Sailing from Fort Royal, Martinique under the Comte de Grasse, their fleet was first engaged by the British West Indies Fleet under Admiral Sir George Brydges Rodney off Dominica on 9 April, and more conclusively off the group of islets to the north called the Saints on the 12 April. Rodney's victory proved a counterbalance to the loss of the British colonies in America, allowing Britain to secure superiority over the French in the Caribbean at the ensuing Treaty of Versailles which ended the war in 1783. As the opposing battle lines engaged on parallel courses, a slight change of wind enabled Rodney to sail through the French line and throw it into disorder. A general chase ensued and the French flagship, 'Ville de Paris', 104-guns, surrendered to Rear-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood in ‘Barfleur’.

This painting shows the British fleet breaking the French line. In the centre background, Rodney, in the ‘Formidable’ has broken through followed by the ‘Namur’, ‘St Albans and the ‘Canada’. In the left foreground the ‘Duke’ is moving up to break the line and engaging two French ships. To the left of her is the ‘Agamemnon’ also engaging two French ships to starboard and in the extreme left is the stern of another British ship half out of the picture. The stern of the ‘Ville de Paris’ starboard quarter view can be seen in the right background under the bow of the ‘Canada’. In the extreme right astern of the ‘Canada’ three more British ships ‘Ajax’, ‘Repulse’ and ‘Bedford’ are about to break the French line. Beyond them are other units of the French fleet, starboard quarter view. The prominence in this painting of the ‘Duke’ shown in the act of breaking the French line suggests that the artist may have painted it for her captain Alan Gardner.

The battle of The Saints, 12 April 1782
Kathedrale Havanna 001.jpg
Author/Creator: Dan Lundberg, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Kathedrale Havanna
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape, ca. 1770-1796.jpg
Author/Creator: Agostino Brunias , Licence: No restrictions
Agostino Brunias (Italian, ca. 1730-1796). Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape, ca. 1770-1796. Oil on canvas, 20 x 26 1/8 in. (50.8 x 66.4 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Gift of Mrs. Carll H. de Silver in memory of her husband, by exchange and gift of George S. Hellman, by exchange, 2010.59
Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean 1700 and on.gif
Political_Evolution_of_Central_America_and_the_Caribbean_1700_and_on
Waterloo Temple, Trinidad.jpg
Author/Creator: neiljs, Licence: CC BY 2.0

Waterloo temple of Trinidad and Tobago, is a story of human persistence.

An Indo-Caribbean labourer, Seedas Sadhu, had constructed a first temple on the seashore in 1947. Soon thereafter, however, it was bulldozered and Sadhu sent to prison, because the temple was built on the lands of Caroni, the state sugar cane monopolist.

Committed to his passion, Seedas Sadhu decided to built the temple in the sea. So after his prison term, this Indo-Caribbean set out to build the Waterloo Temple. It took him 25 years to build the temple, all by himself and his bicycle with which he transported the building materials.

