COVID-19 vaccine clinical research

COVID-19 vaccine clinical research uses clinical research to establish the characteristics of COVID-19 vaccines. These characteristics include efficacy, effectiveness and safety. Thirty vaccines are authorized for use by national governments, including eight approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognised stringent regulatory authority; while five are in Phase IV. 204 vaccines are undergoing clinical trials that have yet to be authorized. Nine clinical trials consider heterologous vaccination courses.

Thirty vaccines are authorized by at least one national regulatory authority for public use:[1][2]

As of July 2021, 330 vaccine candidates were in various stages of development, with 102 in clinical research, including 30 in Phase I trials, 30 in Phase I–II trials, 25 in Phase III trials, and 8 in Phase IV development.[1]

Formulation

As of September 2020, eleven of the vaccine candidates in clinical development use adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity.[3] Adjuvants are substances that elevate the immune response to a vaccine.[4] Specifically, an adjuvant may be used to boost a vaccine's efficacy.[4][5] COVID‑19 vaccine adjuvant formulation may be particularly effective for technologies using the inactivated COVID‑19 virus and recombinant protein-based or vector-based vaccines. Aluminum salts, known as "alum", were the first adjuvant added to licensed vaccines, and are the adjuvant of choice in some 80% of adjuvanted vaccines.[5] The alum adjuvant initiates diverse molecular and cellular mechanisms to enhance immunogenicity, including release of proinflammatory cytokines.[4][5]

Status

Clinical trials

The clinical trial process typically consists of three phases, each following the success of the prior phase. Trials are doubly blind in that neither the researcher nor the subject know whether they receive the vaccine or a placebo. Each phase involves randomly-selected subjects who are randomly assigned to serve either as recipients are controls:

  • Phase I trials test primarily for safety and preliminary dosing in healthy subjects. Dozens of subjects.
  • Phase II trials evaluate immunogenicity, dose levels (efficacy based on biomarkers) and adverse effects.[6][7] Hundreds of subjects. Sometimes Phase I and II trials are combined.[7]
  • Phase III trials typically involve more participants at multiple sites, include a control group, and test effectiveness of the vaccine to prevent the disease (an "interventional" or "pivotal" trial), while monitoring for adverse effects at the selected dose.[6][7] Safety, efficacy, and clinical endpoints may vary, including the definition of side effects, infection or amount of transmission, and whether the vaccine prevents moderate or severe infection.[8][9][10]

A clinical trial design in progress may adopt an "adaptive design". If accumulating data provide insights about the treatment, the endpoints or other aspects or the trial can be adjusted.[11][12] Adaptive designs may shorten trial durations and use fewer subjects, possibly expediting decisions, avoiding duplication of research efforts, and enhancing coordination of design changes.[11][13]

List of authorized and approved vaccines

National regulatory authorities have granted emergency use authorizations for twenty-two vaccines. Eight of those have been approved for emergency or full use by at least one WHO-recognized stringent regulatory authority. Biologic License Applications for the Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna COVID‑19 vaccines have been submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[14][15]

The table below shows various vaccines authorized either for full or emergency use so far, with various other details.

COVID-19 vaccines authorized for emergency use or approved for full use

Unless indicated, inactivated vaccines target the whole virus, while other types of vaccines target the spike protein.

COVID-19 vaccines authorized for emergency use or approved for full use ()
Vaccine, developers/sponsorsCountry of originType (technology)Doses, intervalStorage temperaturePre-marketing study (participants)Postmarketing study (participants)Authorization
Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (Vaxzevria, Covishield)[16][a][b][20][21][22]
University of Oxford, AstraZeneca, CEPI
United Kingdom, SwedenAdenovirus vector (ChAdOx1)[20]2 doses
4–12 weeks[23]
2–8 °C[24]Phase III (30,000)
Interventional; randomized, placebo-controlled study for efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.[25]
Overall efficacy of 76% after the first dose and 81% after a second dose taken 12 weeks or more after the first.[26]
May 2020 – Aug 2021, Brazil (5,000),[27] United Kingdom, India[28]
Phase IV (10,000)[29]
Interventional, non-randomized
Feb 2021 – Dec 2024, Denmark
Full (4)
Emergency (170)
Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty)[30][31][32]
BioNTech, Pfizer
Germany, United StatesRNA (modRNA in lipid nanoparticles)[30]2 doses
3–4 weeks[33][c]
−70±10 °C[d]
(ULT)
Phase III (43,998)
Randomized, placebo-controlled.
Positive results from an interim analysis were announced on 18 November 2020[38] and published on 10 December 2020 reporting an overall efficacy of 95%.[39][40]
Jul–Nov 2020,[41][42] Germany, United States
Phase IV (10,000)[29]
Interventional, non-randomized
Feb 2021 – Dec 2024, Denmark
Full (10)
Emergency (140)
Moderna COVID-19 vaccine (Spikevax)[43][44]
Moderna, NIAID, BARDA, CEPI
United StatesRNA (modRNA in lipid nanoparticles)[45]2 doses
4 weeks[46][c]
−20±5 °C[47]
(freezer)
Phase III (30,000)
Interventional; randomized, placebo-controlled study for efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity.
Positive results from an interim analysis were announced on 15 November 2020[48] and published on 30 December 2020 reporting an overall efficacy of 94%.[49]
Jul 2020 – Oct 2022, United States
Phase IV (10,000)[29]
Interventional, non-randomized
Feb 2021 – Dec 2024, Denmark
Full (5)
Emergency (104)
Janssen COVID-19 vaccine[50][51]
Janssen Vaccines (Johnson & Johnson), BIDMC
United States, NetherlandsAdenovirus vector (recombinant Ad26)[52]1 dose[53]2–8 °C[53]Phase III (40,000)
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled
Positive results from an interim analysis were announced on 29 January 2021. J&J reports an efficacy of 66% against mild and moderate symptoms, and 85% against severe symptoms. Further, the mild and moderate efficacy ranged from 64% in South Africa to 72% in the United States.[54][55]
Jul 2020 – ? 2023, United States, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Ukraine
Full (3)
Emergency (126)
Sinopharm BIBP COVID-19 vaccine[56]
Sinopharm: Beijing Institute of Biological Products
ChinaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2 (vero cells)[56]2 doses
3–4 weeks[57]
2–8 °C[58]Phase III (48,000)
Randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled, to evaluate safety and protective efficacy.
Peer-reviewed results indicate 78.1% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19.[59]
Jul 2020 – Jul 2021, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Jordan,[60] Argentina,[61] Morocco,[62] Peru[63]
Full (4)
Emergency (106)
Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine (Gam-COVID-Vac)
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology
RussiaAdenovirus vector (recombinant Ad5 and Ad26)[64]2 doses
3 weeks[65]
−18 °C[e]
(freezer)
Phase III (40,000)
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety.[67]
Interim analysis from the trial was published in The Lancet, indicating 91.6% efficacy without unusual side effects.[68]
Aug 2020 – May 2021, Russia, Belarus,[69] India,[70][71] Venezuela,[72] United Arab Emirates[73]
Full (3)
Emergency (76)
CoronaVac[74][75][76]
Sinovac
ChinaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2 (vero cells)[74]2 doses
2–4 weeks[77]
2–8 °C[78]Phase III (33,620)
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy and safety.
Peer-reviewed Phase III results from Turkey showed an efficacy of 83.5%.[79] A Chilean study showed 65% efficacy against symptomatic cases, 87% against hospitalization, 90% against ICU admissions, and 86% against deaths.[80][81] Brazil announced results showing 50.7% effective at preventing symptomatic infections, 83.7% effective in preventing mild cases, and 100% effective in preventing severe cases.[82]
July 2020 – Oct 2021, Brazil (15,000);[83] Aug 2020 – January 2021, Indonesia (1,620); Oct – Nov 2020, China (1,040);[84] Nov 2020 – Jan 2022,[85] Chile (3,000);[86] Apr 2021 – Jun 2022, the Philippines (phase II/III: 352);[87] Sep 2020 – Feb 2021, Turkey (13,000);[88]
Phase IV (37,867)[89][90]
Interventional
Feb 2021 – Feb 2022, Serrana (São Paulo) (27,711); Mar 2021 – Mar 2022, Manaus (10,156)
Full (1)
Emergency (71)
Novavax COVID-19 vaccine (Covovax)[91][92]
Novavax, CEPI
United StatesSubunit[93][94][95]/virus-like particle[96][97] (recombinant nanoparticle)2–8 °CPhase III (49,600)
Randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial[98]
Sep 2020 – Jan 2021, UK (15,000); Dec 2020 – Jun 2023, US, Mexico, Puerto Rico (33,000);[99] India (Phase II/III: 1,600)[100][101]
Full (3)
Emergency (36)
Covaxin
Bharat Biotech, Indian Council of Medical Research
IndiaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2 (vero cells)[102]2 doses
4 weeks[103]
2–8 °C[103]Phase III (25,800)
Randomised, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled[104]
Peer-reviewed results from The Lancet indicate an interim efficacy of 78% for its phase 3 trial.[105][106]
Nov 2020 – Mar 2021, India.
Phase IV (1,000)[107]
Interventional, non-randomized
July 2021 – Dec 2021, India
Full (0)
Emergency (119)
Sputnik Light
Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology[108]
RussiaAdenovirus vector (recombinant Ad26)[109]1 dose[109]2–8 °C[110]Phase III (7,000)[111]
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial[109]
Feb  – Dec 2021, Russia (6,000)
Full (0)
Emergency (28)
Convidecia
CanSino Biologics, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences
ChinaAdenovirus vector (recombinant Ad5)[112]1 dose[113]2–8 °C[113]Phase III (40,000)
Global multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, safety and immunogenicity.
In February 2021, interim analysis from global trials showed an efficacy of 65.7% against symptomatic cases of COVID-19 and 90.98% efficacy against severe cases.[113]
Mar–Dec 2020, China; Sep 2020 – Dec 2021, Pakistan; Sep–Nov 2020, Russia,[114] China, Argentina, Chile;[115] Mexico;[116] Pakistan;[117] Saudi Arabia[118][119]
Full (1)
Emergency (9)
Sinopharm WIBP COVID-19 vaccine
Sinopharm: Wuhan Institute of Biological Products
ChinaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2 (vero cells)2 doses
3 weeks[120][121][122]
2–8 °CPhase III (51,600)
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled[123]
Peer-reviewed results indicate 72.8% efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19.[59]
Jul 2020 – Mar 2021, Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, United Arab Emirates;[120] Sep 2020 – Sep 2021, Peru;[121] Sep 2020 – Dec 2020, Morocco[124]
Full (1)
Emergency (5)
EpiVacCorona[125][126]
Vector Institute
RussiaSubunit (peptide)[125]2 doses
3 weeks[125]
2–8 °C[127]Phase III (40,150(planned), 3,000(started))[128]
Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety
Nov 2020 – Dec 2021, Russia (3,000)[129][130][131][132]
Full (1)
Emergency (4)
ZF2001 (ZIFIVAX)[133]
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
ChinaSubunit (recombinant)3 doses
30 days[134][135]
2–8 °C[136]Phase III (29,000)
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled[134]
Dec 2020 – Apr 2022, China, Ecuador, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Uzbekistan[137][138]
Full (0)
Emergency (4)
Abdala
BioCubaFarma: Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
CubaSubunit3 doses
2 weeks[139]
2–8 °C[140]Phase III (48,290)[141]
Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.[139]
Mar–Jul 2021, Cuba
Full (0)
Emergency (6)
CoviVac[142]
The Chumakov Centre at the Russian Academy of Sciences
RussiaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2 (vero cells)[143]2 doses
2 weeks[144]
2–8 °C[144]Phase III (32,000)[145]
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled to evaluate efficacy and safety.
May 2021 – ?, Russia (3,000)[146]
Full (0)
Emergency (3)
QazCovid-in (QazVac)[147]
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems
KazakhstanInactivated SARS‑CoV‑22 doses
3 weeks[148]
2–8 °C[149]Phase III (3,000)
Randomised, blind, placebo-controlled trial[150]
Mar 2021 – Jul 2021, Kazakhstan[150]
Full (0)
Emergency (2)
Minhai COVID-19 vaccine (KCONVAC)
Minhai Biotechnology Co., Shenzhen Kangtai Biological Products
ChinaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2 (vero cell)2 doses
4 weeks[151]
2–8 °CPhase III (28,000)[151]
Multi-national, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled.
April–Nov 2021, China, Malaysia, the Philippines
Full (0)
Emergency (2)
COVIran Barekat (COVIRAN)[152]
Barkat Pharmaceutical Group, Shifa Pharmed Industrial Group
IranInactivated SARS‑CoV‑22 doses
4 weeks[153]
2–8 °C[154]Phase III (20,000)[153]
Randomized, double-blind, parallel arms, placebo-controlled.
Mar–Jun 2021, Iran
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences COVID-19 vaccine (Covidful)[155][156]
Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Biology
ChinaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑22 doses
2 weeks[156]
2–8 °CPhase III (34,020)
Randomized, double-blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled
Jan–Sep 2021, Brazil, Malaysia
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
Soberana 02 (FINLAY-FR-2, Pasteurcovac[157])
BioCubaFarma: Instituto Finlay de Vacunas
Cuba, IranSubunit (conjugate)2 doses
4 weeks[158]
2–8 °C[140]Phase III (68,010)[159][158][160]
Cuba (44,010): Multicenter, adaptive, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind.
Iran (24,000): Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled
Mar–May 2021, Cuba, Iran, Venezuela[161]
Full (0)
Emergency (4)
MVC COVID-19 vaccine (MVC-COV1901)
Medigen Vaccine Biologics, Dynavax Technologies[162]
TaiwanSubunit (S-2P protein +CpG 1018)2 doses
4 weeks[163]
2–8 °C[164]Phase III (5,120)[165][166][167]
Phase IIa (3,700): Prospective, double-blinded, multi-center, multi-regional.
Phase IIb (400): Prospective, randomized, double-blind, dose-comparison, multi-center.
Phase III (1,020): Parallel group, prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, two-arm, multi-center.[168]
Dec 2020 – Dec 2021, Paraguay (phase III),[169] Taiwan (phase II), Vietnam (phase IIa)
Full (0)
Emergency (2)
ZyCoV-D[170]
Cadila Healthcare,
Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council
IndiaDNA (plasmid)3 doses
4 weeks[170][171]
2–8 °C[172]Phase III (30,000)[173][174]
Randomised, blind, placebo-controlled trial[175]
Jan–May 2021, India[176]
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
FAKHRAVAC[177] (MIVAC)[178]
Organization of Defensive Innovation and Research
IranInactivated SARS‑CoV‑22 doses
3 weeks[179]
2–8 °CPhase III (41,128)
Randomized, double blind, parallel design, non-inferiority design, compared to Sinopharm vaccine.[179]
Sep–Nov 2021, Iran
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
COVAX-19 (SpikoGen)[180]
Vaxine Pty Ltd,[181] Cinnagen[182]
Australia, IranSubunit (recombinant)2–8 °CPhase III (18,876)[183][184]
Phase III (16,876): Randomized, Two-armed, Double-blind, Placebo controlled
Phase II/IIIb (2,000): Open label.
Aug 2021 – Jul 2022, Australia (phase II/IIIb), Iran (phase III)
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
Razi Cov Pars[185][186]
Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute
IranSubunit (recombinant)2–8 °CPhase III (41,128)[187]
Two parallel and equal groups, randomized, double blind, non-inferiority design, compared to Sinopharm BIBP vaccine.
Sep–Dec 2021, Iran
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
TURKOVAC
Health Institutes of Turkey
TurkeyInactivated SARS‑CoV‑22–8 °CPhase III (40,800)[188]
Randomized, double-blinded, multi-center, active-controlled.
Jun 2021 – Jan 2022, Turkey
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
Sinopharm CNBG COVID-19 vaccine
Sinopharm: China National Biotec Group[189]
ChinaSubunit (recombinant)2–8 °CPhase IIIFull (0)
Emergency (1)
Bio E COVID-19 (Corbevax)[190][191][192]
Biological E. Limited, Baylor College of Medicine,[193] CEPI
India, United StatesSubunit (using an antigen)2–8 °CPhase III (1,268)[194]
Phase 2b/3: Single Arm, Prospective, multicentre.[195]
Apr – Aug 2021, India
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
Soberana Plus
BioCubaFarma: Instituto Finlay de Vacunas
CubaSubunit (conjugate)1 dose2–8 °CPhase II (450)[196]
Apr – Jun 2021, Cuba
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
CoVLP[197][198]
Medicago, GSK
Canada, United KingdomVirus-like particles[f] (recombinant, plant-based with AS03)2–8 °CPhase III (30,918)
Event-driven, randomized, observer blinded, placebo-controlled[200]
Nov 2020 – Dec 2021, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom, United States
Full (1)
Emergency (0)
Valneva COVID-19 vaccine[201][202]
Valneva
FranceInactivated SARS‑CoV‑22–8 °CPhase III (4,769)[203][204][205]
Phase III (4,019+750): Randomized, observer-blind, controlled, non-inferiority.
Apr–Dec 2021, New Zealand, United Kingdom
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
Noora[206]
Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences
IranSubunit (RBD protein recombinant vaccine)2–8 °CPhase III (10,300)[207]
First A randomized, double blind clinical trial with two parallel groups and a single center with a sample size of 300 people. Second A multicenter and single arm clinical trial comparing before and after injection of booster vaccine with a sample size of 10000 people.
Dec 2021–Apr 2022, Iran
Full (0)
Emergency (1)
  1. ^ Serum Institute of India will be producing the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine for India[17] and other low- and middle-income countries.[18]
  2. ^ Oxford name: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Manufacturing in Brazil to be carried out by Oswaldo Cruz Foundation.[19]
  3. ^ a b Recommended interval. The second dose of the Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna vaccines can be administered up to six weeks after the first dose to alleviate a shortage of supplies.[34][35]
  4. ^ Long-term storage temperature. The Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine can be kept between −25 and −15 °C (−13 and 5 °F) for up to two weeks before use, and between 2 and 8 °C (36 and 46 °F) for up to five days before use.[36][37]
  5. ^ Storage temperature for the frozen Gam-COVID-Vac formulation. The lyophilised Gam-COVID-Vac-Lyo formulation can be stored at 2–8°C.[66]
  6. ^ Virus-like particles grown in Nicotiana benthamiana[199]


Vaccine candidates in human trials

The table below shows various vaccine candidates and the phases which they have completes so far. Current phases are also shown along with other details.

