Calfskin

Calfskin leather dyed black
Calfskin parchment page from an 11th-century book

Calfskin or calf leather is a leather or membrane produced from the hide of a calf, or juvenile domestic cattle. Calfskin is particularly valuable because of its softness and fine grain, as well as durability. It is commonly used for high-quality clothing, shoes, wallets, and similar products, as well as traditional leather bookbindings. In these contexts, just "calf" is commonly used. Fine calfskin is one of the skins used for vellum and parchment manuscripts.

In Spanish, the word is Ternera/Novillo, referring to leather from animals less than three years old. Chickenskin, despite its name, is a form of calfskin made using the skin of unborn calves.[1]

In fashion, soft finished calfskin is sometimes described as veau velours (French for "velvet calf").[2]

See also

  • Goldbeater's skin, made from the intestine of a calf
  • Sheepskin (material)

References

  1. ^ Cumming, Valerie (1982). Gloves (Reprinted. ed.). London: Batsford. p. 93. ISBN 9780713410082.
  2. ^ Lewandowski, Elizabeth (2011). The Complete Costume Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. p. 308. ISBN 9780810877856.

Media files used on this page

Signorina in viola.svg
Author/Creator: Architetto Francesco Rollandin, Licence: CC0
Lady in purpe
Extract from Burchard of Worms' Decretum.jpg
Detail of a page of a manuscript of the Decretum of Burchard of Worms (early 11th century). The text was edited by Migne in PL 140.[1]

The manuscript is not identified, and the decorative "border" was probably added by an image manipulation program.

The corresponding passage can be found on fol. 163v of Dom Hs. 119 (Cologne).

The particular passage shown here is from book 19, chapter 5. The left column is a fragment of a passage on gluttony and inebriety, the right column of a passage on neglect to take the eucharist and another on superstitious belief in magic or witchcraft. In Migne's edition:

[De gula et ebrietate.] Habuisti in consuetudine ut plus comederes et biberes quam tibi necesse esset? Si fecisti, decem dies in pane et aqua poeniteas, quia Dominus dicit in Evangelio: «Videte ne graventur corda vestra in crapula et ebrietate.» Bibisti unquam tantum, ut per ebrietatem vomitum faceres? Si fecisti, quindecim dies poeniteas in pane et aqua. Inebriasti te unquam per jactantiam, ita dico ut gloriareris in hoc quod alios in potu vincere posses. et sic, per tuam vanitatem et per tuam exhortationem, te et alios ad ebrietatem perduxisti? Si fecisti, triginta dies poeniteas in pane et aqua. Fecisti vomitum corporis et sanguinis Domini propter ebrietatem? Si fecisti, quadraginta dies in pane et aqua poeniteas. Si per nequitiam alium inebriasti, XX dies in pane et aqua poeniteas. Si per bonam voluntatem, X dies in pane et aqua poeniteas.
[De irreligiositate.] Neglexisti ut non acciperes corpus et sanguinem Domini, istis quatuor temporibus, id est in coena Domini, et in Pascha, et in Pentecoste, et in Natali Domini, et totam Quadragesimam non te sustinuisti a coitu, et postea in aliis praedictis temporibus aut septem dies, aut quinque dies ante acceptionem sacri corporis Domini? Si ista neglexisti, XX dies in pane et aqua debes poenitere. Sprevisti missam vel orationem, vel oblationem conjugati presbyteri, ita dico ut nolles tua peccata sibi confiteri, vel ab eo accipere corpus et sanguinem Domini, ob hoc quia peccator tibi esse videretur? Si fecisti, unum annum per legitimas ferias poeniteas.
[Item de arte magica.] Credidisti aut particeps fuisti illius incredulitatis, quod quaedam sceleratae mulieres retro post Satanam conversae, daemonum illusionibus et phantasmatibus seductae, credunt et profitentur se nocturnis horis cum Diana paganorum dea, et cum innumera multitudine mulierum equitare super quasdam bestias, et multa terrarum spatia intempestae noctis silentio pertransire, ejusque jussionibus velut dominae obedire, et certis noctibus ad ejus servitium evocari? Sed utinam hae solae in perfidia sua perissent, et non multos secum in infirmitatis interitum pertraxissent! Nam innumera multitudo, hac falsa opinione decepta, haec vera esse credit, et credendo a recta fide deviat, et in errore paganorum volvitur, cum aliquid divinitatis aut numinis extra unum Deum esse arbitratur. Sed diabolus transformat se in diversarum personarum species atque similitudines, et mentem, quam captivam tenet, in somnis deludens, modo laeta, modo tristia, modo incognitas personas ostendens, per devia quaeque deducit, et cum solus spiritus hoc patitur, infidelis mens haec non in animo, sed in corpore evenire opinatur. Quis enim non in somnis et nocturnis visionibus extra seipsum educitur, et multa videt dormiendo quae nunquam viderat vigilando? Quis vero tam stultus et hebes sit qui haec omnia, quae in solo spiritu fiunt, etiam in corpore accidere arbitretur? Cum Ezechiel propheta visiones Domini in spiritu, non in corpore, vidit et audivit, sicut ipse dicit: «Statim, inquit, fui in spiritu.» Et Paulus non audet se dicere raptum in corpore. Omnibus itaque publice annuntiandum est quod qui talia et his similia credit, fidem perdit: et qui fidem rectam in Deo non habet, hic non est ejus, sed illius in quem credit, id est diaboli. Nam de Domino nostro scriptum est: «Omnia per ipsum facta sunt, et sine ipso factum est nihil.» Si credidisti has vanitates, duos annos per legitimas ferias poeniteas.

This particular passage was apparently featured in the "Wine Literature of the World" because it prescribes penances for inebriety. 15 days' penance of bread and water if the inebriety was enough to make the drinker vomit, 40 if it causes the vomit after the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist, 30 days for whom induce other people to inebriation, 20 day if inebriety is caused by debauchery of this persons, and 10 in the case of their good faith.
Leathertools.jpg
Leather-making is an ancient craft, but it's met up with some state-of-the-art technology. Electron beam radiation, we've found, can replace the salt solutions now used to kill bacterial growth-much to the benefit of the environment. Not only is brine curing corrosive to equipment; it contributes to water pollution. We also found a way to reduce the number of poor-quality hides that make their way into leather processing. Laser light-scattering photometry can be used to evaluate hides according to the orientation of their fibers. High-tech detective work has tracked down a cause of shoemaking woes. One type of leather, which broke under the stress of manufacture, was found to have a genetic defect that's specific to certain Hereford cattle. It was ARS researchers who identified cockle, a seasonal flaw of sheepskin, as the work of a parasitic insect called keds. Once they realized that keds not only lowers the value of the skin but also causes sheep to grow more slowly, sheep farmers began treating their herds to control infestations.
Kalb schwarzgefaerbt.jpg
Calf skin black dyed, from Argentina - Schwarzgefärbtes argentinisches Kalbfell