Symbols of his cultural faith decorate the walls of the Waterloo temple.
Jayuya.jpg
Author/Creator: Oquendo, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya. PR-143 Road.
Matanzas street scene 2011-07-21 Flickr.jpg
Author/Creator: Emmanuel Huybrechts from Laval, Canada, Licence: CC BY 2.0
21 juillet 2011 (K5_02567)
Caribbean maritime boundaries map.svg
Author/Creator: Milenioscuro, translated by Thayts, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Map of maritime boundaries in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico
Arroz con gandules.jpg
Author/Creator: Jose Kevo from Springfield, Missouri, EEUU, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Rice and pigeon peas - the loaded holiday version.
Languages of the Caribbean.png
(c) Kwamikagami at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0
Pre-Colombian languages of the Antilles per Granberry & Vescelius (2004)
Revellers Wine at Trinidad Carnival.jpg
Author/Creator: Jean-Marc /Jo BeLo/Jhon-John from Caracas, Venezuela, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Two Revelers "Wining" in Trinidad's Carnival
Cuban PT-76 Angola.JPG
Cuban PT-76 tank crew on routine security duties in Angola. "Cuban Armed Forces and the Soviet Military Presence," 1982, Page 6
BTR-60PB Urgent Fury.jpg
Original caption: "A Soviet-made BTR-60PB armored personnel carrier seized by U.S. forces during Operation URGENT FURY."
Tobacco field cuba1.jpg
Author/Creator: Kotoviski, Licence: CC BY 2.5
A tobaccon field in Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Photograph by Henryk Kotowski.
Isla Saona.jpg
Author/Creator: Tamas Iklodi, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Panoramic view of a beach on the Saona island, Dominican Republic. Taken by Tamas Iklodi
FOOD Doubles 2.jpg
Author/Creator: Grueslayer, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Doubles. Food court in a mall in Frederick Street, Port of Spain, Trinidad.
US Army helicopters on forward flight deck of USS Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti in 1994.JPEG
U.S. Army Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti. Dwight D. Eisenhower disembarked its Carrier Air Wing 3 (CVW-3) at Norfolk, Virginia (USA), and loaded 2.000 U.S. Army soldiers and 58 helicopters of the 10th Mountain Division to take part in "Operation Uphold Democracy" in Haiti. The carrier departed Norfolk on 14 September 1994 and reached the waters off Haiti three days later. Following successful negotiations with Haiti's military junta, the troops were landed without resistance on 19 September.
Guadeloupe (Le cimetière de Gourbeyre).jpg
Author/Creator: sybarite48, Licence: CC BY 2.0
The cemetery adjoins the church and watching the sea
Johny Cay.jpg
Author/Creator: Mario Carvajal, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Johny Cay es uno de los más bellos cayos del Archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia, Colombia.
Stkitts-view-lookingatsea.jpg
(c) Nesnad at the English-language Wikipedia, CC-BY-SA-3.0
This file was first taken by (and then released to wikipedia by) kayokayo.
Palancar Beach aerial Cozumel Mexico (21398553341).jpg
Author/Creator: dronepicr, Licence: CC BY 2.0
amazing picture shot with a drone in mexico.
Federal dependencies of Venezuela's Flag.svg
Author/Creator: Vexilio, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Federal dependencies of Venezuela's Flag
Ocypode quadrata (Martinique).jpg
Author/Creator: Patrick Verdier, Free On Line Photos, Licence: Copyrighted free use
Ocypode quadrata on Martinique
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bluehead Wrasse) juvenile yellow stage over Bispira brunnea (Social Feather Duster Worms).jpg
Author/Creator: Nhobgood Nick Hobgood, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Three Thalassoma bifasciatum (blue-headed wrasse) swimming over a large Diploria strigosa (maze brain coral).jpg
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bluehead Wrasse) juvenile yellow stage over Bispira brunnea (Social Feather Duster Worms). See image at right for three individuals in adult supermale stage.
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.jpg
Author/Creator: rachel_thecat, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Caesalpinia pulcherrima flowers, Guadeloupe.
Stenopus hispidus (Banded cleaner shrimp).jpg
Author/Creator: Nhobgood Nick Hobgood, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Two Stenopus hispidus banded cleaner shrimp on a Xestospongia muta barrel sponge. The shrimp wait on this cleaning station to remove external parasites and dead skin from visiting fish clients.
Extinctbirds1907 P18 Amazona martinicana0317.png
The Martinique Amazon, Amazona martinicana, was a species of parrot in the Psittacidae family. It was endemic to Martinique.
Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean 1784 na.png
Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean
Grand Anse Beach Grenada.jpg
(c) Vkap at English Wikipedia, CC BY 3.0
Grand Anse Beach, St. George's, Grenada, West Indies (Caribbean)
Haitian vodou altar to Petwo, Rada, and Gede spirits; November 5, 2010..jpg
Author/Creator: Calvin Hennick, for WBUR Boston, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Haitian Vodou altar created during a festival for the Guede spirits, Boston, MA. Top right area is offerings to Rada spirits; top left to Petwo spirits; bottom to Gede.
Clear water of Cayo de Agua - Agua cristalina de Cayo de Agua.JPG
Author/Creator: Ricardoricardo618, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Cayo de Agua, Parque Nacional Archipiélago de Los Roques
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600.png
Author/Creator: Giggette, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Spanish Caribbean Islands 1600