COVID‑19 candidate vaccines in Phase I–III trials
COVID‑19 vaccine candidates in Phase I–III trials[208][209][210]
()
Vaccine candidates,
developers, and sponsors
Country of originType (technology)Current phase (participants)
design
Completed phase[a] (participants)
Immune response
Pending authorization
Sanofi–GSK COVID-19 vaccine (VAT00008, Vidprevtyn)
Sanofi Pasteur, GSK
France, United KingdomSubunit (SARS-CoV-2 S adjuvanted recombinant protein)Phase III (37,430)[211][212]
A Parallel-group, Phase III, Multi-stage, Modified Double-blind, Multi-armed Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of Two SARS-CoV-2 Adjuvanted Recombinant Protein Vaccines (Monovalent and Bivalent) for Prevention Against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older.
May 2021 – Mar 2023, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Honduras, India (3,000), Japan, Kenya,[213] Mexico,[214] Nigeria, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Uganda, United States
Phase I–II (1,160)
Phase I-IIa (440): Immunogenicity and Safety of SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Protein Vaccine Formulations (With or Without Adjuvant) in Healthy Adults 18 Years of Age and Older.[215]
Phase IIb (720): Immunogenicity and Safety of SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Protein Vaccine With AS03 Adjuvant in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older.[216]
Sep 2020 – Apr 2022, United States
Emergency (5)
Nanocovax[223]
Nanogen Pharmaceutical Biotechnology JSC
VietnamSubunit (SARS‑CoV‑2 recombinant spike protein with aluminum adjuvant)[224][225]Phase III (13,000)[226][227]
Adaptive, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
Jun 2021 – Jul 2022, Vietnam
Phase I–II (620)[228]
Phase I (60): Open label, dose escalation.
Phase II (560): Randomization, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled.
Dec 2020 – Jun 2021, Vietnam
Emergency (1)
UB-612
United Biomedical,Inc, Vaxxinity, DASA
Brazil, Taiwan, United StatesSubunit (Multitope peptide based S1-RBD-protein based vaccine)Phase III (18,320)[230][231]
Phase IIb/III (7,320): Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose-Response.
Phase III (11,000)
Jan 2021 – Mar 2023, Taiwan (phase 2b/3), India (phase 3)[232]
Phase I–II (3,910)[233]
Phase 1 (60): Open-label study
Phase IIa (3,850): Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Observer-blind Study.
Sep 2020 – Jan 2021, Taiwan
Emergency (1)
SCB-2019[235][236]
Clover Biopharmaceuticals,[237][238] Dynavax Technologies,[239] CEPI
ChinaSubunit (spike protein trimeric subunit with combined CpG 1018 and aluminium adjuvant)Phase III (30,300)
Phase II/III (30,000): Randomized, double-blind, controlled.
Phase III (300): Double-blind, randomized, controlled.[240]
Mar 2021 – Oct 2022, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Germany, Nepal, Panama, the Philippines, Poland, South Africa, Ukraine
Phase I–II (950)
Phase I (150): Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, First-in-human.
Phase II (800): Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized, Controlled.[241]
Jun 2020 – Oct 2021, Australia (phase 1), China (phase 2)
Emergency (1)
S-268019
Shionogi
JapanSubunitPhase III (54,915)[242][243]
Phase II/III: Open-label.
Phase III: Randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over.
Oct 2021 – Dec 2022, Japan (3,100), Vietnam
Phase I–II (300)[244]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group.
Dec 2020 – Aug 2021, Japan
West China Hospital COVID-19 vaccine
Jiangsu Province Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, West China Hospital (WestVac Biopharma), Sichuan University
ChinaSubunit (recombinant with Sf9 cell)Phase III (40,000)[245]
Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Jun 2021 – Feb 2022, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia,[246] Mexico, Nepal, the Philippines (5,000)[247]
Phase I–II (5,128)[248][249][250]
Phase I (168): Single-center, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind.
Phase IIa (960):Single-center, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled.
Phase IIb (4,000):Single-center, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled.
Aug 2020 – May 2021, China
DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT (DelNS1-nCoV-RBD LAIV)
Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Xiamen University
China, Hong KongReplicating viral vector (flu-based-RBD)Phase III (40,000)[251]
Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo controlled.
Oct 2021 – Apr 2022, the Philippines
Phase I–II (895)[252][253]
Phase I (60+115=175)
Phase II (720)
Sep 2020 – Sep 2022, China (60), Hong Kong (115)
Versamune-CoV-2FC
Farmacore Biotechnology, PDS Biotechnology Corporation, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto
Brazil, United StatesSubunitPhase III (30,000)[254]
Double-blind, randomized controlled.
Aug–Dec 2021, Brazil
Phase I–II (360)[255][256][257]
Double-blind, randomized controlled.
Mar–Aug 2021, Brazil
Walvax COVID-19 vaccine (ARCoV)[258]
PLA Academy of Military Science, Walvax Biotech,[259] Suzhou Abogen Biosciences
ChinaRNAPhase III (28,000)[260]
Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled
May–Nov 2021, China,[261] Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey
Phase I–II (908)
Phase I (168)
Phase II (420)
Phase I/II (320)[262]
Jun 2020 – Oct 2021, China[263]
V-01
Livzon Mabpharm, Inc.
ChinaSubunit (SARS-CoV-2 recombinant fusion protein)Phase III (22,500)[264]
Global, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Aug 2021–Mar 2023, the Philippines
Phase I (1,060)[265][266]
Phase I (180): Single-center, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled.
Phase II (880): Randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled.
Feb–May 2021, China
ARCT-154 (VBC-COV19-154 in Vietnam)[267][268][269]
Arcturus Therapeutics, Vinbiocare
United States, VietnamRNAPhase III (20,600)
Phase IIIa (600): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled.
Phase IIIb (20,000): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled.[270][271]
Oct-Dec 2021, Vietnam
Phase I–II (400)
Phase I (100): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled.
Phase II (300): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled.
Aug-Oct 2021, Vietnam[272]
ReCOV
Jiangsu Rec-Biotechnology Co Ltd
ChinaSubunit (Recombinant two-component spike and RBD protein (CHO cell))Phase II–III (20,301)[273]
Multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Dec 2021–Dec 2022, China, New Zealand, the Philippines
Phase I (160)[274]
First-in-human, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding.
Jun–Dec 2021, New Zealand
BriLife (IIBR-100)[275]
The Israel Institute for Biological Research
IsraelVesicular stomatitis vector (recombinant)Phase III (20,000)[276]
Randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled.
Sept – Dec 2021, Israel
Phase I–II (1,040)[277]
Randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation.
Oct 2020 – May 2021, Israel
Zhongyianke Biotech–Liaoning Maokangyuan Biotech COVID-19 vaccine
Zhongyianke Biotech, Liaoning Maokangyuan Biotech, Academy of Military Medical Sciences
ChinaSubunit (Recombinant)Phase III (14,600)[278]
International multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Sep 2021–?, China
Phase I–II (696)[279]
Phase I (216): Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind.
Phase II (480): Single-center, randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled.[280]
Oct 2020 – Jul 2021, China
GX-19 (GX-19N)[281][282][283]
Genexine consortium,[284][285] International Vaccine Institute
South KoreaDNAPhase II–III (14,000)[286]
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled.
Oct 2021 – Oct 2022, Indonesia, Seoul
Phase I–II (410)
Phase I-II (170+210+30): Multi-center, some open-labeled, some double-blinded, single arm, randomized, placebo-controlled
Jun 2020 – Jul 2021, Seoul
GRAd-COV2[287][288]
ReiThera, Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases
ItalyAdenovirus vector (modified gorilla adenovirus vector, GRAd)Phase III (10,300)[289][290]
Randomized, stratified, observer-blind, placebo-controlled.
Mar–Oct 2021, Italy
Phase I (90)[291]
Subjects (two groups: 18–55 and 65–85 years old) randomly receiving one of three escalating doses of GRAd-COV2 or a placebo, then monitored over a 24-week period. 93% of subjects who received GRAd-COV2 developed anti-bodies.
Aug–Dec 2020, Rome
Inovio COVID-19 Vaccine (INO-4800)[292][293]
Inovio, CEPI, Korea National Institute of Health, International Vaccine Institute
South Korea, United StatesDNA vaccine (plasmid delivered by electroporation)Phase III (7,517)
Randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center.[294]
Nov 2020 – Jan 2023, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, the Philippines, United States[b]
Phase I–II (920)
Phase Ia (120): Open-label trial.
Phase Ib-IIa (160): Dose-Ranging Trial.[295]
Phase II (640): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-finding.[296]
April 2020 – Feb 2022, China (phase II), South Korea (phase Ib-IIa), United States
DS-5670[297]
Daiichi Sankyo[298]
JapanRNAPhase II–III (5,028)[299]
Randomized, Active-comparator, Observer-blind.
Dec 2021 – Jul 2023, Japan
Phase I–II (152)[300]
A Phase 1/2 Study to Assess the Safety, Immunogenicity and Recommended Dose of DS-5670a (COVID-19 Vaccine) in Japanese Healthy Adults and Elderly Subjects.
Mar 2021 – Jul 2022, Japan
GBP510
SK Bioscience Co. Ltd., GSK
South Korea, United KingdomSubunit (Recombinant protein nanoparticle with adjuvanted with AS03)Phase III (4,000)[301]
Randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, parallel-group, multi-center.[302]
Aug 2021-Mar 2022, South Korea
Phase I–II (580)[303][304]
Phase I-II (260-320): Placebo-controlled, randomized, observer-blinded, dose-finding.
Jan–Aug 2021, South Korea
HGC019[305]
Gennova Biopharmaceuticals, HDT Biotech Corporation[306]
India, United StatesRNAPhase II–III (4,400)[307]
A prospective, multicentre, randomized, active-controlled (with COVISHIELD), observer-blind study to evaluate safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in healthy adults.
Phase II (400)
Phase III (4,000)
Sep 2021 – Sep 2022, India
Phase I–II (620)[308][309][310]
Randomized, phase I/II, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, parallel-group, crossover, multi-centre study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in healthy adult subjects.
Phase I (120) open-label study in healthy 18-70 year-olds.
Phase II (500) observer-blind study in healthy 18-75 year-olds.
Apr 2021 – Oct 2021, India
KD-414
KM Biologics Co
JapanInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2Phase II–III (2,000)[311]
Multicenter, open-label, non-randomized.
Oct 2021 – Mar 2023, Japan
Phase I–II (210)[312]
Randomized, double blind, placebo control, parallel group.[313]
Mar 2021 – Dec 2022, Japan
LYB001
Yantai Patronus Biotech Co., Ltd[314]
ChinaVirus-like particle[315]Phase II–III (1,900)[316]
Phase II: Randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled
Phase III: Single-armed, open-label expanded.
Jan 2022 – Mar 2023, Laos
Phase I (100)[317]
Randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled.
Dec 2021 – Feb 2022, Laos
AKS-452
Akston Biosciences, University Medical Center Groningen
NetherlandsSubunitPhase II–III (1,600)[318]
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-centre, adaptive, seamless bridging.
Oct 2021–Dec 2022, India
Phase I–II (112)[319]
Non-randomized, Single-center, open-label, combinatorial.
Apr–Sep 2021, Netherlands
AG0302-COVID‑19[320][321]
AnGes Inc.,[322] AMED
JapanDNA vaccine (plasmid)Phase II–III (500)
Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled[323]
Nov 2020 – Apr 2021, Japan
Phase I–II (30)
Randomized/non-randomized, single-center, two doses
Jun–Nov 2020, Osaka
202-CoV
Shanghai Zerun Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Walvax Biotech
ChinaSubunit (Spike protein (CHO cell) 202-CoV with CpG / alum adjuvant)Phase II (1,056)[324]
Randomized, Double-blinded, Placebo-controlled.
July–Dec 2021, China
Phase I (144)[325]
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled.
July–Dec 2021, China
Vaxart COVID-19 vaccine
Vaxart
United StatesViral vectorPhase II (896)[326]
Double-Blind, Multi-Center, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Ranging.
Oct 2021 – Mar 2022, United States
Phase I (83)[327][328]
Phase Ia (35): Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, first-in-Human.
Phase Ib (48): Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Sep 2020 – Aug 2021, United States
PTX-COVID19-B[329]
Providence Therapeutics
CanadaRNAPhase II (890)[330]
Randomized, double-dummy, observer-blind.
Aug 2021–Feb 2022, Canada
Phase I (60)[329]
First-in-Human, Observer-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo Controlled.[331]
Jan–May 2021, Canada
Unnamed
Ningbo Rong’an Biological Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
ChinaInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2Phase II (600)[332]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Oct 2021 – Mar 2022, China
Phase I (150)[333]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Aug – Oct 2021, China
Unnamed
Tsinghua University, Tianjin Medical University,[334] Walvax Biotech
ChinaViral vectorPhase II (360)[335]
Jul–Nov 2021, China
Phase I (60)[336]
May–Jun 2021, China
INNA-051
Ena Respiratory
AustraliaViral vectorPhase II (423)[337]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Mar  – Dec 2022, Australia
Phase I (124)[338]
Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled.
Jun – Oct 2021, Australia
mRNA-1283
Moderna
United StatesRNAPhase II (420)[339]
Randomized, stratified, observer-blind.
Dec 2021 – Jan 2023, United States
Phase I (106)[340]
Randomized, observer-blind, dose-ranging study.
Mar 2021 – Apr 2022, United States
Unnamed
Ihsan Gursel, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
TurkeyVirus-like particlePhase II (330)[341]
Randomized, parallel dose assigned, double blind, multi center.
Jun – Sep 2021, Turkey
Phase I (36)[342]
double-blinded, randomised, placebo controlled.
Mar – May 2021, Turkey
COH04S1
GeoVax, City of Hope Medical Center
United StatesViral vectorPhase II (240)[343]
Multi-center, observer-blinded, EUA vaccine-controlled, randomized.
Aug 2021 – Jun 2023, California
Phase I (129)[344]
Dose Escalation Study.
Dec 2020 – Nov 2022, California
ABNCoV2
Bavarian Nordic.[345] Radboud University Nijmegen
Denmark, NetherlandsVirus-like particlePhase II (210)[346][347]
Single center, sequential dose-escalation, open labelled trial.
Aug–Dec 2021, Germany
Phase I (42)[348]
Single center, sequential dose-escalation, open labelled trial.
Mar–Dec 2021, Netherlands
SCB-2020S
Clover Biopharmaceuticals[349]
ChinaSubunitPhase I–II (150)[350]
Randomized, controlled, observer-blind.
Aug 2021 – Apr 2022, Australia
Preclinical
SCTV01C
Sinocelltech
ChinaSubunitPhase I–II (1,712)[351][352][353]
540+420+752=1,712: multicenter, randomized, double-blinded trial.
Aug 2021 – Jun 2023, China
Preclinical
NDV-HXP-S (ButanVac, COVIVAC, HXP-GPOVac, Patria)
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals,[354] Butantan Institute, Laboratorio Avimex, National Council of Science and Technology, Mahidol University, University of Texas at Austin
Brazil, Mexico, Thailand, United States, VietnamNewcastle disease virus (NDV) vector (expressing the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, with or without the adjuvant CpG 1018)/Inactivated SARS‑CoV‑2Phase I–II (12,750)
Randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind.
Mar 2021 – May 2022; Brazil (5,394), Mexico (Phase I: 90, Phase II: 396),[355] Thailand (460),[356] United States (Phase I: 35),[357] Vietnam (495)[358][359]
Preclinical
Stemirna COVID-19 vaccine
Stemirna Therapeutics Co. Ltd.
ChinaRNAPhase I–II (880)[360][361]
Phase I (240): Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Phase I/II (640): Open-label.
Mar 2021–Feb 2022, China (phase I), Lao (phase I/II)
Preclinical
ARCT-021[362][363]
Arcturus Therapeutics, Duke–NUS Medical School
United States, SingaporeRNAPhase I–II (798)
Phase I/II (92): Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled
Phase II (600): Randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, multiregional, multicenter trial in healthy adults to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity.[364]
Phase IIa (106): Open label extension trial to assess the safety and long-term immunogenicity by giving single-dose vaccine to the participants from the parent study that received placebo or were seronegative at screening.[365]
Aug 2020 – Apr 2022, Singapore, United States (phase IIa)
Preclinical
Unnamed
PT Bio Farma
IndonesiaSubunitPhase I–II (780)[366]
Observer-Blind, Randomized, Controlled.
Oct 2021 – Jan 2022, Indonesia
Preclinical
VBI-2902[367]
Variation Biotechnologies
United StatesVirus-like particlePhase I (141)[368]
Randomized, observer-blind, dose-escalation, placebo-controlled
Mar 2021 – Nov 2022, Canada
Preclinical
ICC Vaccine[369]
Novavax
United StatesSubunitPhase I–II (640)[370]
Randomized, observer-blinded.
Sep 2021 – Mar 2022, Australia
Preclinical
EuCorVac-19[371]
EuBiologics Co
South KoreaSubunit (spike protein using the recombinant protein technology and with an adjuvant)Phase I–II (280)
Dose-exploration, randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled
Feb 2021 – Mar 2022, the Philipppines (phase II), South Korea (phase I/II)
Preclinical
PHH-1V
Hipra[372]
SpainSubunitPhase I–II (286)[373][374]
Phase I/IIa (30): Randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, dose-escalation.
Phase IIb (256): Randomized, controlled, observer-blinded.
Aug–Dec 2021, Spain (phase I/IIa), Vietnam (phase IIb)
Preclinical
RBD SARS-CoV-2 HBsAg VLP
SpyBiotech
United KingdomVirus-like particlePhase I–II (280)[375]
Randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-center.
Aug 2020 – ?, Australia
Preclinical
AV-COVID-19
AIVITA Biomedical, Inc., Ministry of Health (Indonesia)
United States, IndonesiaDendritic cell vaccine (autologous dendritic cells previously loaded ex vivo with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with or without GM-CSF)Phase I–II (202)[376][377]
Adaptive.
Dec 2020 – Feb 2022, Indonesia (phase I), United States (phase I/II)
Preclinical
COVID-eVax
Takis Biotech
ItalyDNAPhase I–II (160)[378]
Multicenter, open label.
Phase I: First-in-human, dose escalation.
Phase II: single arm or two arms, randomized, dose expansion.
Feb–Sep 2021, Italy
Preclinical
BBV154[379]
Bharat Biotech[380]
IndiaAdenovirus vector (intranasal)Phase I–II (375)[379][381]
Phase I (175): Randomized, double-blinded, multicenter.
Phase II (200): Randomized, double blind, multicenter.[382]
Mar 2021–?, India
Preclinical
VB10.2129 and VB10.2210
Nykode Therapeutics[383][384]
NorwayDNAPhase I–II (160)[385][386]
Open Label, Dose Escalation.
Oct 2021–Jun 2022, Norway
Preclinical
ChulaCov19
Chulalongkorn University
ThailandRNAPhase I–II (72)[387]
Phase 1 (72): single-center, dose-escalation, first in human study in 2 age groups: 18-55 years-old and 56-75 years-old.
Phase 2: Multi-center, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity in healthy adults between 18-75 years old.
May-September 2021, Thailand
Preclinical
COVID‑19/aAPC[388]
Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute[389]
ChinaLentiviral vector (with minigene modifying aAPCs)Phase I (100)[388]
Single group, open-label study to evaluate safety and immunity.
Feb 2020 – Jul 2023, Shenzhen
Preclinical
LV-SMENP-DC[390]
Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute[389]
ChinaLentiviral vector (with minigene modifying DCs)Phase I–II (100)[390]
Single-group, open label, multi-center study to evaluate safety and efficacy.
Mar 2020 – Jul 2023, Shenzhen
Preclinical
ImmunityBio COVID-19 vaccine (hAd5)
ImmunityBio
United StatesViral vectorPhase I–II (540)[391][392][393][394][395]
Phase 1/2 Study of the Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of a Subcutaneously- and Orally- Administered Supplemental Spike & Nucleocapsid-targeted COVID-19 Vaccine to Enhance T Cell Based Immunogenicity in Participants Who Have Already Received Prime + Boost Vaccines Authorized For Emergency Use.
Oct 2020  – Sep 2021, South Africa, United States
Preclinical
COVAC[396]
VIDO (University of Saskatchewan)
CanadaSubunit (spike protein + SWE adjuvant)Phase I (120)[396]
Randomized, observer-blind, dose-escalation.[397][398]
Feb 2021 – Apr 2023, Brazil Halifax
Preclinical
COVI-VAC (CDX-005)[399]
Codagenix Inc.
United StatesAttenuatedPhase I (48)[400]
First-in-human, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation
Dec 2020 – Jun 2021, United Kingdom
Preclinical
CoV2 SAM (LNP)
GSK
United KingdomRNAPhase I (40)[401]
Open-label, dose escalation, non-randomized
Feb–Jun 2021, United States
Preclinical
COVIGEN[402]
Bionet Asia, Technovalia, University of Sydney
Australia, ThailandDNAPhase I (150)[403]
Double-blind, dose-ranging, randomised, placebo-controlled.
Feb 2021 – Jun 2022, Australia, Thailand
Preclinical
MV-014-212[404]
Meissa Vaccine Inc.
United StatesAttenuatedPhase I (130)[405]
Randomized, double-blinded, multicenter.
Mar 2021 – Oct 2022, United States
Preclinical
KBP-201
Kentucky Bioprocessing
United StatesSubunitPhase I–II (180)[406]
First-in-human, observer-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group
Dec 2020 – May 2022, United States
Preclinical
AdCLD-CoV19
Cellid Co
South KoreaViral vectorPhase I–II (150)[407]
Phase I: Dose Escalation, Single Center, Open.
Phase IIa: Multicenter, Randomized, Open.
Dec 2020 – Jul 2021, South Korea
Preclinical
AdimrSC-2f
Adimmune Corporation
TaiwanSubunit (Recombinant RBD +/− Aluminium)Phase I–II (310)[408][409]
Phase I (70): Randomized, single center, open-label, dose-finding.
Phase I/II (240): Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, dose-finding.
Aug 2020–Sep 2022, Indonesia (phase I/II), Taiwan (phase I)
Preclinical
GLS-5310
GeneOne Life Science Inc.
South KoreaDNAPhase I–II (345)[410]
Multicenter, Randomized, Combined Phase I Dose-escalation and Phase IIa Double-blind.
Dec 2020 – Jul 2022, South Korea
Preclinical
Covigenix VAX-001
Entos Pharmaceuticals Inc.
CanadaDNAPhase I–II (72)[411]
Placebo-controlled, randomized, observer-blind, dose ranging adaptive.
Mar–Aug 2021, Canada
Preclinical
NBP2001
SK Bioscience Co. Ltd.
South KoreaSubunit (Recombinant protein with adjuvanted with alum)Phase I (50)[412]
Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Observer-blinded, Dose-escalation.
Dec 2020 – Apr 2021, South Korea
Preclinical
CoVAC-1
University of Tübingen
GermanySubunit (Peptide)Phase I–II (104)[413][414]
Phase I (36): Placebo-controlled, Randomized, Observer-blinded, Dose-escalation.
Phase I/II (68): B-pVAC-SARS-CoV-2: Phase I/II Multicenter Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Multi-peptide Vaccination to Prevent COVID-19 Infection in Adults With Bcell/ Antibody Deficiency.
Nov 2020 – Feb 2022, Germany
Preclinical
bacTRL-Spike
Symvivo
CanadaDNAPhase I (24)[415]
Randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled.
Nov 2020 – Feb 2022, Australia
Preclinical
ChAdV68-S (SAM-LNP-S)
NIAID, Gritstone Oncology
United StatesViral vectorPhase I (150)[416]
Open-label, dose and age escalation, parallel design.
Mar 2021 – Sep 2022, United States
Preclinical
SpFN COVID-19 vaccine
United States Army Medical Research and Development Command
United StatesSubunitPhase I (72)[417]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled.
Apr 2021 – Oct 2022, United States
Preclinical
MVA-SARS-2-S (MVA-SARS-2-ST)
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
GermanyViral vectorPhase I–II (270)[418][419]
Phase I (30): Open, Single-center.
Phase Ib/IIa (240): Multi-center, Randomized Controlled.
Oct 2020 – Mar 2022, Germany
Preclinical
Koçak-19 Inaktif Adjuvanlı COVID-19 vaccine
Kocak Farma
TurkeyInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2Phase I (38)[420]
Phase 1 Study for the Determination of Safety and Immunogenicity of Different Strengths of Koçak-19 Inaktif Adjuvanlı COVID-19 Vaccine, Given Twice Intramuscularly to Healthy Volunteers, in a Placebo Controlled Study Design.
Mar–Jun 2021, Turkey
Preclinical
CoV2-OGEN1
Syneos Health, US Specialty Formulations
United StatesSubunitPhase I (45)[421]
First-In-Human
Jun–Dec 2021, New Zealand
Preclinical
CoVepiT
OSE Immunotherapeutics
FranceSubunitPhase I (48)[422][423]
Randomized, open label.
Apr–Sept 2021, France
Preclinical
HDT-301[424] (QTP104)
HDT Biotech Corporation, Senai Cimatec, Quartis[425]
Brazil, South Korea, United StatesRNAPhase I (189)[426][427]
Phase I (90+63+36): Randomized, open-label, dose-escalation.
Aug 2021–Jul 2023, Brazil, South Korea, United States
Preclinical
SC-Ad6-1
Tetherex Pharmaceuticals
United StatesViral vectorPhase I (40)[428]
First-In-Human, Open-label, Single Ascending Dose and Multidose.
Jun–Dec 2021, Australia
Preclinical
Unnamed
Osman ERGANIS, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
TurkeyInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2Phase I (50)[429]
Phase I Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of the Protective Adjuvanted Inactivated Vaccine Developed Against SARS-CoV-2 in Healthy Participants, Administered as Two Injections Subcutaneously in Two Different Dosages.
Apr–Oct 2021, Turkey
Preclinical
EXG-5003
Elixirgen Therapeutics, Fujita Health University
Japan, United StatesRNAPhase I–II (60)[430]
First in Human, randomized, placebo-controlled.
Apr 2021 – Jan 2023, Japan
Preclinical
IVX-411
Icosavax, Seqirus Inc.
United StatesVirus-like particlePhase I–II (168)[431][432]
Phase I/II (84): Randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled.
Jun 2021–2022, Australia
Preclinical
QazCoVac-P[433]
Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems
KazakhstanSubunitPhase I–II (244)[434]
Phase I: Randomized, blind, placebo-controlled.
Phase II: Randomized, open phase.
Jun – Dec 2021, Kazakhstan
Preclinical
LNP-nCOV saRNA-02
MRC/UVRI & LSHTM Uganda Research Unit
UgandaRNAPhase I (42)[435]
A Clinical Trial to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of LNP-nCOV saRNA-02, a Self-amplifying Ribonucleic Acid (saRNA) Vaccine, in SARS-CoV-2 Seronegative and Seropositive Uganda Population.
Sep 2021 – Jun 2022, Uganda
Preclinical
Baiya SARS-CoV-2 Vax 1[436]
Baiya Phytopharm Co Ltd.
ThailandPlant-based Subunit (RBD-Fc + adjuvant)Phase I (96)[437]
Randomized, open-label, dose-finding.
Sep–Dec 2021, Thailand
Preclinical
CVXGA1
CyanVac LLC
United StatesViral vectorPhase I (80)[438]
Open-label
July–Dec 2021, United States
Preclinical
Unnamed
St. Petersburg Scientific Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera of Russia at the Federal Medical Biological Agency
RussiaSubunit (Recombinant)Phase I–II (200)[439][440]
Jul–Aug 2021, Russia
Preclinical
LVRNA009
Liverna Therapeutics Inc.
ChinaRNAPhase I (24)[441]
July–Nov 2021, China
Preclinical
ARCT-165
Arcturus Therapeutics
United StatesRNAPhase I–II (72)[442]
Randomized, observer-blind.
Aug 2021–Mar 2023, Singapore, United States
Preclinical
BCD-250
Biocad
RussiaViral vectorPhase I–II (160)[443]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive, seamless phase I/II.
Aug 2021–Aug 2022, Russia
Preclinical
COVID-19-EDV
EnGeneIC
AustraliaViral vectorPhase I (18)[444]
Open label, non-randomised, dose escalation.
Aug 2021–Jan 2022, Australia
Preclinical
COVIDITY
Scancell
United KingdomDNA[445]Phase I (40)[446]
Open-label, two-arm.
Sep 2021–Apr 2022, South Africa
Preclinical
SII Vaccine
Novavax
United StatesSubunitPhase I–II (240)[447]
randomized, observer-blinded, open-label.
Oct–Nov 2021, Australia
Preclinical
EG-COVID
Eyegene
South KoreamRNAPhase I–II (120)[448][449][450]
Phase I/IIa: Multi-center, Open-label.
Feb 2022–May 2023, South Korea
Preclinical
PIKA COVID-19 vaccine
Yisheng Biopharma
ChinaSubunitPhase I (45)[451]
Open-label, dose-escalation.
Sep–Nov 2021, New Zealand
Preclinical
Ad5-triCoV/Mac
McMaster University, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)
CanadaViral vectorPhase I (30)[452]
Open-label.
Nov 2021–Jun 2023, Canada
Preclinical
Unnamed
University of Hong Kong, Immuno Cure 3 Limited
Hong KongDNAPhase I (30)[453]
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation.
Nov 2021–Jun 2022, Hong Kong
Preclinical
MigVax-101
Oravax Medical[454][455][456]
IsraelVirus-like particlePhase I
Oct 2021–?, South Africa
Preclinical
IN-B009
HK inno.N[457]
South KoreaSubunit (Recombinant protein)Phase I (40)[458]
Open-label, dose-escalation.
Sep 2021–Feb 2023, South Korea
Preclinical
naNO-COVID
Emergex Vaccines
United KingdomSubunitPhase I (26)[459]
Double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled, dose-finding.
Nov 2021–Sep 2022, Switzerland
Preclinical
Betuvax-CoV-2
Human Stem Cells Institute
RussiaSubunitPhase I–II (170)[460][461]
Sep 2021–?, Russia
Preclinical
Covi Vax[462]
National Research Centre
EgyptInactivated SARS‑CoV‑2Phase I (72)[463]
Randomized, open-labeled
Nov 2021–Feb 2023, Egypt
Preclinical
VLPCOV-01
VLP Therapeutics
United StatesmRNAPhase I (45)[464]
Randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, first-in-human.
Aug 2021–Jan 2023, Japan
Preclinical
GRT-R910
Gritstone Oncology
United StatesmRNAPhase I (120)[465]
A Phase 1 Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity, and Reactogenicity of a Self-Amplifying mRNA Prophylactic Vaccine Boost Against SARS-CoV-2 in Previously Vaccinated Healthy Elderly Adults.
Sep 2021–Nov 2022, United Kingdom
Preclinical
Unnamed
DreamTec Limited
Hong KongSubunitPhase I (30)[466]
Development of a COVID19 Oral Vaccine Consisting of Bacillus Subtilis Spores Expressing and Displaying the Receptor Binding Domain of Spike Protein of SARS-COV2.
Apr–Dec 2021, Hong Kong
Preclinical
Almansour-001
Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, ICON plc
Ireland, Saudi ArabiaDNAPhase I (30)[467]
Single center, randomized, observer blind, dosage finding.
Feb–Jul 2022, Ireland, Saudi Arabia
Preclinical
Unnamed
North's Academy of Medical Science Medical biology institute
North KoreaSubunit (spike protein with Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)Phase I–II (?)[468]
Jul 2020, North Korea
Preclinical
Vabiotech COVID-19 vaccine
Vaccine and Biological Production Company No. 1 (Vabiotech)
VietnamSubunitPreclinical
Awaited for the conduct on Phase I trial.[469]
?
INO-4802
Inovio
United StatesDNAPreclinical
Awaited for the conduct on Phase I/II trials.[470]
?
Bangavax (Bancovid)[471][472]
Globe Biotech Ltd. of Bangladesh
BangladeshRNAPreclinical
Awaiting for approval from Bangladesh government to conduct the first clinical trial.[473]
?
Unnamed
Indian Immunologicals, Griffith University[474]
Australia, IndiaAttenuatedPreclinical?
EPV-CoV-19[475]
EpiVax
United StatesSubunit (T cell epitope-based protein)Preclinical?
Unnamed
Intravacc[476]
NetherlandsSubunitPreclinical?
CureVac–GSK COVID-19 vaccine[477]
CureVac, GSK
Germany, United KingdomRNAPreclinical?
DYAI-100[478] Sorrento Therapeutics, Dyadic International, Inc.[479]United StatesSubunitPreclinical?
Unnamed[480]
Ministry of Health (Malaysia), Malaysia Institute of Medical Research Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia
MalaysiaRNAPreclinical?
CureVac COVID-19 vaccine (CVnCoV)
CureVac, CEPI
GermanyRNA (unmodified RNA)[481]Terminated (44,433)[482][483][484][485][486]
Phase 2b/3 (39,693): Multicenter efficacy and safety trial in adults.
Phase 3 (2,360+180+1,200+1,000=4,740): Randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter, some observer-blinded, some open-labeled.
Nov 2020 – Jun 2022, Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Mexico, Netherlands, Panama, Peru, Spain[487]
Phase I–II (944)[488][489]
Phase I (284): Partially blind, controlled, dose-escalation to evaluate safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity.
Phase IIa (660):Partially observer-blind, multicenter, controlled, dose-confirmation.
Jun 2020 – Oct 2021, Belgium (phase I), Germany (phase I), Panama (phase IIa), Peru (phase IIa)
Emergency (2)
CORVax12
OncoSec Medical, Providence Health & Services
United StatesDNATerminated (36)[492]
Open-label, non-randomized, parallel assignment study to evaluate the safety of prime & boost doses with/without the combination of electroporated IL-12p70 plasmid in 2 age groups: 18-50 years-old and > 50 years-old.
Dec 2020 – Jul 2021, United States
Preclinical
Sanofi–Translate Bio COVID-19 vaccine (MRT5500)[493]
Sanofi Pasteur and Translate Bio
France, United StatesRNATerminated (415)[494]
Interventional, randomized, parallel-group, sequential study consisting of a sentinel cohort followed by the full enrollment cohort. The sentinel cohort is a open-label, step-wise, dose-ranging study to evaluate the safety of 3 dose levels with 2 vaccinations. The full enrollment cohort is a quadruple-blinded study of safety and immunogenicity in 2 age groups, with half receiving a single injection, and the other half receiving 2 injections.
Mar 2021 – Sep 2021, Honduras, United States, Australia
Preclinical
AdCOVID
Altimmune Inc.
United StatesViral vectorTerminated (180)[495][496]
Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, first-in-Human.
Feb 2021 – Feb 2022, United States
Preclinical
LNP-nCoVsaRNA[497]
MRC clinical trials unit at Imperial College London
United KingdomRNATerminated (105)
Randomized trial, with dose escalation study (15) and expanded safety study (at least 200)
Jun 2020 – Jul 2021, United Kingdom
?
TMV-083
Institut Pasteur
FranceViral vectorTerminated (90)[498]
Randomized, Placebo-controlled.
Aug 2020 – Jun 2021, Belgium, France
?
SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp/V451[499][500]
UQ, Syneos Health, CEPI, Seqirus
AustraliaSubunit (molecular clamp stabilized spike protein with MF59)Terminated (120)
Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging.
False positive HIV test found among participants.
Jul–Oct 2020, Brisbane
?
V590[501] and V591/MV-SARS-CoV-2[502] Merck & Co. (Themis BIOscience), Institut Pasteur, University of Pittsburgh's Center for Vaccine Research (CVR), CEPIUnited States, FranceVesicular stomatitis virus vector[503] / Measles virus vector[504]Terminated
In phase I, immune responses were inferior to those seen following natural infection and those reported for other SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 vaccines.[505]
  1. ^ Latest Phase with published results.
  2. ^ Phase I–IIa in South Korea in parallel with Phase II–III in the US


Homologous prime-boost vaccination

In July 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement reporting that a booster dose is not necessary for those who have been fully vaccinated.[506]

In August 2021, the FDA and the CDC authorized the use of an additional mRNA vaccine dose for immunocompromised individuals.[507][508] The authorization was extended to cover other specific groups in September 2021.[509][510][511]

In October 2021, the FDA and the CDC authorized the use of either homologous or heterologous vaccine booster doses.[512][513]

Heterologous prime-boost vaccination

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines heterologous prime-boost immunization as the administration of two different vectors or delivery systems expressing the same or overlapping antigenic inserts.[514] A heterologous scheme can sometimes be more immunogenic than some homologous schemes.[515]

In October 2021, the FDA and the CDC authorized the use of either homologous or heterologous vaccine booster doses.[512][513]

Some experts believe that heterologous prime-boost vaccination courses can boost immunity, and several studies have begun to examine this effect.[516] Despite the absence of clinical data on the efficacy and safety of such heterologous combinations, Canada and several European countries have recommended a heterologous second dose for people who have received the first dose of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine.[517]

In February 2021, the Oxford Vaccine Group launched the Com-COV vaccine trial to investigate heterologous prime-boost courses of different COVID-19 vaccines.[518] As of June 2021, the group is conducting two phase II studies: Com-COV and Com-COV2.[519]

In Com-COV, the two heterologous combinations of the Oxford–AstraZeneca and Pfizer–BioNTech vaccines were compared with the two homologous combinations of the same vaccines, with an interval of 28 or 84 days between doses.[520][521]

In Com-COV2, the first dose is the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine or the Pfizer vaccine, and the second dose is the Moderna vaccine, the Novavax vaccine, or a homologous vaccine equal to the first dose, with an interval of 56 or 84 days between doses.[522]

A study in the UK is evaluating annual heterologous boosters by randomly combining the following vaccines: Oxford–AstraZeneca, Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna, Novavax, VLA2001, CureVac, and Janssen.[523]

On December 16, WHO recommendations on heterologous vaccinations suggested a general trend of increased immunogenicity when one of the doses is of an mRNA vaccine, particularly as the last dose. The immunogenicity of a homologous mRNA course is roughly equivalent to a heterologous scheme involving a vector vaccine and an mRNA vaccine. However, the WHO has emphasized the need to address many evidence gaps in heterologous regimens, including duration of protection, optimal interval between doses, influence of fractional dosing, effectiveness against variants and long-term safety.[524]

Heterologous second dose regimes in clinical trial
First doseSecond doseSchedulesCurrent phase (participants), periods and locations
Oxford–AstraZeneca
Pfizer–BioNTech
Oxford–AstraZeneca
Pfizer–BioNTech
Days 0 and 28
Days 0 and 84
Phase II (820)[520]
Feb–Aug 2021, United Kingdom
Sputnik LightOxford–AstraZeneca
Moderna
Sinopharm BIBP
Phase II (121)[525]
Feb–Aug 2021, Argentina
Oxford–AstraZeneca
Pfizer–BioNTech
Oxford–AstraZeneca
Pfizer–BioNTech
Moderna
Novavax
Days 0 and 56–84Phase II (1,050)[522]
Mar 2021 – Sep 2022, United Kingdom
ConvideciaZF2001Days 0 and 28
Days 0 and 56
Phase IV (120)[526]
Apr–Dec 2021, China
Oxford–AstraZenecaPfizer–BioNTechDays 0 and 28Phase II (676)[527]
Apr 2021 – Apr 2022, Spain
Oxford–AstraZeneca
Pfizer–BioNTech
Moderna
Pfizer–BioNTech
Moderna
Days 0 and 28
Days 0 and 112
Phase II (1,200)[528]
May 2021 – Mar 2023, Canada
Pfizer–BioNTech
Moderna
Pfizer–BioNTech
Moderna
Days 0 and 42Phase II (400)[529]
May 2021 – Jan 2022, France
Oxford–AstraZenecaPfizer–BioNTechDays 0 and 28
Days 0 and 21–49
Phase II (3,000)[530]
May–Dec 2021, Austria
JanssenPfizer–BioNTech
Janssen
Moderna
Days 0 and 84Phase II (432)[531]
Jun 2021 – Sep 2022, Netherlands
Heterologous booster dose regimes in clinical trial
Initial courseBooster doseIntervalCurrent phase (participants), periods and locations
CoronaVac (2 doses)CoronaVac
Pfizer–BioNTech
Oxford–AstraZeneca
19 weeks or morePhase IV (2,017,878)[532][533]
Aug–Nov 2021, Chile

Efficacy

Cumulative incidence curves for symptomatic COVID‑19 infections after the first dose of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine (tozinameran) or placebo in a double-blind clinical trial. (red: placebo; blue: tozinameran)[534]

Vaccine efficacy is the reduction in risk of getting the disease by vaccinated participants in a controlled trial compared with the risk of getting the disease by unvaccinated participants.[535] An efficacy of 0% means that the vaccine does not work (identical to placebo). An efficacy of 50% means that there are half as many cases of infection as in unvaccinated individuals.