Spanish Overseas territories

  • Northern America
    • Turks and Caicos Islands (1492-1516, 1516-1678) * Islas Turcas y Caicos
    • The Bahamas (1492-1516, 1516-1648) *Islas Lucayas
    • Bermuda (1503-1516, 1516-1609) *Carabela/Isla de los Diablos
  • Greater Antilles
    • Cuba (1492-1762, 1763-1898) *Juana
    • Cayman Islands (UK) (1503-1670) *Islas de las Tortugas
    • La Española/Hispanola (1492-1795, 1801-1822)
      • Dominican Republic (1492-1795, 1801-1822, 1861-1863) *Santo Domingo
      • Haiti (1492-1793) *Santa María
    • Jamaica (1492-1655) *Isla Santiago
    • Puerto Rico (US) (1493-1898) *San Juan Bautista
  • Lesser Antilles
    • Leeward Islands:
      • Virgin Islands (1493-1587) *Islas Once Mil Vírgenes / Islas Vírgenes
        • St. Thomas (US) (1493-1587)
        • St. John (US) (1493-1587)
        • St. Croix (US) (1493-1587)
        • Water Island (US) (1493-1587)
      • British Virgin Islands (UK) (1493-1648) *Islas Once Mil Vírgenes / Islas Vírgenes
        • Tortola (UK) (1493-1648)
        • Virgin Gorda (UK) (1493-1672)
        • Anegada (UK) (1493-1672)
        • Jost Van Dyke (UK) (1493-1672)
      • Anguilla (UK) (1500-1631, 1631-1650) *Isla de la Anguila
      • Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (France/Neth.) (1493-1631) *San Martín
      • Saint-Barthélemy (Fr.) (1493-1648) *San Bartolomeo
      • Saba (Neth.) (1493-1640) *Saba/San Cristóbal
      • Sint Eustatius (Neth.) (1493-1640) *San Eustaquio
      • St. Kitts and Nevis (1493-1628) *Nuestra Señora de las Nieves
        • Saint Kitts (1493-1628) *San Cristóbal
        • Nevis (1493-1628) *Nieves
      • Antigua and Barbuda
        • Barbuda (1493-1628) *Santa Dulcina
        • Antigua (1493-1632) *Santa María de la Antigua
        • Redonda (1493-1632) *Santa María la Redonda
      • Montserrat (UK) (1493-1632) *Santa María de Monstserrat
      • Guadeloupe (Fr.) (1493-1631) *Santa Guadalupe
  • Windward Islands:
    • Dominica (1493-1635) *Domingo
    • Martinique (Fr.) (1502-1635) *Martinino
    • Saint Lucia (St. Lucia) (1502-1660) *Santa Lucía
    • Barbados (1492-1620) *Los Barbados/El Barbudo
    • St. Vincent and the Grenadines (1498-1627) *San Vicente
      • Saint Vincent
      • the Grenadines
    • Grenada (1498-1650) *Concepción
      • Carriacou & Petite Martinique (Grenada)
    • Trinidad & Tobago (1498-1628) *Santísima e Asunción
    • Aruba (Neth.) (1499-1648) *Aruba/Oroba
    • Curaçao (Neth.) (1499-1634) *Curasao/Isla de los Gigantes
    • Bonaire (Neth.) (1499-1635) * Bonaire/Buon Aire
  • Viceroyalty of New Granada
    • Los Roques Archipelago (Ven)
    • La Orchila (Ven)
    • La Tortuga (Ven)
    • La Blanquilla (Ven)
    • Margarita Island (Ven)
    • Coche (Ven)
    • Cubagua (Ven)
    • Other islands (Ven)
*Founded Spanish names
TnT PoS Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (back view).jpg
(c) Attribution not necessary on any *.wikipedia.org or *.wikimedia.org pages, CC BY-SA 3.0
Rear view of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity — in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
Cyphoma signata (Fingerprint Cowry) pair.jpg
Author/Creator: Nhobgood Nick Hobgood, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Cyphoma signatum (Fingerprint Cowry) pair
TnT St. Joseph Mohammed Ali Jinnah Memorial Mosque.jpg
Author/Creator: Grueslayer, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Mohammed Ali Jinnah Memorial Mosque, St. Joseph, Trinidad.
CIA map of the Caribbean.png
Map of the Caribbean by the CIA World Factbook
Koppen-Geiger Map Caribbean present.svg
Author/Creator: Beck, H.E., Zimmermann, N. E., McVicar, T. R., Vergopolan, N., Berg, A., & Wood, E. F., Licence: CC BY 4.0
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Caribbean
Costus speciosus Guadeloupe.JPG
Costus speciosus, Canne d'eau
Relief Map of Caribbean.png
Author/Creator: Nzeemin, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Физическая карта Вест-Индии.