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy may be adversely affected if the arm is held improperly or squeezed so the vaccine is injected subcutaneously instead of into the muscle.[536][537] The CDC guidance is to not repeat doses that are administered subcutaneously.[538]

It is not straightforward to compare the efficacies of the different vaccines because the trials were run with different populations, geographies, and variants of the virus.[539] In the case of COVID‑19 prior to the advent of the delta variant, it was thought that a vaccine efficacy of 67% may be enough to slow the pandemic, but the current vaccines do not confer sterilizing immunity,[540] which is necessary to prevent transmission. Vaccine efficacy reflects disease prevention, a poor indicator of transmissibility of SARS‑CoV‑2 since asymptomatic people can be highly infectious.[541] The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) set a cutoff of 50% as the efficacy required to approve a COVID‑19 vaccine, with the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval being greater than 30%.[542][543][544] Aiming for a realistic population vaccination coverage rate of 75%, and depending on the actual basic reproduction number, the necessary effectiveness of a COVID-19 vaccine is expected to need to be at least 70% to prevent an epidemic and at least 80% to extinguish it without further measures, such as social distancing.[545]

The observed substantial efficacy of certain mRNA vaccines even after partial (1-dose) immunization[546][534] indicates a non-linear dose-efficacy relation already seen in the phase I-II study[547] and suggests that personalization of the vaccine dose (regular dose to the elderly, reduced dose to the healthy young,[548] additional booster dose to the immunosuppressed[549]) might allow accelerating vaccination campaigns in settings of limited supplies, thereby shortening the pandemic, as predicted by pandemic modeling.[550]

Ranges below are 95% confidence intervals unless indicated otherwise, and all values are for all participants regardless of age, according to the references for each of the trials. By definition, the accuracy of the estimates without an associated confidence interval is unknown publicly. Efficacy against severe COVID-19 is the most important, since hospitalizations and deaths are a public health burden whose prevention is a priority.[551] Authorized and approved vaccines have shown the following efficacies:

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy
()
VaccineEfficacy by severity of COVID-19Trial locationRefs
Mild or moderate[A]Severe without hospitalization or death[B]Severe with hospitalization or death[C]
Oxford–AstraZeneca81% (6091%)[D]100% (97.5% CI, 72100%)100%[E]Multinational[552]
74% (6882%)[F]100%[E]100%[E]United States[553]
Pfizer–BioNTech95% (9098%)[G]66% (−125 to 96%)[H][G]Multinational[554]
95% (9098%)[G]Not reportedNot reportedUnited States[555]
Janssen66% (5575%)[I][J]85% (5497%)[J]100%[E][J][K]Multinational[556]
72% (5882%)[I][J]86% (−9 to 100%)[H][J]100%[E][J][K]United States
68% (4981%)[I][J]88% (8100%)[H][J]100%[E][J][K]Brazil
64% (4179%)[I][J]82% (4695%)[J]100%[E][J][K]South Africa
Moderna94% (8997%)[L]100%[E][M]100%[E][M]United States[558]
Sinopharm BIBP78% (6586%)100%[E]100%[E]Multinational[559]
79% (6688%)Not reported79% (2694%)[H]Multinational[560]
Sputnik V92% (8695%)100% (94100%)100%[E]Russia[561]
CoronaVac51% (3662%)[N]84% (5894%)[N]100% (56100%)[N]Brazil[562][563][564]
84% (6592%)100%[E]100% (20100%)[H]Turkey[565]
Covaxin78% (6586%)93% (57100%)India[566][567]
Sputnik Light79%[E]Not reportedNot reportedRussia[568]
Convidecia66%[E][N]91%[E][N]Not reportedMultinational[569]
Sinopharm WIBP73% (5882%)100%[E][O]100%[E][O]Multinational[570]
Abdala92% (8696%)Not reportedNot reportedCuba[571][572]
Soberana 0271% (5979%)63%[E]Not reportedCuba[573]
67% (5979%)97%[E]95%[E]Iran[574][575]
Soberana 02 and Soberana Plus92% (8796%)100%[E]Not reportedCuba[573]
Novavax90% (7595%)100%[E][O]100%[E][O]United Kingdom[576][577][578]
60% (2080%)[H]100%[E][O]100%[E][O]South Africa
90% (8395%)Not reportedNot reportedUnited States
Not reportedNot reportedMexico
CureVac48%[E]Not reportedNot reportedMultinational[579]
ZyCoV-D67%[E]Not reportedNot reportedIndia[580]
EpiVacCorona79%[E]Not reportedNot reportedRussia[581]
ZF200182%[E]Not reportedNot reportedMultinational[582]
SCB-201967% (5477%)Not reportedNot reportedMultinational[583]
CoVLP71% (5980%)Not reportedNot reportedMultinational[584]
Sanofi–GSK COVID-19 vaccine58% (2777%)Not reportedNot reportedMultinational[585]
  1. ^ Mild symptoms: fever, dry cough, fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, sore throat, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, anosmia, ageusia, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, conjunctivitis, skin rash, chills, dizziness. Moderate symptoms: mild pneumonia.
  2. ^ Severe symptoms without hospitalization or death for an individual, are any one of the following severe respiratory symptoms measured at rest on any time during the course of observation (on top of having either pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, dyspnea, hypoxia, persistent chest pain, anorexia, confusion, fever above 38 °C (100 °F)), that however were not persistent/severe enough to cause hospitalization or death: Any respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/minute, heart rate ≥125 beats/minute, oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤93% on room air at sea level, or partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) <300 mmHg.
  3. ^ Severe symptoms causing hospitalization or death, are those requiring treatment at hospitals or results in deaths: dyspnea, hypoxia, persistent chest pain, anorexia, confusion, fever above 38 °C (100 °F), respiratory failure, kidney failure, multiorgan dysfunction, sepsis, shock.
  4. ^ With twelve weeks or more between doses. For an interval of less than six weeks, the trial found an efficacy 55% (3370%).
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad A confidence interval was not provided, so it is not possible to know the accuracy of this measurement.
  6. ^ With a four-week interval between doses. Efficacy is "at preventing symptomatic COVID-19".
  7. ^ a b c COVID-19 symptoms observed in the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine trials, were only counted as such for vaccinated individuals if they began more than seven days after their second dose, and required presence of a positive RT-PCR test result. Mild/moderate cases required at least one of the following symptoms and a positive test during, or within 4 days before or after, the symptomatic period: fever; new or increased cough; new or increased shortness of breath; chills; new or increased muscle pain; new loss of taste or smell; sore throat; diarrhoea; or vomiting. Severe cases additionally required at least one of the following symptoms: clinical signs at rest indicative of severe systemic illness (RR ≥30 breaths per minute, HR ≥125 beats per minute, SpO2 ≤93% on room air at sea level, or PaO2/FiO2<300mm Hg); respiratory failure (defined as needing high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation, or ECMO); evidence of shock (SBP <90 mm Hg, DBP <60 mm Hg, or requiring vasopressors); significant acute renal, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction; admission to an ICU; death.[554][555]
  8. ^ a b c d e f This measurement is not accurate enough to support the high efficacy because the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval is lower than the minimum of 30%.
  9. ^ a b c d Moderate cases.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Efficacy reported 28 days post-vaccination for the Janssen single shot vaccine. A lower efficacy was found for the vaccinated individuals 14 days post-vaccination.[556]
  11. ^ a b c d No hospitalizations or deaths were detected 28 days post-vaccination for 19,630 vaccinated individuals in the trials, compared with 16 hospitalizations reported in the placebo group of 19,691 individuals (incidence rate 5.2 per 1000 person-years)[556] and seven COVID-19 related deaths for the same placebo group.[557]
  12. ^ Mild/Moderate COVID-19 symptoms observed in the Moderna vaccine trials, were only counted as such for vaccinated individuals if they began more than 14 days after their second dose, and required presence of a positive RT-PCR test result along with at least two systemic symptoms (fever above 38ºC, chills, myalgia, headache, sore throat, new olfactory and taste disorder) or just one respiratory symptom (cough, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, or clinical or radiographical evidence of pneumonia).[558]
  13. ^ a b Severe COVID-19 symptoms observed in the Moderna vaccine trials, were defined as symptoms having met the criteria for mild/moderate symptoms plus any of the following observations: Clinical signs indicative of severe systemic illness, respiratory rate ≥30 per minute, heart rate ≥125 beats per minute, SpO2 ≤93% on room air at sea level or PaO2/FIO2 <300 mm Hg; or respiratory failure or ARDS, (defined as needing high-flow oxygen, non-invasive or mechanical ventilation, or ECMO), evidence of shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, diastolic BP <60 mmHg or requiring vasopressors); or significant acute renal, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction; or admission to an intensive care unit or death. No severe cases were detected for vaccinated individuals in the trials, compared with thirty in the placebo group (incidence rate 9.1 per 1000 person-years).[558]
  14. ^ a b c d e These Phase III data have not been published or peer reviewed.
  15. ^ a b c d e f No cases detected in trial.


Effectiveness

As of August 2021, studies reported that the COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States are "highly protective against severe illness, hospitalization, and death due to COVID-19".[586] In comparison with fully vaccinated people, the CDC reported that unvaccinated people were 5 times more likely to be infected, 10 times more likely to be hospitalized, and 11 times more likely to die.[587][588]

Another study found that unvaccinated people were six times more likely to test positive, 37 times more likely to be hospitalized, and 67 times more likely to die, compared to those who had been vaccinated.[589]

CDC reported that vaccine effectiveness fell from 91% against Alpha to 66% against Delta.[590] One expert stated that "those who are infected following vaccination are still not getting sick and not dying like was happening before vaccination."[591] By late August 2021 the Delta variant accounted for 99 percent of U.S. cases and was found to double the risk of severe illness and hospitalization for those not yet vaccinated.[592]

On 10 December 2021, the UK Health Security Agency reported that early data indicated a 20- to 40-fold reduction in neutralizing activity for Omicron by sera from Pfizer 2-dose vaccinees relative to earlier strains. After a booster dose (usually with an mRNA vaccine),[593] vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic disease was at 70%–75%, and the effectiveness against severe disease was expected to be higher.[594]

According to early December 2021 CDC data, "unvaccinated adults were about 97 times more likely to die from COVID-19 than fully vaccinated people who had received boosters".[595]

A meta analysis looking into covid 19 vaccine differences in immunosupressed individuals found that pople with a weakened immune system, are less able to produce neutralising antibodies. For example organ transplant recipients needing three vaccines to achieve seroconversion.[596]

Studies

Real-world studies of vaccine effectiveness measure the extent to which a certain vaccine prevents infection, symptoms, hospitalization and death for the vaccinated individuals in a large population under routine conditions.[597]

  • In Israel, among the 715,425 individuals vaccinated by the mRNA vaccines from 20 December 2020, to 28 January 2021, starting seven days after the second shot, only 317 people (0.04%) displayed mild/moderate COVID-19 symptoms and only 16 people (0.002%) were hospitalized.[598]
  • CDC reported that under real-world conditions, mRNA vaccine effectiveness was 90% against infections regardless of symptom status; while effectiveness of partial immunization was 80%.[599]
  • In the UK, 15,121 health care workers from 104 hospitals who had tested negative for antibodies prior to the study, were followed by RT-PCR tests twice a week from 7 December 2020 to 5 February 2021, a study compared the positive results for the 90.7% vaccinated share of their cohort with the 9.3% unvaccinated share, and found that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine reduced all infections (including asymptomatic), by 72% (58–86%) three weeks after the first dose and 86% (76–97%) one week after the second dose, while Alpha was dominant.[600]
  • In Israel a study conducted from 17 January to 6 March 2021, found that Pfizer/BioNTech reduced asymptomatic Alpha infections by 94% and symptomatic COVID-19 infections by 97%.[601]
  • A study among pre-surgical patients across the Mayo Clinic system in the United States, showed that mRNA vaccines were 80% protective against asymptomatic infections.[602]
  • A UK study found that a single dose of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is about 73% (2790%) effective in people aged 70 and older.[603]
  • A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine finds that nearly all teenagers admitted to intensive care units because of COVID-19 were unvaccinated.[604]
()
VaccineInitial effectiveness by severity of COVID-19Study locationRefs
AsymptomaticSymptomaticHospitalizationDeath
Oxford–AstraZeneca70% (6971%)Not reported87% (8588%)90% (8892%)Brazil[605]
Not reported89% (7894%)[i]Not reportedNot reportedEngland[607]
Not reportedNot reportedNot reported89%[ii]Argentina[608]
72% (6974%)Not reportedNot reported88% (7994%)Hungary[609]
Pfizer–BioNTech92% (9192%)97% (9797%)98% (9798%)97% (9697%)Israel[610]
92% (8895%)94% (8798%)87% (55100%)97%[ii]Israel[611][601]
83% (8384%)Not reportedNot reported91% (8992%)Hungary[609]
Not reported78% (7779%)98% (9699%)96% (9597%)Uruguay[612]
85% (7496%)Not reportedNot reportedEngland[613]
90% (6897%)Not reported100%[ii][iii]United States[614]
Moderna89% (8790%)Not reportedNot reported94% (9196%)Hungary[609]
90% (6897%)Not reported100%[ii][iii]United States[614]
Sinopharm BIBPNot reportedNot reportedNot reported84%[ii]Argentina[608]
69% (6770%)Not reportedNot reported88% (8689%)Hungary[609]
50% (4952%)Not reportedNot reported94% (9196%)Peru[615]
Sputnik VNot reported98%[ii]Not reportedNot reportedRussia[616][617]
Not reported98%[ii]100%[ii][iii]100%[ii][iii]United Arab Emirates[618]
Not reportedNot reportedNot reported93%[ii]Argentina[608]
86% (8487%)Not reportedNot reported98% (9699%)Hungary[609]
CoronaVac54% (5355%)Not reported73% (7274%)74% (7375%)Brazil[605]
Not reported66% (6567%)88% (8788%)86% (8588%)Chile[619][620]
Not reported60% (5961%)91% (8993%)95% (9396%)Uruguay[612]
Not reported94%[ii]96%[ii]98%[ii]Indonesia[621][622]
Not reported80%[ii]86%[ii]95%[ii]Brazil[623][624]
Sputnik Light79% (7582%)[ii][iv]Not reported88% (8092%)[ii][iv]85% (7591%)[ii][iv]Argentina[625]
  1. ^ Data collected while the Alpha variant was already dominant.[606]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s A confidence interval was not provided, so it is not possible to know the accuracy of this measurement.
  3. ^ a b c d No cases detected in study.
  4. ^ a b c Participants aged 60 to 79.
()
Initial courseBooster doseInitial effectiveness by severity of COVID-19Study locationRefs
AsymptomaticSymptomaticHospitalizationDeath
CoronaVacCoronaVacNot reported80%[I]88%[I]Not reportedChile[626]
Pfizer–BioNTechNot reported90%[I]87%[I]Not reportedChile[626]
Oxford–AstraZenecaNot reported93%[I]96%[I]Not reportedChile[626]
  1. ^ a b c d e f A confidence interval was not provided, so it is not possible to know the accuracy of this measurement.


Critical coverage

While the most immediate goal of vaccination during a pandemic is to protect individuals from severe disease, a long-term goal is to eventually eradicate it. To do so, the proportion of the population that must be immunized must be greater than the critical vaccination coverage . This value can be calculated from the basic reproduction number and the vaccine effectiveness against transmission as:[627]

Assuming R0 ≈ 2.87 for SARS-CoV-2,[628] then, for example, the coverage level would have to be greater than 72.4% for a vaccine that is 90% effective against transmission. Using the same relationship, the required effectiveness against transmission can be calculated as:

Assuming the same R0 ≈ 2.87, the effectiveness against transmission would have to be greater than 86.9% for a realistic coverage level of 75%[545] or 65.2% for an impossible coverage level of 100%. Less effective vaccines would not be able to eradicate the disease.

Several post-marketing studies have already estimated the effectiveness of some vaccines against asymptomatic infection. Prevention of infection has an impact on slowing transmission (particularly asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic), but the exact extent of this effect is still under investigation.[629]

Some variants of SARS-CoV-2 are more transmissible, showing an increased effective reproduction number, indicating an increased basic reproduction number. Controlling them requires greater vaccine coverage, greater vaccine effectiveness against transmission, or a combination of both.

In July 2021, several experts expressed concern that achieving herd immunity may not currently be possible because the Delta variant is transmitted among those immunized with current vaccines.[630] The CDC published data showing that vaccinated people could transmit the Delta variant, something officials believed was not possible with other variants.[631]

Variants

File:WHO EN 3 Working Together 03Mar2021.webm
(c) World Health Organization, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO
Play media
World Health Organization video describing how variants proliferate in unvaccinated areas.

The interplay between the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its human hosts was initially natural but is now being altered by the prompt availability of vaccines.[632] The potential emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 variant that is moderately or fully resistant to the antibody response elicited by the COVID-19 vaccines may necessitate modification of the vaccines.[633] The emergence of vaccine-resistant variants is more likely in a highly vaccinated population with uncontrolled transmission.[634] Trials indicate many vaccines developed for the initial strain have lower efficacy for some variants against symptomatic COVID-19.[635] As of February 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration believed that all FDA authorized vaccines remained effective in protecting against circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2.[633]

Alpha (lineage B.1.1.7)

Limited evidence from various preliminary studies reviewed by the WHO indicated retained efficacy/effectiveness against disease from Alpha with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine, Pfizer–BioNTech and Novavax, with no data for other vaccines yet. Relevant to how vaccines can end the pandemic by preventing asymptomatic infection, they have also indicated retained antibody neutralization against Alpha with most of the widely distributed vaccines (Sputnik V, Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna, CoronaVac, Sinopharm BIBP, Covaxin), minimal to moderate reduction with the Oxford–AstraZeneca and no data for other vaccines yet.[636]

In December 2020, a new SARS‑CoV‑2 variant, the Alpha variant or lineage B.1.1.7, was identified in the UK.[637]

Early results suggest protection to the variant from the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines.[638][639]

One study indicated that the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine had an efficacy of 42–89% against Alpha, versus 71–91% against other variants.[640]

Preliminary data from a clinical trial indicates that the Novavax vaccine is ~96% effective for symptoms against the original variant and ~86% against Alpha.[641]

Beta (lineage B.1.351)

Limited evidence from various preliminary studies reviewed by the WHO have indicated reduced efficacy/effectiveness against disease from Beta with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine (possibly substantial), Novavax (moderate), Pfizer–BioNTech and Janssen (minimal), with no data for other vaccines yet. Relevant to how vaccines can end the pandemic by preventing asymptomatic infection, they have also indicated possibly reduced antibody neutralization against Beta with most of the widely distributed vaccines (Oxford–AstraZeneca, Sputnik V, Janssen, Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna, Novavax; minimal to substantial reduction) except CoronaVac and Sinopharm BIBP (minimal to modest reduction), with no data for other vaccines yet.[636]

Moderna has launched a trial of a vaccine to tackle the Beta variant or lineage B.1.351.[642] On 17 February 2021, Pfizer announced neutralization activity was reduced by two-thirds for this variant, while stating that no claims about the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing illness for this variant could yet be made.[643] Decreased neutralizing activity of sera from patients vaccinated with the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines against Beta was later confirmed by several studies.[639][644] On 1 April 2021, an update on a Pfizer/BioNTech South African vaccine trial stated that the vaccine was 100% effective so far (i.e., vaccinated participants saw no cases), with six of nine infections in the placebo control group being the Beta variant.[645]

In January 2021, Johnson & Johnson, which held trials for its Janssen vaccine in South Africa, reported the level of protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 infection was 72% in the United States and 57% in South Africa.[54]

On 6 February 2021, the Financial Times reported that provisional trial data from a study undertaken by South Africa's University of the Witwatersrand in conjunction with Oxford University demonstrated reduced efficacy of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine against the variant.[646] The study found that in a sample size of 2,000 the AZD1222 vaccine afforded only "minimal protection" in all but the most severe cases of COVID-19.[647] On 7 February 2021, the Minister for Health for South Africa suspended the planned deployment of about a million doses of the vaccine whilst they examine the data and await advice on how to proceed.[647][648]

In March 2021, it was reported that the "preliminary efficacy" of the Novavax vaccine (NVX-CoV2373) against Beta for mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19[649] for HIV-negative participants is 51%.

Gamma (lineage P.1)

Limited evidence from various preliminary studies reviewed by the WHO have indicated likely retained efficacy/effectiveness against disease from Gamma with CoronaVac and Sinopharm BIBP, with no data for other vaccines yet. Relevant to how vaccines can end the pandemic by preventing asymptomatic infection, they have also indicated retained antibody neutralization against Gamma with Oxford–AstraZeneca and CoronaVac (no to minimal reduction) and slightly reduced neutralization with Pfizer–BioNTech and Moderna (minimal to moderate reduction), with no data for other vaccines yet.[636]

The Gamma variant or lineage P.1 variant (also known as 20J/501Y.V3), initially identified in Brazil, seems to partially escape vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine.[644]

Delta (lineage B.1.617.2)

Limited evidence from various preliminary studies reviewed by the WHO have indicated likely retained efficacy/effectiveness against disease from Delta with the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine and Pfizer–BioNTech, with no data for other vaccines yet. Relevant to how vaccines can end the pandemic by preventing asymptomatic infection, they have also indicated reduced antibody neutralization against Delta with single-dose Oxford–AstraZeneca (substantial reduction), Pfizer–BioNTech and Covaxin (modest to moderate reduction), with no data for other vaccines yet.[636]

In October 2020, a new variant was discovered in India, which was named lineage B.1.617. There were very few detections until January 2021, but by April it had spread to at least 20 countries in all continents except Antarctica and South America.[650][651][652] Mutations present in the spike protein in the B.1.617 lineage are associated with reduced antibody neutralization in laboratory experiments.[653][654] The variant has frequently been referred to as a 'Double mutant', even though in this respect it is not unusual.[655] the latter two of which may cause it to easily avoid antibodies.[656] In an update on 15 April 2021, PHE designated lineage B.1.617 as a 'Variant under investigation', VUI-21APR-01.[657] On 6 May 2021, Public Health England escalated lineage B.1.617.2 from a Variant Under Investigation to a Variant of Concern based on an assessment of transmissibility being at least equivalent to the Alpha variant.[658]

Effect of neutralizing antibodies

One study found that the in vitro concentration (titer) of neutralizing antibodies elicited by a COVID-19 vaccine is a strong correlate of immune protection. The relationship between protection and neutralizing activity is nonlinear. A neutralization as low as 3% (95% CI, 113%) of the level of convalescence results in 50% efficacy against severe disease, with 20% (1428%) resulting in 50% efficacy against detectable infection. Protection against infection quickly decays, leaving individuals susceptible to mild infections, while protection against severe disease is largely retained and much more durable. The observed half-life of neutralizing titers was 65 days for mRNA vaccines (Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna) during the first 4 months, increasing to 108 days over 8 months. Greater initial efficacy against infection likely results in a higher level of protection against serious disease in the long term (beyond 10 years, as seen in other vaccines such as smallpox, measles, mumps, and rubella), although the authors acknowledge that their simulations consider only protection from neutralizing antibodies and ignore other immune protection mechanisms, such as cell-mediated immunity, which may be more durable. This observation also applies to efficacy against variants and is particularly significant for vaccines with a lower initial efficacy; for example, a 5-fold reduction in neutralization would indicate a reduction in initial efficacy from 95% to 77% against a specific variant, and from a lower efficacy of 70% to 32% against that variant. For the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine, the observed efficacy is below the predicted 95% confidence interval. It is higher for Sputnik V and the convalescent response, and is within the predicted interval for the other vaccines evaluated (Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna, Janssen, CoronaVac, Covaxin, Novavax).[659]

Side effects

Serious adverse events associated with vaccines are of high interest to the public.[660] All vaccines have side effects related to the mild trauma associated with the introduction of a foreign substance into the body.[661] These include soreness, redness, rash, and inflammation at the injection site. Other common side effects include fatigue, headache, myalgia (muscle pain), and arthralgia (joint pain) which generally resolve within a few days.[662] One less-frequent side effect (that generally occurs in less than 1 in 1,000 people) is hypersensitivity (allergy) to one or more of the vaccine's ingredients, which in some rare cases may cause anaphylaxis.[663][664][665][666] More serious side effects are very rare because a vaccine would not be approved even for emergency use if it had any known frequent serious adverse effects.

Reporting

Most countries operate some form of adverse effects reporting scheme, for example Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System in the United States and the Yellow Card Scheme[667] in the United Kingdom. In some of these, the data is open to public scrutiny. For example, the UK publishes a weekly summary report.[668] Concerns have been raised regarding both over-[669] and under-reporting[670] of adverse effects.

UK

In the UK, as of 22 September 2021, following the administering of over 48 million first vaccine doses and over 44 million second vaccine doses, there had been 347,447 suspected COVID-19 vaccine related events ('suspected adverse reactions', or 'ADRs') recorded in the Yellow Card system. The majority of these were reports of relatively minor effects (local reactions or temporary flu-like symptoms). Among more serious ADRs, the largest case load came from suspected thrombo-embolic events, of which a total of 439 were recorded, 74 of these fatal.[668] A total of 1,682 suspected fatal ADRs were recorded.[668] For comparison, at this date, the UK had had over 7,500,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and over 136,000 people had died within 28 days of a positive test for coronavirus.[668]

Embolic and thrombotic events

Rare formation of blood clots in the blood vessels were reported following Janssen vaccine injections in combination with low levels of blood platelets known as thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) which occurred at a rate of about 7 per 1 million vaccinated women ages 18–49 years old; and less often for other populations.[671] According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cases of myocarditis and pericarditis have been reported in about 13 per million young people (mostly in males and mostly over the age of 16), in association with the mRNA vaccines.[672] According to reports, the recovery from these side effects is quick in most individuals, following treatment and rest.[673]

Hematologic malignancies

A study on the serologic response to mRNA vaccines among patients with lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma found that one-quarter of patients did not produce measurable antibodies, varying by cancer type.[674]

References

  1. ^ a b "COVID-19 vaccine tracker (Refresh URL to update)". vac-lshtm.shinyapps.io. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. 12 July 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  2. ^ "Approved Vaccines". COVID 19 Vaccine Tracker, McGill University. 12 July 2021.
  3. ^ Le TT, Cramer JP, Chen R, Mayhew S (October 2020). "Evolution of the COVID-19 vaccine development landscape". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 19 (10): 667–668. doi:10.1038/d41573-020-00151-8. PMID 32887942. S2CID 221503034.
  4. ^ a b c Tregoning JS, Russell RF, Kinnear E (March 2018). "Adjuvanted influenza vaccines". Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 14 (3): 550–564. doi:10.1080/21645515.2017.1415684. PMC 5861793. PMID 29232151.
  5. ^ a b c Wang J, Peng Y, Xu H, Cui Z, Williams RO (August 2020). "The COVID-19 Vaccine Race: Challenges and Opportunities in Vaccine Formulation". AAPS PharmSciTech. 21 (6): 225. doi:10.1208/s12249-020-01744-7. PMC 7405756. PMID 32761294.
  6. ^ a b "Vaccine Safety – Vaccines". US Department of Health and Human Services. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  7. ^ a b c "The drug development process". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 4 January 2018. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  8. ^ Cohen J (June 2020). "Pandemic vaccines are about to face the real test". Science. 368 (6497): 1295–1296. Bibcode:2020Sci...368.1295C. doi:10.1126/science.368.6497.1295. PMID 32554572.
  9. ^ "How flu vaccine effectiveness and efficacy are measured". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 29 January 2016. Archived from the original on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  10. ^ "Principles of epidemiology, Section 8: Concepts of disease occurrence". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 18 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  11. ^ a b Pallmann P, Bedding AW, Choodari-Oskooei B, Dimairo M, Flight L, Hampson LV, et al. (February 2018). "Adaptive designs in clinical trials: why use them, and how to run and report them". BMC Medicine. 16 (1): 29. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1017-7. PMC 5830330. PMID 29490655.
  12. ^ "Adaptive designs for clinical trials of drugs and biologics: Guidance for industry" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 November 2019. Archived from the original on 13 December 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  13. ^ "An international randomised trial of candidate vaccines against COVID-19: Outline of Solidarity vaccine trial" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). 9 April 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  14. ^ "Pfizer and BioNTech Initiate Rolling Submission of Biologics License Application for U.S. FDA Approval of Their COVID 19 Vaccine". Pfizer (Press release). 7 May 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  15. ^ "Moderna Announces Initiation of Rolling Submission of Biologics License Application (BLA) with U.S. FDA for the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine" (Press release). Moderna. 1 June 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2021 – via Business Wire.
  16. ^ "Vaxzevria (previously COVID-19 Vaccine AstraZeneca) EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA).
  17. ^ "AstraZeneca & Serum Institute of India sign licensing deal for 1 million doses of Oxford vaccine". The Economic Times. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  18. ^ "Covid-19 vaccine: Serum Institute signs up for 100 million doses of vaccines for India, low and middle-income countries". The Financial Express. 7 August 2020.
  19. ^ Walsh N, Shelley J, Duwe E, Bonnett W (27 July 2020). "The world's hopes for a coronavirus vaccine may run in these health care workers' veins". São Paulo: CNN. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Investigating a Vaccine Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 May 2020. NCT04400838. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  21. ^ "A Phase 2/3 study to determine the efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of the candidate Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19". EU Clinical Trials Register. European Union. 21 April 2020. EudraCT 2020-001228-32. Archived from the original on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  22. ^ O'Reilly P (26 May 2020). "A Phase III study to investigate a vaccine against COVID-19". ISRCTN. doi:10.1186/ISRCTN89951424. ISRCTN89951424.
  23. ^ Gallagher J, Triggle N (30 December 2020). "Covid-19: Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine approved for use in UK". BBC News Online. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  24. ^ AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine (PDF) (Product Monograph). AstraZeneca. 26 February 2021. 244627. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  25. ^ "A Phase III Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Multicenter Study in Adults to Determine the Safety, Efficacy, and Immunogenicity of AZD1222, a Non-replicating ChAdOx1 Vector Vaccine, for the Prevention of COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 12 May 2020. NCT04383574. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  26. ^ Voysey M, Costa Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. (March 2021). "Single-dose administration and the influence of the timing of the booster dose on immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine: a pooled analysis of four randomised trials". Lancet. 397 (10277): 881–91. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00432-3. PMC 7894131. PMID 33617777.
  27. ^ "Trial of Oxford COVID-19 vaccine starts in Brazil". Jenner Institute. Archived from the original on 9 September 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  28. ^ "Oxford COVID-19 vaccine final trials will be held in these 17 hospitals in India". mint. 19 August 2020.
  29. ^ a b c Lundgren JD (18 February 2021). "National Cohort Study of Effectiveness and Safety of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Vaccines (ENFORCE)". ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  30. ^ a b "Regulatory Decision Summary – Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine". Health Canada, Government of Canada. 9 December 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  31. ^ "Study to Describe the Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of RNA Vaccine Candidates Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 30 April 2020. NCT04368728. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  32. ^ "A Multi-site Phase I/II, 2-Part, Dose-Escalation Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of four Prophylactic SARS-CoV-2 RNA Vaccines Against COVID-19 Using Different Dosing Regimens in Healthy Adults". EU Clinical Trials Register. European Union. 14 April 2020. EudraCT 2020-001038-36. Archived from the original on 22 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  33. ^ Farge E, Revill J (5 January 2021). "WHO recommends two doses of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine within 21–28 days". Reuters. Geneva. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  34. ^ Keaten J (8 January 2021). "WHO: Amid short supplies, vaccine doses can be 6 weeks apart". Associated Press. Geneva. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  35. ^ "COVID vaccine: Moderna shots can be 6 weeks apart, WHO says". Deutsche Welle. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  36. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Allows More Flexible Storage, Transportation Conditions for Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 25 February 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  37. ^ "Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine EUA Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers" (PDF). Pfizer. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  38. ^ "Pfizer and BioNTech Conclude Phase 3 Study of COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate, Meeting All Primary Efficacy Endpoints" (Press release). Pfizer. 18 November 2020.
  39. ^ Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, Absalon J, Gurtman A, Lockhart S, et al. (December 2020). "Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine". The New England Journal of Medicine. 383 (27): 2603–15. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2034577. PMC 7745181. PMID 33301246.
  40. ^ FDA Review of Efficacy and Safety of Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine Emergency Use Authorization Request (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Report). 10 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  41. ^ Erman M (18 November 2020). "Pfizer ends COVID-19 trial with 95% efficacy, to seek emergency-use authorization". Reuters. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  42. ^ Zimmer C (20 November 2020). "2 Companies Say Their Vaccines Are 95% Effective. What Does That Mean? You might assume that 95 out of every 100 people vaccinated will be protected from Covid-19. But that's not how the math works". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  43. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Adults Aged 18 Years and Older to Prevent COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 July 2020. NCT04470427. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  44. ^ Palca J (27 July 2020). "COVID-19 vaccine candidate heads to widespread testing in U.S." NPR. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  45. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of 2019-nCoV Vaccine (mRNA-1273) for Prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 16 March 2020. NCT04283461. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  46. ^ "WHO experts issue recommendations on Moderna COVID-19 vaccine". Reuters. Geneva. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  47. ^ "Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers Administering Vaccine" (PDF) (Fact sheet). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). December 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  48. ^ "Promising Interim Results from Clinical Trial of NIH-Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 15 November 2020.
  49. ^ Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, Kotloff K, Frey S, Novak R, et al. (February 2021). "Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine". The New England Journal of Medicine. 384 (5): 403–16. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2035389. PMC 7787219. PMID 33378609.
  50. ^ "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S in Adults". 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  51. ^ "A Study of Ad26.COV2.S for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19 in Adult Participants". US National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 26 September 2020.
  52. ^ Janssen Ad26.COV2.S Vaccine for the Prevention of COVID-19 (Briefing). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 26 February 2021. p. 6. Retrieved 6 March 2021. The vaccine, known as Ad26.COV2.S, is a replication-incompetent adenovirus type 26 (Ad26) vectored vaccine encoding a stabilized variant of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein.
  53. ^ a b Ledford H (January 2021). "J&J's one-shot COVID vaccine offers hope for faster protection". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00119-7. PMID 33526898.
  54. ^ a b "Johnson & Johnson Announces Single-Shot Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Met Primary Endpoints in Interim Analysis of its Phase 3 ENSEMBLE Trial" (Press release). Johnson & Johnson. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  55. ^ "Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine – ad26.cov2.s injection, suspension". DailyMed. U.S. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  56. ^ a b Chen W, Al Kaabi N (18 July 2020). "A Phase III clinical trial for inactivated novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) vaccine (Vero cells)". Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  57. ^ Xia S, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Wang H, Yang Y, Gao GF, et al. (January 2021). "Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 21 (1): 39–51. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30831-8. PMC 7561304. PMID 33069281.
  58. ^ Elbahrawy F, Lyu D, Omar A, Che C, Paton J (9 December 2020). "China State-Backed Covid Vaccine Has 86% Efficacy, UAE Says". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 5 March 2020. CNBG's vaccine can be transported and stored at normal refrigerated temperatures.
  59. ^ a b Al Kaabi N, Zhang Y, Xia S, Yang Y, Al Qahtani MM, Abdulrazzaq N, et al. (May 2021). "Effect of 2 Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines on Symptomatic COVID-19 Infection in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial". JAMA. 326 (1): 35–45. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.8565. PMC 8156175. PMID 34037666.
  60. ^ Yang Y. "A Study to Evaluate The Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines (Vero Cell) in Healthy Population Aged 18 Years Old and Above". Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  61. ^ "Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of the Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (COVID-19)". Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  62. ^ "A Phase III clinical trial for inactivated novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) vaccine (Vero cells)". Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR). Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  63. ^ "Bahrain announces emergency approval for use of COVID-19 vaccine candidate". Reuters. 3 November 2020. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  64. ^ "An Open Study of the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of the Drug "Gam-COVID-Vac" Vaccine Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 17 June 2020. NCT04436471. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  65. ^ Jones I, Roy P (February 2021). "Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine candidate appears safe and effective". Lancet. 397 (10275): 642–43. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00191-4. PMC 7906719. PMID 33545098.
  66. ^ Sagdiev R, Ivanova P (16 November 2020). "Russia focuses on freeze-dried vaccine doses as transport fix". Reuters. Moscow. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  67. ^ "Clinical Trial of Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of Gam-COVID-Vac Vaccine Against COVID-19 (RESIST)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 August 2020. NCT04530396. Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  68. ^ Logunov DY, Dolzhikova IV, Shcheblyakov DV, Tukhvatulin AI, Zubkova OV, Dzharullaeva AS, et al. (February 2021). "Safety and efficacy of an rAd26 and rAd5 vector-based heterologous prime-boost COVID-19 vaccine: an interim analysis of a randomised controlled phase 3 trial in Russia". Lancet. 397 (10275): 671–81. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00234-8. PMC 7852454. PMID 33545094.
  69. ^ "Clinical Trial of Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of Gam-COVID-Vac Vaccine Against COVID-19 in Belarus". ClinicalTrials.gov. 25 September 2020. NCT04564716. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  70. ^ Kumar S (1 December 2020). "Sputnik-V from Russia arrives in India for clinal trials". Hindustan Times.
  71. ^ "Clinical trial: 17 volunteers given Russia's Sputnik V Covid-19 vaccine in Pune". The Indian Express. 6 December 2020.
  72. ^ "Clinical Trial of the Immunogenicity, Safety, and Efficacy of the Gam-COVID-Vac Vaccine Against COVID-19 in Venezuela". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 November 2020. NCT04642339. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  73. ^ "UAE begins trials of Russia's Sputnik V Covid-19 vaccine". Clinical Trials Arena. 8 January 2021.
  74. ^ a b "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Inactivated Vaccine for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) (Renqiu)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 12 May 2020. NCT04383574. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  75. ^ "Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Sinovac's Adsorbed COVID-19 (Inactivated) Vaccine in Healthcare Professionals (PROFISCOV)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2 July 2020. NCT04456595. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.
  76. ^ PT. Bio Farma (10 August 2020). "A Phase III, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of SARS-COV-2 inactivated vaccine in healthy adults aged 18–59 years in Indonesia". Registri Penyakit Indonesia. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  77. ^ "The Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine: What you need to know". World Health Organization. 2 June 2021. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  78. ^ Tan Y (14 January 2021). "Covid: What do we know about China's coronavirus vaccines?". BBC News Online. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  79. ^ Tanriover MD, Doğanay HL, Akova M, Güner HR, Azap A, Akhan S, et al. (July 2021). "Efficacy and safety of an inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac): interim results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial in Turkey". The Lancet. 398 (10296): 213–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01429-X. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 8266301. PMID 34246358. S2CID 235770533.
  80. ^ "Reporte COVID-19: Vacuna Coronavac Tiene Un 90,3% De Efectividad Para Prevenir El Ingreso a UCI" [COVID-19 report: CoronaVac vaccine is 90.3% effective in preventing admission to the ICU]. Ministerio de Salud – Gobierno de Chile (in Spanish). 17 May 2021.
  81. ^ "Coronavirus en Chile: Reporte Minsal 17 de Mayo" [Coronavirus in Chile: Minsal report May 17]. YouTube (in Spanish). 17 May 2021.
  82. ^ Costa AG (11 April 2021). "Estudo clínico que comprova maior eficácia da Coronavac é enviado para Lancet" [Clinical study proving greater efficacy of Coronavac is submitted to The Lancet]. CNN Brasil (in Portuguese). São Paulo. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  83. ^ "Tests show coronavirus vaccine by China's Sinovac is safe, says Brazil's Butantan Institute". Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  84. ^ "Study of the Commercial Scale SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Against the Pilot Scale Among Adults, and Bridging Study of the Immunogenicity in Elderly Against That in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 November 2020. NCT04617483. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  85. ^ "Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of Two Vaccination Schedules of an Inactivated Vaccine Against COVID-19 in Adults (CoronaVac3CL)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 3 December 2020. NCT04651790. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  86. ^ "Chile initiates clinical study for COVID-19 vaccine". Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
  87. ^ "A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Phase II/III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 Inactivated (Vero Cell) Vaccine in the Elderly 60–80 Years of Age, Coronovac ENCOV19 Study". registry.healthresearch.ph. Philippine Health Research Registry. Retrieved 23 April 2021.
  88. ^ "Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase III Clinical Trial For Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), Inactivated". 8 October 2020. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  89. ^ "An Effectiveness Study of the Sinovac's Adsorbed COVID-19 (Inactivated) Vaccine (Projeto S)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 10 February 2021. NCT04747821. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  90. ^ "Effectiveness of the Adsorbed Vaccine COVID-19 (Coronavac) Among Education and Public Safety Workers With Risk Factors for Severity (COVACMANAUS)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 March 2021. NCT04789356. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  91. ^ "Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 rS (COVID-19) Nanoparticle Vaccine With/Without Matrix-M Adjuvant". ClinicalTrials.gov. 30 April 2020. NCT04368988. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  92. ^ "Hope to launch Covovax by September, says Serum Institute CEO". mint. 27 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  93. ^ Wadman M (November 2020). "The long shot". Science. 370 (6517): 649–53. Bibcode:2020Sci...370..649W. doi:10.1126/science.370.6517.649. PMID 33154120.
  94. ^ Wadman M (28 December 2020). "Novavax launches pivotal U.S. trial of dark horse COVID-19 vaccine after manufacturing delays". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abg3441. S2CID 234411557.
  95. ^ Parekh N (24 July 2020). "Novavax: A SARS-CoV-2 Protein Factory to Beat COVID-19". Archived from the original on 22 November 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  96. ^ Chung YH, Beiss V, Fiering SN, Steinmetz NF (October 2020). "COVID-19 Vaccine Frontrunners and Their Nanotechnology Design". ACS Nano. 14 (10): 12522–37. doi:10.1021/acsnano.0c07197. PMC 7553041. PMID 33034449.
  97. ^ Moitra P, Alafeef M, Dighe K, Frieman MB, Pan D (June 2020). "Selective Naked-Eye Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Mediated by N Gene Targeted Antisense Oligonucleotide Capped Plasmonic Nanoparticles". ACS Nano. 14 (6): 7617–27. doi:10.1021/acsanm.0c01978. PMC 7482545. PMID 32437124.
  98. ^ "A Study Looking at the Effectiveness, Immune Response, and Safety of a COVID-19 Vaccine in Adults in the United Kingdom". Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  99. ^ "A Study Looking at the Efficacy, Immune Response, and Safety of a COVID-19 Vaccine in Adults at Risk for SARS-CoV-2". Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  100. ^ "The study to check the safety and immune response of (Covid-19 vaccine) COVOVAX in adults". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry- India. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  101. ^ "Covovax trials begin in India, launch hopefully in September: Adar Poonawalla". India Today. 27 March 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  102. ^ "Whole-Virion Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (BBV152) for COVID-19 in Healthy Volunteers (BBV152)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 15 July 2020. NCT04471519.
  103. ^ a b "Covovax, Biological E: What we know about India's new Covid-19 vaccines". BBC News Online. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2021. The two doses are given four weeks apart. The vaccine can be stored at 2C to 8C.
  104. ^ "An Efficacy and Safety Clinical Trial of an Investigational COVID-19 Vaccine (BBV152) in Adult Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 23 November 2020. NCT04641481. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  105. ^ Ella R, Reddy S, Blackwelder W, Potdar V, Yadav P, Sarangi V, et al. (December 2021). "Efficacy, safety, and lot-to-lot immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBV152): interim results of a randomised, double-blind, controlled, phase 3 trial". Lancet. 398 (10317): 2173–2184. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02000-6. PMC 8584828. PMID 34774196.
  106. ^ Koshy J (21 April 2021). "Updated data from Covaxin phase 3 trial shows 78% efficacy". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  107. ^ Jha S (24 June 2021). "A prospective, longitudinal, observational, post licensure vaccine evaluation study to assess the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine among the Healthcare workers of Max group of hospitals". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry India. CTRI/2021/01/030782. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  108. ^ "Russia Approves Single-Dose Sputnik Light Covid Vaccine For Use". NDTV Coronavirus. 6 May 2021.
  109. ^ a b c "Study to Evaluate Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of the Sputnik-Light (SPUTNIK-LIGHT)".
  110. ^ "Single dose vaccine, Sputnik Light, authorized for use in Russia" (Press release). Russian Direct Investment Fund. 6 May 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  111. ^ Leo L (7 May 2021). "Russia OKs single-dose Sputnik Light vaccine". Mint.
  112. ^ Zhu FC, Guan XH, Li YH, Huang JY, Jiang T, Hou LH, et al. (August 2020). "Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial". Lancet. 396 (10249): 479–88. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)31605-6. PMC 7836858. PMID 32702299.
  113. ^ a b c Peshimam G, Farooq U (8 February 2021). "CanSinoBIO's COVID-19 vaccine 65.7% effective in global trials, Pakistan official says". Reuters. Islamabad. Retrieved 5 March 2021. its single-dose regimen and normal refrigerator storage requirement could make it a favourable option for many countries
  114. ^ "Clinical Trial of Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Vaccine (Adenovirus Type 5 Vector) Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 13 November 2020. NCT04540419. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  115. ^ Lazcano P (15 November 2020). "Así funcionan las cuatro vacunas que se probarán en Chile". La Tercera. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  116. ^ Martinez AI (3 November 2020). "CanSino Biologics delivers COVID-19 vaccine to Mexico for late-stage trial". Reuters. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  117. ^ Ng E (28 October 2020). "China's CanSino trials Covid-19 vaccine in 'high disease burden' nations". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  118. ^ Nafisa E (9 August 2020). "CanSino to start Phase III trial of COVID-19 vaccine in Saudi". Reuters. Retrieved 4 November 2020.
  119. ^ Gou J. "Phase III Trial of A COVID-19 Vaccine of Adenovirus Vector in Adults 18 Years Old and Above". Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  120. ^ a b China National Biotec Group Company Limited (29 October 2020). G42 Healthcare company, Abu Dhabi Health Services Company, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd, Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co Ltd. "Multicenter, Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel Placebo Controlled, Phase III Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Protective Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines (Vero Cell) in Healthy Population Aged 18 Years Old and Above". ClinicalTrials.gov.
  121. ^ a b Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (3 November 2020). National University of San Marcos, Peru. "Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines (Vero Cell) to Prevent COVID-19 in Healthy Adult Population In Peru Healthy Adult Population In Peru (Covid-Peru)". ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT04612972.
  122. ^ "Two Chinese-developed COVID-19 vaccines under review". National Medical Products Administration. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  123. ^ Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, Zhao D, Zhang H, Xie Z, et al. (September 2020). "Effect of an Inactivated Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 on Safety and Immunogenicity Outcomes: Interim Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials". JAMA. 324 (10): 951–960. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15543. PMC 7426884. PMID 32789505.
  124. ^ "Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) – The world health organization international clinical trials registered organization registered platform". www.chictr.org.cn. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  125. ^ a b c Ryzhikov AB, Ryzhikov EA, Bogryantseva MP, Usova SV, Danilenko ED, Nechaeva EA, et al. (2021). "A single blind, placebo-controlled randomized study of the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the "EpiVacCorona" Vaccine for the prevention of COVID-19, in volunteers aged 18–60 years (Phase I–II)". Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 11 (2): 283–96. doi:10.15789/2220-7619-ASB-1699.
  126. ^ Ryzhikov AB, Ryzhikov EA, Bogryantseva MP, Usova SV, Danilenko ED, Imatdinov IR, et al. (2021). "Immunogenicity and Protectivityof the Peptide Vaccine againstSARS-CoV-2". Annals of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. 76 (1): 5–19. doi:10.15690/vramn1528.
  127. ^ Benedyczak J (12 February 2021). Russia's Problems in the Vaccine Race (Bulletin). Polish Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved 6 March 2021. the Sputnik V and EpiVacCorona can be transported and stored at temperatures of +2 to + 8° C
  128. ^ "О регистрации вакцины ФБУН ГНЦ ВБ "Вектор" Роспотребнадзора "ЭпиВакКорона"" [On the registration of the vaccine FBSI SSC VB "Vector" Rospotrebnadzor "EpiVacCorona"]. rospotrebnadzor.ru (in Russian). Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing. 14 October 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2021. Запланированы два пострегистрационных клинических исследования: клиническое исследование с участием 150 человек старше 60 лет и многоцентровое клиническое исследование с участием 40 000 добровольцев. [Two post-marketing clinical trials are planned: a clinical trial involving 150 people over 60 years of age and a multicenter clinical trial involving 40,000 volunteers.]
  129. ^ "Russian EpiVacCorona Vaccine Has No Adverse Effects". Oreanda News. 13 January 2021.
  130. ^ Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector" (2 March 2021). "Study of the Tolerability, Safety, Immunogenicity and Preventive Efficacy of the EpiVacCorona Vaccine for the Prevention of COVID-19". Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  131. ^ "Sputnik V's ugly cousin". Meduza. 27 March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  132. ^ "Volunteers break rank to raise doubts in trial of Russia's second COVID-19 vaccine". Reuters. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  133. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine tracker (Refresh URL to update)". vac-lshtm.shinyapps.io. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. 12 July 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  134. ^ a b "A Phase III Clinical Trial to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of ZF2001 for Prevention of COVID-19".
  135. ^ "China's CAS COVID-19 vaccine induces immune response in mid-stage tests". Reuters. Beijing. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  136. ^ Yang S, Li Y, Dai L, Wang J, He P, Li C, et al. (March 2021). "Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant tandem-repeat dimeric RBD-based protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) against COVID-19 in adults: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 trials". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 21 (8): 1107–1119. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00127-4. PMC 7990482. PMID 33773111.
  137. ^ Pinghui Z (20 November 2020). "Fifth Chinese Covid-19 vaccine candidate ready to enter phase 3 trials". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  138. ^ Ying TP (7 December 2020). "MYEG to conduct phase 3 clinical trial for China's Covid-19 vaccine in Msia". New Straits Times. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  139. ^ a b "ABDALA Clinical Study – Phase III". rpcec.sld.cu. Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  140. ^ a b Faiola A, Herrero AV (29 March 2021). "Against the odds, Cuba could become a coronavirus vaccine powerhouse". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 July 2021. Cuban officials say they’re developing cheap and easy-to-store serums. They are able to last at room temperature for weeks, and in long-term storage as high as 46.4 degrees
  141. ^ "Cuba says its Abdala vaccine among the most effective in the world". Financial Express. 24 June 2021. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  142. ^ "Briefing with Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova, Health Minister Mikhail Murashko and Head of Rospotrebnadzor Anna Popova". Government of Russia. 18 January 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  143. ^ Ryumin A (20 February 2021). "Russia registers its third COVID-19 vaccine CoviVac". TASS. Moscow. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  144. ^ a b Ivanova P (8 February 2021). "Russia approves its third COVID-19 vaccine, CoviVac". Reuters. Moscow. Retrieved 5 March 2021. 'The CoviVac shot is given in two doses, 14 days apart. It is transported and stored at normal fridge temperatures, of 2 to 8 degrees Celsius (35.6 to 46.4 Fahrenheit),' Deputy Prime Minister Tatiana Golikova said in a government briefing in January.
  145. ^ "Центр Чумакова обнародовал сроки третьей фазы испытаний вакцины против COVID-19" [Chumakov Center announced the timing of the third phase of trials of the vaccine against COVID-19]. govoritmoskva.ru (in Russian). 19 April 2021. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  146. ^ "Russia registers third COVID-19 vaccine". The Times of Israel. 20 February 2021.
  147. ^ Yergaliyeva A (20 December 2020). "Kazakhstan Begins Vaccinating 3,000 Volunteers With Self-Made QazCovid-in". The Astana Times. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  148. ^ Meyer D (26 April 2021). "A new vaccine on the scene: Kazakhstan begins rollout of homegrown QazVac". Fortune. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  149. ^ Gotev G (23 April 2021). "Kazakhstan launches QazVac, its own COVID-19 vaccine". EURACTIV.
  150. ^ a b "Immunogenicity, Efficacy and Safety of QazCovid-in COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 31 December 2020. NCT04691908.
  151. ^ a b "A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cells), Inactivated in Healthy Adults Aged 18 Years and Older (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 21 April 2021. NCT04852705. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  152. ^ "COVIran Barakat: Iran launches human trials of its COVID vaccine". aljazeera. 29 December 2019.
  153. ^ a b "A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled Phase II/III Clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 inactivated vaccine (Shifa-Pharmed) in a population aged 18 to 75 years". Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  154. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccine (Medicinal effective substance) - شرکت گروه صنایع شفافارمد". 15 April 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  155. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of an Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine for Preventing Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 2 June 2020. NCT04412538. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  156. ^ a b "The Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine for Preventing Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT04659239. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  157. ^ "2nd dose of Pasteurcovac's injection to be end in coming days". IRNA English. 12 June 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  158. ^ a b "SOBERANA 02-FaseIII". Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos. RPCEC00000354.
  159. ^ Held S (4 March 2021). "Cuba's Soberana 02 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate moves to phase III trials". Bioworld. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  160. ^ "IRCT | Efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of Soberana recombinant vaccine (product of Finlay Institute) based on RBD protein subunit of Sars-Cov-2 in a 2-dose regimen with and without a booster dose: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial in the Iranian population of 18-80 years". www.irct.ir. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  161. ^ "Cuba Soberana 02 COVID-19 Vaccine". precisionvaccinations.com. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  162. ^ "Dynavax and Medigen Announce Collaboration to Develop a Novel Adjuvanted COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate". GlobeNewswire. 23 July 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  163. ^ "新冠肺炎(COVID-19)疫苗專家審查會議會議紀錄" (in Traditional Chinese). TFDA. 2 August 2021.
  164. ^ You YK (2 June 2021). "新冠疫苗6大廠牌比較:副作用、保護力、種類一次看懂" (in Traditional Chinese). Common Health.
  165. ^ "A Study to Evaluate MVC-COV1901 Vaccine Against COVID-19 in Adult (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 January 2021. NCT04695652. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  166. ^ "A Study to Evaluate MVC-COV1901 Vaccine Against COVID-19 in Elderly Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 30 March 2021. NCT04822025. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  167. ^ Shih-ching K (20 May 2021). "Medigen begins making its vaccine". Taipei Times.
  168. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Immunogenicity and Safety of MVC-COV1901 Compared With AZD1222 Against COVID-19 in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 18 August 2021. NCT05011526. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  169. ^ "COVID-19: Experts unsure about local vaccine and variants". Taipei Times. 8 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  170. ^ a b "A prospective, randomized, adaptive, phase I/II clinical study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Novel Corona Virus −2019-nCov vaccine candidate of M/s Cadila Healthcare Limited by intradermal route in healthy subjects". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry – India. 15 December 2020. CTRI/2020/07/026352. Archived from the original on 22 November 2020.
  171. ^ "3-dose Zydus Cadila likely to seek emergency nod for ZyCoV-D in a week: Report". Hindustan Times. 18 June 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  172. ^ "Zydus receives EUA from DCGI for ZyCoV-D, the only needle-free COVID vaccine in the world". Cision PR Newswire. 20 August 2021.
  173. ^ "Zydus Cadila gets DCGI nod to initiate Phase-3 clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccine". The Hindu. 3 January 2021.
  174. ^ "Novel Corona Virus-2019-nCov vaccine by intradermal route in healthy subjects". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry India. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  175. ^ Thacker T. "Zydus Cadila to test ZyCoV-D on 30,000 patients in Phase-3 trials". The Economic Times. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  176. ^ "DBT-BIRAC supported indigenously developed DNA Vaccine Candidate by Zydus Cadila, approved for Phase III clinical trials" (Press release). Press Information Bureau. 3 January 2021.
  177. ^ "Iran Authorizes Emergency Use of Third Homegrown Vaccine - Defense news". Tasnim News Agency. 9 September 2021. Archived from the original on 9 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  178. ^ "IRCT | Phase 2 trial of safety and immunogenicity of 10 micro gram inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (FAKHRAVAC), two doses two weeks apart in adults aged 18-70 years: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial". en.irct.ir. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  179. ^ a b "IRCT | Comparison of the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of Fakhravac and Sinopharm SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, in adults aged 18 and over; a phase III randomised, non-inferiority clinical trial". en.irct.ir. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  180. ^ "Phase II Clinical Trial of CinnaGen COVID-19 Vaccine (SpikoGen)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 June 2021. NCT04944368. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  181. ^ "Vaxine". Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  182. ^ ""Spikogen", A Joint Venture Between Vaxine And Cinnagen". Vaxine.
  183. ^ "A phase III, Randomized, Two-armed, Double-blind, Placebo controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein subunit vaccine (SpikoGen®) produced by CinnaGen Co. (Two doses of 25µg with dosing interval of 21 days)". irct.ir. 2 August 2021. IRCT20150303021315N24. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  184. ^ "Australian Phase 2/3b Study to Assess Effectiveness of a Protein-based Covid-19 Vaccine (Spikogen)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 December 2021. NCT05148871. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  185. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine Razi Cov Pars starts third clinical trial phase". Tehran Times. 27 August 2021. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  186. ^ "Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute - English-Home". english.rvsri.ac.ir. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  187. ^ "Comparison of the safety and efficacy of Razi SARS-CoV-2 recombinant Spike protein (Razi Cov Pars) and Sinopharm vaccines in adults aged 18 and over, a phase III randomised, double blind, non-inferiority clinical trial". Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  188. ^ "Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of the Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine (TURKOVAC) Versus the CoronaVac Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 June 2021. NCT04942405. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  189. ^ "China's new recombinant COVID-19 vaccine starts human tests". Xinhua. 25 April 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  190. ^ Raghavan P (5 June 2021). "'At-risk' policy change: Govt puts money on new-platform Covid-19 vaccine". The Indian Express.
  191. ^ "A prospective open label randomised phase-I seamlessly followed by phase-II study to assess the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of Biological E's novel Covid-19 vaccine containing Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 for protection against Covid-19 disease when administered intramuscularly in a two dose schedule (0, 28D) to healthy volunteers". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry – India. 13 January 2021. CTRI/2020/11/029032. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020.
  192. ^ "CEPI partners with Biological E Limited to advance development and manufacture of COVID-19 vaccine candidate". cepi.net. Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  193. ^ Chui M (16 November 2020). "Biological E. Limited and Baylor COVID-19 vaccine begins clinical trial in India". Baylor College of Medicine.
  194. ^ "Coronavirus | Biological E gets nod to start Phase III trials of COVID-19 vaccine". The Hindu. 24 April 2021.
  195. ^ "Biological E's Corbevax vaccine clinical study for protection against Covid-19 disease". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trial Registry India. 4 June 2021. CTRI/2021/06/034014. Retrieved 9 June 2021.
  196. ^ "Soberana Plus". Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos. RPCEC00000366.
  197. ^ "GSK, Medicago launch phase 2/3 clinical trials of plant-derived COVID-19 vaccine". PMLive. 13 November 2020. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  198. ^ "Medicago and GSK start Phase 3 trial of adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine candidate" (Press release). GlaxoSmithKline. 16 March 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  199. ^ Chander V (14 July 2020). "Canada's Medicago begins human trials of plant-based COVID-19 vaccine". National Post. Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 July 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  200. ^ "Study of a Recombinant Coronavirus-Like Particle COVID-19 Vaccine in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 November 2020. NCT04636697. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  201. ^ "VLA2001 COVID-19 Vaccine". Precision Vaccinations. 31 December 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  202. ^ "Dose Finding Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of an Inactiviated Adjuvanted Sars-Cov-2 Virus Vaccine Candidate Against Covid-19 in Healthy Adults". U.S. National Library of Medicine. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  203. ^ "Valneva Initiates Phase 3 Clinical Trial for its Inactivated, Adjuvanted COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate, VLA2001" (Press release). Valneva. 21 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  204. ^ "Study To Compare The Immunogenicity Against COVID-19, Of VLA2001 Vaccine To AZD1222 Vaccine (COV-COMPARE)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 April 2021. NCT04864561.
  205. ^ "Immunogenicity of VLA2101 Compared to VLA2001". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 July 2021. NCT04956224.
  206. ^ "IRGC starts clinical trial of "Noora" coronavirus vaccine". Tehran Times. 27 June 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  207. ^ "Phase 3 Clinical Trial to evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Covid19 Recombinant RBD Protein Vaccine (Noora Vaccine) as a Booster Vaccine after injection of existing Vaccines in IRAN". Iranian Clinical Trials Registry. 23 December 2021. IRCT20210620051639N3. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  208. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine tracker (Refresh URL to update)". vac-lshtm.shinyapps.io. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. 12 July 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  209. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine tracker (Choose vaccines tab, apply filters to view select data)". Milken Institute. 8 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020. Lay summary. {{cite web}}: Cite uses deprecated parameter |lay-url= (help)
  210. ^ "Draft landscape of COVID 19 candidate vaccines". World Health Organization (WHO). 10 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  211. ^ "Study of Monovalent and Bivalent Recombinant Protein Vaccines Against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older (VAT00008)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 27 May 2021. NCT04904549. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  212. ^ "Safety and efficacy of Monovalent and Bivalent Recombinant Protein Vaccines against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry India. CTRI/2021/06/034442. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  213. ^ "Study of Recombinant Protein Vaccine with Adjuvant against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older". pactr.samrc.ac.za. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  214. ^ "Tarjeta del participante del estudio VAT00008: ejemplo central para adaptación a nivel de país" [VAT00008 Study Participant Card: Central Example for Country-Level Adaptation] (PDF). incmnsz.mx. Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Health Sciences and Nutrition. 15 April 2021.
  215. ^ "Study of Recombinant Protein Vaccine Formulations Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults 18 Years of Age and Older". ClinicalTrials.gov. 3 September 2020. NCT04537208. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  216. ^ "Study of Recombinant Protein Vaccine With Adjuvant Against COVID-19 in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older (VAT00002)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 21 February 2021. NCT04762680. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  217. ^ "Sanofi and GSK confirm agreement with European Union to supply up to 300 million doses of adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine". GSK (Press release). Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  218. ^ https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/human-regulatory/overview/public-health-threats/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/treatments-vaccines/vaccines-covid-19/covid-19-vaccines-under-evaluation
  219. ^ "Sanofi and GSK sign agreements with the Government of Canada to supply up to 72 million doses of adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine". GSK (Press release). Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  220. ^ "U.S. Likely to Get Sanofi Vaccine First If It Succeeds". Bloomberg.com. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  221. ^ "Coronavirus vaccine: UK signs deal with GSK and Sanofi". BBC News Online. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  222. ^ a b "Status of COVID-19 Vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process". World Health Organization (WHO).
  223. ^ "VN starts injection of homegrown COVID-19 vaccine in first-stage human trial". Viet Nam News. 17 December 2020.
  224. ^ "Draft landscape and tracker of COVID-19 candidate vaccines". World Health Organization (WHO). 26 February 2021.
  225. ^ "How much does first Made-in Vietnam COVID-19 vaccine cost?". Voice of Vietnam. 11 December 2020.
  226. ^ "Local Nanocovax vaccine's phase 3 trial to begin next week". vietnamnet.vn. 26 May 2021. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  227. ^ "Study to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of Nanocovax Vaccine Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 11 June 2021. NCT04922788. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  228. ^ Le C, Thu A (26 February 2021). "Vietnam enters second phase of Covid-19 vaccine trials". VnExpress.
  229. ^ Onishi T (15 June 2021). "Vietnam homegrown COVID vaccine heads for full approval by year-end". Nikkei Asia.
  230. ^ "A Study to Evaluate UB-612 COVID-19 Vaccine in Adolescent, Younger and Elderly Adult Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 February 2021. NCT04773067. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  231. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of UB-612 COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 December 2020. NCT04683224. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  232. ^ Liao, George (27 June 2021). "Taiwan's second domestic COVID vaccine's midterm performance in phase II trials inferior to local competitor: experts". Taiwan News. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  233. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of UB-612 COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 11 September 2020. NCT04545749. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  234. ^ Strong, Matthew (30 June 2021). "Taiwan's United Biomedical applies for COVID vaccine EUA". Taiwan News.
  235. ^ "SCB-2019 as COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 May 2020. NCT04405908. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  236. ^ "Clover Biopharmaceuticals starts Phase I Covid-19 vaccine trial". Clinical Trials Arena. 20 June 2020. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  237. ^ "About Us". Clover Biopharmaceuticals. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  238. ^ "A Controlled Phase 2/3 Study of Adjuvanted Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Trimeric S-protein Vaccine (SCB-2019) for the Prevention of COVID-19 (SCB-2019)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 17 December 2020. NCT04672395. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  239. ^ "Clover Biopharmaceuticals and Dynavax Announce First Participants Dosed in SPECTRA, a Global Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial for Adjuvanted S-Trimer COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate". Dynavax. 24 March 2021. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  240. ^ "A Study of Safety and Immunogenicity of Adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 (SCB-2019) Vaccine in Adults With Chronic Immune-Mediated Diseases". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 August 2021. NCT05012787. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  241. ^ "Immunogenicity and Safety Study of Adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 (SCB-2019) Vaccine in Adults in China". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 July 2021. NCT04954131. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  242. ^ "A Phase 2/3 Study of S-268019". jrct.niph.go.jp. Japan Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  243. ^ "A Phase 3 Study of S-268019 for the Prevention of COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 January 2022. NCT05212948. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  244. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasal RSV Vaccine Expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (COVID-19 Vaccine) in Adults". jrct.niph.go.jp. Japan Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  245. ^ "A Global Phase III Clinical Trial of Recombinant COVID- 19 Vaccine (Sf9 Cells)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 27 May 2021. NCT04904471. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  246. ^ "A global phase III clinical trial of recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells) in adults aged 18 years and older". chictr.org.cn. 12 May 2021. ChiCTR2100046272. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  247. ^ "A global multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (Sf9 cells), for the prevention of COVID-19 in adults aged 18 years and older". registry.healthresearch.ph. PHRR210712-003704.
  248. ^ "Phase I Trial of a Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Sf9 Cell)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 August 2020. NCT04530656. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  249. ^ "A Phase II Clinical Trial of Recombinant Corona Virus Disease-19 (COVID-19) Vaccine (Sf9 Cells)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 23 November 2020. NCT04640402. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  250. ^ "Phase IIb Clinical Trial of Recombinant Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) Vaccine (Sf9 Cells)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 22 January 2021. NCT04718467. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  251. ^ "A Phase III Clinical Trial of Influenza Virus Vector COVID- 19 Vaccine for Intranasal Spray (DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT1)". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  252. ^ "A Phase I Clinical Trial of Influenza virus Vector COVID-19 Vaccine for intranasal Spray (DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT1)". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  253. ^ "A Phase II Clinical Trial of Influenza virus Vector COVID-19 Vaccine for intranasal Spray (DelNS1-2019-nCoV-RBD-OPT1)". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  254. ^ "Entenda ponto a ponto a Versamune, vacina contra a Covid-19 financiada pelo governo federal". G1 Globo. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  255. ^ "Vacina Versamune: o que se sabe sobre imunizante anunciado pelo governo federal". BBC News Brazil. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  256. ^ "Vacina Versamune: o que se sabe sobre imunizante anunciado pelo governo federal". BBC News Brazil. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2021.
  257. ^ "Randomized Controlled-trial to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of a Novel Vaccine for Prevention of Covid-19 in Adults Previously Immunized". clinicaltrials.gov. 23 August 2021. NCT05016934. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  258. ^ "A Phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerance and preliminary immunogenicity of different doses of a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in population aged 18–59 years and 60 years and above". Chinese Clinical Trial Register. 24 June 2020. ChiCTR2000034112. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  259. ^ "Company introduction". Walvax Biotechnology. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  260. ^ "A Phase III Clinical Study to Evaluate the Protective Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) Vaccine Candidate in Population Aged 18 Years and Above". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  261. ^ "A Global, Multi-center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled, Phase III Clinical Study to Evaluate the Protective Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine in Population Aged 18 Years and Older". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  262. ^ "A Phase I/II Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine in Healthy Population Aged 60 Years and Older". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  263. ^ "A Phase II clinical trial to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of different doses of a novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine in population aged 18-59 years". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  264. ^ "Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Fusion Protein Vaccine (V-01) Phase III (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 27 October 2021. NCT05096845. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  265. ^ "评价重组新型冠状病毒融合蛋白疫苗在健康人群免疫原性和安全性随机、双盲、安慰剂对照的II期临床试验". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  266. ^ "评价重组新型冠状病毒融合蛋白疫苗在健康人群安全性和免疫原性随机、双盲、安慰剂对照的I期临床试验". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  267. ^ "Arcturus Therapeutics Collaborates with Vingroup to Establish Manufacturing Facility in Vietnam for Arcturus' Investigational mRNA Vaccines for COVID-19". Business Wire. 2 August 2021.
  268. ^ "Arcturus Allows Vietnam's Vingroup to Make Covid Vaccines". Bloomberg. 2 August 2021.
  269. ^ "Vingroup collaborates with Arcturus Therapeutics to establish a manufacturing facility in Vietnam for Arcturus' mRNA Covid-19 vaccine". Yahoo! Finance. 2 August 2021.
  270. ^ "Arcturus to start clinical trial of COVID-19 vaccine in Vietnam". Reuters. 2 August 2021.
  271. ^ "Arcturus Therapeutics lines up Phase 1/2/3 trial for next-generation mRNA COVID-19 vaccine". Biopharma Reporter. 2 August 2021.
  272. ^ "The ARCT-154 Self-Amplifying RNA Vaccine Efficacy Study (ARCT-154-01) (ARCT-154-01)". United States National Library of Medicine. 19 August 2021. NCT05012943. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  273. ^ "Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity Study of the Recombinant Two-component COVID-19 Vaccine (CHO Cell) (ReCOV)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 20 October 2021. NCT05084989. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  274. ^ "Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity Study of ReCOV". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 March 2021. NCT04818801. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  275. ^ "A Phase I/II Randomized, Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity and Potential Efficacy of an rVSV-SARS-CoV-2-S Vaccine (IIBR-100) in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 1 November 2020. NCT04608305.
  276. ^ "Phase 2b Dose-confirmatory Trial to Evaluate the Safety, Immunogenicity and Potential Efficacy of an VSV-ΔG SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (BRILIFE001)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 July 2021. NCT04990466. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  277. ^ "As Israel goes vaccine-wild, will the homegrown version lose its shot?". The Times of Israel. 29 December 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  278. ^ "Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant protein subunit vaccine (CHO cells) against COVID-19 in adults: an international multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. 5 September 2021. ChiCTR2100050849. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  279. ^ "Phase I Trial of a Recombinant COVID-19 Vaccine (CHO Cell)". ClinicalTrials.gov. United States National Library of Medicine. 19 November 2020. NCT04636333. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  280. ^ "Immunogenicity and Safety of Recombinant COVID-19 Vaccine (CHO Cells)". ClinicalTrials.gov. United States National Library of Medicine. 24 March 2021. NCT04813562. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  281. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GX-19, a COVID-19 Preventive DNA Vaccine in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 June 2020. NCT04445389. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  282. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of GX-19N, a COVID-19 Preventive DNA Vaccine in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 20 January 2021. NCT04715997. Retrieved 16 March 2021.
  283. ^ "S. Korea's Genexine begins human trial of coronavirus vaccine". Reuters. 19 June 2020. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  284. ^ "Genexine consortium's Covid-19 vaccine acquires approval for clinical trails in Korea". 11 June 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  285. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of GX-19N, a COVID-19 Preventive DNA Vaccine in Elderly Individuals". ClinicalTrials.gov. 7 June 2021. NCT04915989. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  286. ^ "Evaluation of Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of GX-19N in Healthy Individuals Who Have Received COVID-19 Vaccines". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 October 2021. NCT05067946. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  287. ^ "GRAd-COV2 Vaccine Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 27 August 2020. NCT04528641.
  288. ^ "ReiThera Announces its GRAd-COV2 COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate is Well Tolerated and Induces Clear Immune Responses in Healthy Subjects Aged 18–55 Years". ReiThera Srl. Yahoo! Finance. 24 November 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  289. ^ "Study of GRAd-COV2 for the Prevention of COVID-19 in Adults (COVITAR)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 10 March 2021. NCT04791423. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  290. ^ "ReiThera's COVID-19 vaccine candidate enters Phase 2/3 clinical study". ReiThera. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  291. ^ "New ReiThera vaccine safe, response peak at 4 wks". ANSA. 5 January 2021.
  292. ^ "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of INO-4800 for COVID-19 in Healthy Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 7 April 2020. NCT04336410. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  293. ^ "IVI, INOVIO, and KNIH to partner with CEPI in a Phase I/II clinical trial of INOVIO's COVID-19 DNA vaccine in South Korea". International Vaccine Institute. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  294. ^ "Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of INO-4800 for COVID-19 in Healthy Seronegative Adults at High Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Exposure". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 November 2020. NCT04642638. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  295. ^ "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of INO-4800 Followed by Electroporation in Healthy Volunteers for COVID19". United States National Library of Medincine. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  296. ^ "A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Different Doses of COVID-19 DNA Vaccine INO-4800 Administered Intradermally Followed by Electroporation in Healthy Adult and Elderly Volunteers". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  297. ^ "Daiichi Sankyo Initiates Phase 1/2 Clinical Trial for mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in Japan" (PDF) (Press release). Daiichi Sankyo. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  298. ^ "Daiichi takes mRNA COVID-19 vaccine into clinic as Japanese R&D belatedly fires up". Fierce Biotech. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  299. ^ "既承認SARS-CoV-2 ワクチンの初回接種完了者を対象としたDS-5670a による追加免疫効果を検討する第I/II/III 相、無作為化、実薬対照、評価者盲検試験". jrct.niph.go.jp. 28 December 2021. jRCT2071210106. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  300. ^ "Study of DS-5670a (COVID-19 Vaccine) in Japanese Healthy Adults and Elderly Subjects". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 March 2021. NCT04821674. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  301. ^ "SK Bioscience Submitted Phase 3 IND for COVID-19 Vaccine". SK Bioscience.
  302. ^ "A Phase III Study to Assess the Immunogenicity and Safety of SK SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Nanoparticle Vaccine Adjuvanted With AS03 (GBP510) in Adults Aged 18 Years and Older". ClinicalTrials.gov. 17 August 2021. NCT05007951. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  303. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of SARS-CoV-2 Nanoparticle Vaccine (GBP510) Adjuvanted With or Without AS03 (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 11 February 2021. NCT04750343. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  304. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of SARS-CoV-2 Nanoparticle Vaccine (GBP510) Adjuvanted With Aluminum Hydroxide (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 February 2021. NCT04742738. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  305. ^ "Indigenous mRNA vaccine candidate supported by DBT gets Drug Controller nod to initiate Human clinical trials" (Press release). Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  306. ^ "mRNA Vaccines – HGC019". Gennova Biopharmaceuticals Limited. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  307. ^ "Safety and immunogenicity study of an mRNA based vaccine (HGCO19) for COVID19 in healthy adult participants". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry India. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  308. ^ Raghavan P (15 December 2020). "Pune-based Gennova to begin human trials of its Covid vaccine 'soon'". The Indian Express.
  309. ^ "Safety and immunogenicity study of mRNA based vaccine (HGCO19) against COVID-19 in healthy adult participants". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry India. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  310. ^ "Safety and immunogenicity study of mRNA based vaccine (HGCO19) against COVID-19 in healthy adult participants". Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. 4 August 2021. Archived from the original on 11 September 2021.
  311. ^ "18歳以上の健康な日本人を対象に、COVID-19に対するワクチン(KD-414)を2回接種した際の免疫原性及び安全性を確認する多施設共同非盲検非対照試験。". jrct.niph.go.jp. Japan Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  312. ^ "Japan's KM Biologics begins clinical trial of COVID-19 vaccine candidate". Reuters. 22 March 2021.
  313. ^ "20歳以上65歳未満の健康成人、及び65歳以上の健康な高齢者を対象に、COVID-19に対するワクチン(KD-414)の安全性及び免疫原性を検討するための、プラセボを対照とする多施設共同二重盲検ランダム化並行群間比較試験". jrct.niph.go.jp. Japan Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  314. ^ "Phase Ⅱ and Ⅲ Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine LYB001". ClinicalTrials.gov. 30 November 2021. NCT05137444. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  315. ^ "A Phase Ⅰ Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine LYB001". ClinicalTrials.gov. 18 November 2021. NCT05125926. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  316. ^ "Immunogenicity and safety of a SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine LYB001 against COVID-19 in healthy adults: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled phase II trial and a single-armed, open-label expanded safety phase III trial". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  317. ^ "Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine LYB001 in healthy adults: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled phase I trial". chictr.org.cn. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  318. ^ "A study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of Anti-COVID-19 AKS-452 vaccine for SARS-Сov-2 infection in Indian healthy subjects". ctri.nic.in. 11 October 2021. CTRI/2021/10/037269. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  319. ^ "Anti-COVID19 AKS-452 – ACT Study (ACT)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 23 December 2020. NCT04681092. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  320. ^ "Study of COVID-19 DNA Vaccine (AG0301-COVID19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 July 2020. NCT04463472. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  321. ^ "Study of COVID-19 DNA Vaccine (AG0302-COVID19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 August 2020. NCT04527081. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  322. ^ "About AnGes – Introduction". AnGes, Inc. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  323. ^ "Phase II / III Study of COVID-19 DNA Vaccine (AG0302-COVID19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 7 December 2020. NCT04655625. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
  324. ^ "Phase II Clinical Trial of Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Vaccine (CHO Cell)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 4 August 2021. NCT04990544. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  325. ^ "Phase I Clinical Trial of Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Vaccine (CHO Cell)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 4 July 2021. NCT04982068. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  326. ^ "A Ph 2 Trial With an Oral Tableted COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 October 2021. NCT05067933. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  327. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of an Oral SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (VXA-CoV2-1) for Prevention of COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 September 2020. NCT04563702. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  328. ^ "Ph 1b: Safety & Immunogenicity of Ad5 Based Oral Norovirus Vaccine (VXA-NVV-104)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 22 April 2021. NCT04854746. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
  329. ^ a b "Made-in-Canada coronavirus vaccine starts human clinical trials". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 26 January 2021.
  330. ^ "PTX-COVID19-B, an mRNA Humoral Vaccine, Intended for Prevention of COVID-19 in a General Population. This Study is Designed to Demonstrate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of PTX-COVID19-B in Comparison to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 4 January 2022. NCT05175742. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  331. ^ "PTX-COVID19-B, an mRNA Humoral Vaccine, is Intended for Prevention of COVID-19 in a General Population. This Study is Designed to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of PTX-COVID19-B Vaccine in Healthy Seronegative Adults Aged 18-64". ClinicalTrials.gov. 21 February 2021. NCT04765436. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  332. ^ "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial of immunogenicity, immunopersistence, and safety of graded Novel Coronavirus inactivated vaccine (Vero cells) in healthy persons aged 18 years and older". chictr.org.cn. 29 September 2021. ChiCTR2100050024. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  333. ^ "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the Novel Coronavirus inactivated vaccine (Vero cells) in healthy individuals 18 years of age and older". chictr.org.cn. 16 August 2021. ChiCTR2100050024. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  334. ^ "Another Chinese adenovirus vector COVID-19 vaccine ready for human trials". Xinhua. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  335. ^ "A Phase II Clinical Trial of the Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Chimpanzee Adenoviral Vector)". chictr.org.cn. 2 August 2021. ChiCTR2100049530. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  336. ^ "Phase I Clinical Trial of the Candidate Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Chimpanzee Adenoviral Vector)". chictr.org.cn. 23 May 2021. ChiCTR2100046612. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  337. ^ "INNA-051 intranasal safety and tolerability study". clinicaltrials.gov. 12 November 2021. NCT05118763. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  338. ^ "INNA-051 intranasal safety and tolerability study". anzctr.org.au. 21 April 2021. ACTRN12621000607875p. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  339. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of mRNA-1283 COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters". ClinicalTrials.gov. 30 November 2021. NCT05137236. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  340. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of mRNA-1283 and mRNA-1273 Vaccines in Healthy Adults Between 18 Years and 55 Years of Age to Prevent COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 March 2021. NCT04813796. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  341. ^ "Study of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Virus-like Particle (VLP) Vaccine (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 15 July 2021. NCT04962893. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  342. ^ "Study of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Virus-like Particle (VLP) Vaccine in Healthy Adults (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 March 2021. NCT04818281. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  343. ^ "SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (COH04S1) Versus Emergency Use Authorization SARS-COV-2 Vaccine for the Treatment of COVID-19 in Patients With Blood Cancer". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 July 2021. NCT04977024. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  344. ^ "A Synthetic MVA-based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine, COH04S1, for the Prevention of COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 20 November 2020. NCT04639466. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  345. ^ "Bavarian Nordic reports encouraging preclinical data for COVID-19 vaccine candidate ahead of first-in-human trial". Bavarian Nordic. 8 March 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  346. ^ "Bavarian Nordic Initiates Phase 2 Clinical Trial of COVID-19 Booster Vaccine". Bavarian Nordic. 23 August 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  347. ^ "ABNCoV2 Vaccine in SARS-CoV-2 Seronegative and Seropositive Adult Subjects". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 October 2021. NCT05077267. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  348. ^ "Safety and Tolerability of ABNCoV2 (COUGH-1)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 April 2021. NCT04839146. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  349. ^ "Clover Announces Positive Preclinical Data for Second-Generation Protein-Based COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Demonstrating Broad Neutralization Against Variants of Concern". Clover Biopharmaceutical. 18 May 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  350. ^ "Immunogenicity and Safety of Adjuvanted SCB-2020S Vaccines in Adults". United States National Library of Medicine. 6 July 2021. NCT04950751. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  351. ^ "The Safety and Efficacy of SCTV01C in Population Aged ≥18 Years Previously Vaccinated With Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine.Healthy Population Aged ≥18 Years Previously Vaccinated With Adenovirus Vectored or mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine". United States National Library of Medicine. 14 September 2021. NCT05043311. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  352. ^ "The Safety and Efficacy of SCTV01C in Population Aged ≥18 Years Previously Vaccinated With Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine.Healthy Population Aged ≥18 Years Previously Vaccinated With Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccine". United States National Library of Medicine. 14 September 2021. NCT05043285. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  353. ^ "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of SCTV01C in Healthy Population Aged ≥18 Years Previously Unvaccinated". United States National Library of Medicine. 8 December 2021. NCT05148091. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  354. ^ "A Phase 1/2 Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of COVID-19 Vaccine COVIVAC". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 April 2021. NCT04830800. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  355. ^ "A Live Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus-vectored COVID-19 Vaccine Phase 1 Study". ClinicalTrials.gov. 25 January 2022. NCT05205746. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  356. ^ "Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of NDV-HXP-S Vaccine in Thailand". ClinicalTrials.gov. 21 February 2021. NCT04764422. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  357. ^ "A Live Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus-vectored COVID-19 Vaccine Phase 1 Study". ClinicalTrials.gov. 6 January 2022. NCT05181709. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  358. ^ "Vaccine COVID-19 "made in Vietnam" COVIVAC thử nghiệm giai đoạn 2". VTV. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  359. ^ Zimmer C (5 April 2021). "Researchers Are Hatching a Low-Cost Coronavirus Vaccine". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  360. ^ "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of mRNACOVID-19 vaccine in healthy susceptible populations aged 18 years and older people". Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR). Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  361. ^ "A Phase I/II Clinical Trial in Healthy People Aged 18 Years and Above". ClinicalTrials.gov. 3 December 2021. NCT05144139. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  362. ^ "CTI and Arcturus Therapeutics Announce Initiation of Dosing of COVID-19 STARR mRNA Vaccine Candidate, LUNAR-COV19 (ARCT-021) in a Phase 1/2 study". UK BioIndustry Association. 13 August 2020. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  363. ^ "Ascending Dose Study of Investigational SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine ARCT-021 in Healthy Adult Subjects". Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  364. ^ "A Trial Evaluating the Safety and Effects of an RNA Vaccine ARCT-021 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 16 December 2020. NCT04668339. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  365. ^ "Open Label Extension Study to Assess the Safety and Long-Term Immunogenicity of ARCT-021". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 January 2021. NCT04728347. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  366. ^ "Phase I/II of the Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Protein Subunit Recombinant Vaccine in Healthy Populations". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 October 2021. NCT05067894. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  367. ^ "VBI Vaccines Announces Initiation of Enrollment in Adaptive Phase 1/2 Study of Prophylactic COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate, VBI-2902". VBI Vaccines (Press release). 9 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  368. ^ "Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of the COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates VBI-2902a and VBI-2905a". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 February 2021. NCT04773665. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  369. ^ "Novavax Announces Positive Preclinical Data for Combination Influenza and COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate". Novavax. 10 May 2021.
  370. ^ "Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Influenza and COVID-19 Combination Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 July 2021. NCT04961541. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  371. ^ "Safety, Tolerance and Immunogenicity of EuCorVac-19 for the Prevention of COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 March 2021. NCT04783311. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  372. ^ Limon, Raul (12 August 2021). "First Spanish Covid-19 vaccine approved for human clinical trial". El Pais. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  373. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of Recombinant Protein RBD Candidate Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 in Adult Healthy Volunteers (COVID-19)". clinicaltrials.gov. 16 August 2021. NCT05007509. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  374. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Protein RBD Fusion Dimer Vaccine Against the Virus That Cause COVID-19, Known as Severe Acute Respiratoy Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)". clinicaltrials.gov. 2 December 2021. NCT05142514. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  375. ^ "Trial registered on ANZCTR". anzctr.org.au. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  376. ^ "Phase I-II Trial of Dendritic Cell Vaccine to Prevent COVID-19 in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 13 May 2020. NCT04386252. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  377. ^ "Dendritic Cell Vaccine to Prevent COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 December 2020. NCT04685603. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  378. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of COVID-eVax, a Candidate Plasmid DNA Vaccine for COVID-19, in Healthy Adult Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 March 2021. NCT04788459. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  379. ^ a b "Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasal SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (BBV154) for COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 12 February 2021. NCT04751682. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021.
  380. ^ "Intranasal Vaccine For Covid-19". Bharat Biotech. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  381. ^ Gaurav, Kunal (13 August 2021). "First nasal vaccine developed by Bharat Biotech gets nod for Phase 2/3 trial". Hindustan Times.
  382. ^ "Intranasal COVID-19 vaccine Phase 2 study in Healthy volunteers". ctri.nic.in. Clinical Trials Registry India. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  383. ^ "Vaccibody reports promising preclinical data with a second-generation COVID-19 vaccine and announces its infectious disease strategy" (PDF). vaccibody.com. 10 December 2020.
  384. ^ "Vaccibody reports promising preclinical data with a second-generation COVID-19 vaccine and announces its infectious disease strategy" (PDF). vaccibody.com. 10 December 2020.
  385. ^ "Vaccibody to initiate a phase 1/2 trial to evaluate two second-generation SARS CoV-2 virus DNA vaccine candidates to address emerging variants of concern" (PDF). vaccibody.com. 29 June 2021.
  386. ^ "A Phase 1/2, Dose Escalation Study to Determine Safety and Immunogenicity of Two COVID 19 Vaccines VB10.2129 (RBD Candidate) and VB10.2210 (T Cell Candidate) in Healthy Adult Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 6 October 2021. NCT05069623. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  387. ^ "ChulaCov19 mRNA Vaccine in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 September 2020. NCT04566276. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  388. ^ a b "Safety and Immunity of Covid-19 aAPC Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 March 2020. NCT04299724. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  389. ^ a b "About Us". Shenzhen Genoimmune Medical Institute. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  390. ^ a b "Immunity and Safety of Covid-19 Synthetic Minigene Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 February 2020. NCT04276896. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  391. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccination Using a 2nd Generation (E1/E2B/E3-Deleted) Adenoviral Platform in Healthy South African Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 January 2021. NCT04710303. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  392. ^ "COVID-19 Oral and Subcutaneous Vaccination Using a 2nd Generation (E1/E2B/E3-Deleted) Adenovirus Platform in Healthy Volunteers in USA". ClinicalTrials.gov. 1 February 2021. NCT04732468. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  393. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccination Using a 2nd Generation (E1/E2B/E3-Deleted) Adenoviral-COVID-19 in Normal Healthy Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 October 2020. NCT04591717. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  394. ^ "COVID-19 Subcutaneously and Orally Administered Supplemental Vaccine Boost to Enhance T Cell Protection in Those Who Have Already Received EUA S-Based Vaccines". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 April 2021. NCT04845191. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  395. ^ "COVID-19 Supplemental Vaccine Boost to Enhance T Cell Protection in Those Who Have Already Received EUA S-Based Vaccines". ClinicalTrials.gov. 13 April 2021. NCT04843722. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  396. ^ a b "VIDO COVID-19 vaccine moves to Phase 1 clinical testing". globalnews.ca. 10 February 2021.
  397. ^ "A Clinical Trial of COVAC-2 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 January 2021. NCT04702178. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  398. ^ "A Clinical Trial of COVAC-1 in Generally Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 December 2021. NCT05155982. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  399. ^ "Serum Institute starts manufacturing Codagenix's nasal COVID-19 vaccine". mint. 22 September 2020.
  400. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of COVI-VAC, a Live Attenuated Vaccine Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 6 November 2020. NCT04619628.
  401. ^ "A Study of the Safety of and Immune Response to Varying Doses of a Vaccine Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 17 February 2021. NCT04758962.
  402. ^ "COVALIA study update: first healthy volunteers dosed in needle-free SARS-CoV2 DNA vaccine phase 1 trial". Bionet Asia. 30 June 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  403. ^ "The Safety and Immunogenicity of a DNA-based Vaccine (COVIGEN) in Healthy Volunteers (COVALIA)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 February 2021. NCT04742842.
  404. ^ "Meissa Announces IND Clearance for Phase 1 Study of Intranasal Live Attenuated Vaccine Candidate for COVID-19". Business Wire. 16 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  405. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasal RSV Vaccine Expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (COVID-19 Vaccine) in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 15 March 2021. NCT04798001. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  406. ^ "KBP-201 COVID-19 Vaccine Trial in Healthy Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 16 July 2020. NCT04473690. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  407. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Study of AdCLD-CoV19: A COVID-19 Preventive Vaccine in Healthy Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 December 2020. NCT04666012. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  408. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of COVID-19 (AdimrSC-2f) Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 21 August 2020. NCT04522089. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  409. ^ "Dose-finding Study for AdimrSC-2f Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 3 November 2021. NCT05104489. Retrieved 3 November 2021.
  410. ^ "GLS-5310 Vaccine for the Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 17 December 2020. NCT04673149. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  411. ^ "A Clinical Trial of a Plasmid DNA Vaccine for COVID-19 [Covigenix VAX-001] in Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 October 2020. NCT04591184. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  412. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (NBP2001) in Healthy Adults (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 18 February 2021. NCT04760743. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  413. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Multi-peptide Vaccination to Prevent COVID-19 Infection in Adults (pVAC)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 September 2020. NCT04546841. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  414. ^ "B-pVAC-SARS-CoV-2: Study to Prevent COVID-19 Infection in Adults With Bcell/ Antibody Deficiency (B-pVAC)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 July 2020. NCT04954469. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  415. ^ "Evaluating the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of bacTRL-Spike Vaccine for Prevention of COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 6 April 2020. NCT04334980. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  416. ^ "Chimpanzee Adenovirus and Self-Amplifying mRNA Prime-Boost Prophylactic Vaccines Against SARS-CoV-2 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 1 March 2021. NCT04776317. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  417. ^ "SARS-COV-2-Spike-Ferritin-Nanoparticle (SpFN) Vaccine With ALFQ Adjuvant for Prevention of COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 5 March 2021. NCT04784767. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  418. ^ "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of the Candidate Vaccine MVA-SARS-2-S Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 September 2020. NCT04569383. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  419. ^ "Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of the Candidate Vaccine MVA-SARS-2-ST Against COVID-19 (MVA-SARS-2-ST)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 20 May 2021. NCT04895449. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  420. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Koçak-19 Inaktif Adjuvanlı COVID-19 Vaccine Compared to Placebo". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 April 2021. NCT04838080. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  421. ^ "First-In-Human Study Of Orally Administered CoV2-OGEN1 In Healthy Subjects". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 May 2021. NCT04893512. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  422. ^ "OSE Immunotherapeutics Receives Authorization for Phase 1 Clinical Trial of its Multi-Target Multi-Variant COVID-19 Vaccine". BioSpace. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  423. ^ "To Evaluate the Safety, and Immunogenicity of Vaccine Candidate Against COVID-19, in Healthy Adults (COVEPIT 3)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 13 May 2021. NCT04885361. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  424. ^ "HDT Bio Receives Notice to Proceed from FDA for US Phase 1 Clinical Trial of RNA COVID-19 Vaccine". HDT Bio. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  425. ^ "HDT Bio Partner Quratis Doses First Healthy Volunteers in Phase 1 Trial of HDT Bio's RNA COVID-19 Vaccine in South Korea". HDT Bio. 13 December 2021. Retrieved 24 December 2021.
  426. ^ "Phase 1 Study to Assess Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of the HDT-301 Vaccine Against COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 April 2021. NCT04844268. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  427. ^ "Safety And Immunogenicity Of HDT-301 Targeting A SARS-CoV-2 Variant Spike Protein". ClinicalTrials.gov. 24 November 2021. NCT05132907. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  428. ^ "A Phase 1, First-In-Human Study of the Investigational COVID-19 Vaccine SC-Ad6-1 in Healthy Volunteers". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 April 2021. NCT04839042. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  429. ^ "Study of a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Adjuvanted Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults (COVID-19)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 29 April 2021. NCT04866069. Retrieved 30 April 2021.
  430. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of EXG-5003". ClinicalTrials.gov. 28 April 2021. NCT04863131. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  431. ^ "Icosavax Initiates Phase 1/2 Trial of COVID-19 VLP Vaccine Candidate". Icosavax. 8 June 2021.
  432. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccine (IVX-411) in Healthy Adults". Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  433. ^ "НАЧАТЫ КЛИНИЧЕСКИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ СУБЪЕДИНИЧНОЙ ВАКЦИНЫ ПРОТИВ COVID-19, РАЗРАБОТАННОЙ УЧЁНЫМИ НИИПББ". Biosafty and Biotechnology Journal. 15 June 2021.
  434. ^ "Reactogenicity, Safety and Immunogenicity of QazCoVac-P COVID-19 Vaccine". ClinicalTrials.gov. 18 June 2021. NCT04930003. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  435. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of LNP-nCOV saRNA-02 Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2, the Causative Agent of COVID-19 (COVAC-Uganda)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 22 June 2021. NCT04934111. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  436. ^ Rujivanarom, Pratch (6 June 2021). "Local jabs yet to join Covid fight". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  437. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Safety, Tolerability, and Reactogenicity of an RBD-Fc-based Vaccine to Prevent COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 7 July 2021. NCT04953078. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  438. ^ "Phase 1 Intranasal Parainfluenza Virus Type 5-SARS CoV-2 S Vaccine in Healthy Adults (CVXGA1-001)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 8 July 2021. NCT04954287. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  439. ^ "FMBA begins clinical trials of its coronavirus vaccine, press service says". Russian News Agency. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  440. ^ "The Objectives of This Study Are Study the Immunogenicity, Safety and Tolerability of the Coronavirus Vaccine in Healthy Adult Volunteer Aged 18 to 60 Years". ClinicalTrials.gov. 14 December 2021. NCT05156723. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  441. ^ "Phase I clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary immunogenicity of the new coronavirus mRNA vaccine (LVRNA009) in Chinese people aged 18 years and over". chictr.org.cn. 31 July 2021. ChiCTR2100049349. Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  442. ^ "A Trial Evaluating the Safety and Immunogenicity of 3 COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 RNA Vaccines in Healthy Adults". clinicaltrials.gov. 8 September 2021. NCT05037097. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  443. ^ "Clinical Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Viral Vector AAV5 (Adeno-Associated Virus Type 5 )-RBD (Receptor Binding Domain)-S Vaccine for the Prevention of Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) (COVER)". clinicaltrials.gov. 8 September 2021. NCT05037188. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  444. ^ "A study of the safety of EDV nanocells packaged with spike-protein plasmid and glycolipid as a COVID-19 vaccine in healthy volunteers". 27 August 2021. ACTRN12621001159842. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  445. ^ "COVIDITY". Scancell. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  446. ^ "A First Time in Human Phase 1 Open-Label Study of the COVIDITY Vaccine Administered by Needle-free Injection". clinicaltrials.gov. 17 September 2021. NCT05047445. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  447. ^ "Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of SII Vaccine Constructs Based on the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Variant in Adults". clinicaltrials.gov. 1 September 2021. NCT05029856. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  448. ^ Chan-hyuk, Kim (1 September 2021). "Eyegene wins approval for trial of mRNA Covid-19 vaccine". Korea Biomedical Review. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  449. ^ "아이진, 부작용 줄인 코로나 mRNA 백신 개발한다". 한국경제TV. 23 September 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  450. ^ "Study to Assess the Safety, Tolerability and Explore the Immunogenicity of EG-COVID in Healthy Adult Volunteers". clinicaltrials.gov. 12 January 2022. NCT05188469. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  451. ^ "To Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of a PIKA-Adjuvanted Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) Protein Subunit Vaccine in Healthy Individuals". anzctr.org.au. 15 July 2021. ACTRN12621001009808. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  452. ^ "Phase 1 Trial of ChAd68 and Ad5 Adenovirus COVID-19 Vaccines Delivered by Aerosol". clinicaltrials.gov. 26 October 2021. NCT05094609. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  453. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Safety & Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 DNA Vaccine Delivered Intramuscularly Followed by Electroporation for COVID-19". clinicaltrials.gov. 1 November 2021. NCT05102643. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  454. ^ Jaffe-Hoffman, Maayan (11 June 2021). "Israeli oral COVID-19 vaccine en route to clinical trials". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  455. ^ Jaffe-Hoffman, Maayan (22 July 2021). "Israel to become first in world to test Oravax oral COVID-19 vaccine". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  456. ^ "Oramed Announces Oravax's Oral COVID-19 Vaccine Has Received South African Approval to Initiate Phase 1 Trial". Cision PR News Wire. 29 October 2021. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  457. ^ "inno.N, 코로나19 백신 후보물질 임상1상 신청". HK inno.N.
  458. ^ "Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (IN-B009) in Healthy Adults (COVID-19)". clinicaltrials.gov. 9 November 2021. NCT05113849. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  459. ^ "Evaluation of Safety and Immunogenicity of a T-Cell Priming Peptide Vaccine Against Coronavirus (naNO-COVID)". clinicaltrials.gov. 9 November 2021. NCT05113862. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  460. ^ "Russian health ministry approves clinical trials of Betuvax-CoV-2 COVID-19 vaccine". Russian News Agency. 27 September 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  461. ^ "Private Russian company starts trials for new COVID-19 vaccine - TASS". Reuters. 15 October 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  462. ^ "Egypt announces clinical trials of its own COVID-19 vaccine". Associated Press News. 15 November 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  463. ^ "Evaluation of Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults Against Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19)". clinicaltrials.gov. 22 November 2021. NCT05128721. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  464. ^ "自己増殖型mRNAワクチンVLPCOV-01の第1相試験 並行群間、二重盲検、プラセボ対照ヒト初回投与試験(FIH試験)(COVID-19)" [Clinical research implementation plan / research outline disclosure system]. jrct.niph.go.jp. Japan Registry of Clinical Trials. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  465. ^ "Study of GRT-R910 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Boost Vaccine in Healthy Volunteers". clinicaltrials.gov. 8 December 2021. NCT05148962. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  466. ^ "Development of a COVID19 Oral Vaccine Consisting of Bacillus Subtilis Spores Expressing and Displaying the Receptor Binding Domain of Spike Protein of SARS-COV2". chictr.org.cn. 28 November 2021. ChiCTR2100053747. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  467. ^ "Phase-I Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of a Prophylactic pDNA Vaccine Candidate Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults". clinicaltrials.gov. 29 December 2021. NCT05171946. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  468. ^ "신형코로나비루스후보왁찐을 새로 개발". North's State Commission of Science and Technology. Archived from the original on 4 May 2021.
  469. ^ "Dự kiến cuối quý 3-2021, Việt Nam sẽ có vaccine phòng Covid-19 đầu tiên". Nhân Dân. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  470. ^ "INOVIO's Pan-COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate (INO-4802) Induces Broad Immunity Against Major Viral Variants in Preclinical Studies". Inovio Pharmaceutical. 12 May 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  471. ^ "Bangavax Vaccine: Permission sought for clinical trial". The Daily Star. 18 January 2021.
  472. ^ "Bangladesh joins global COVID-19 vaccine race with Bongavax set for clinical trial". Arab News. 8 January 2021.
  473. ^ "Bangavax first buzzed with hope, then fizzled". bdnews24. 6 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  474. ^ "The vaccine is expected to provide long-lasting protection with a single dose administration with an anticipated safety profile similar to other licensed vaccines for active immunization" (PDF). Indian Immunologicals. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  475. ^ Medeiros, Danielle (31 December 2020). "EpiVax and EpiVax Therapeutics Advance COVID-19 Vaccine Program, EPV-CoV-19". EpiVax.
  476. ^ "Intravacc announces positive pre-clinical data for its SARS-CoV-2 nose spray vaccine". Intravacc. 7 April 2021. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
  477. ^ "Second-Generation COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate, CV2CoV, Demonstrates High Immunogenicity Against Virus Variants in Preclinical Study". CureVac. 13 May 2021.
  478. ^ "Sorrento and Dyadic Announce Binding Term Sheet to License Dyadic's Lead COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate "DYAI-100" and C1 Technology for Protein-Based Coronavirus Vaccines and Therapeutics". Sorrento Therapeutics. 11 August 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  479. ^ "Sorrento Announces Its Lead Protein-Based COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate – DYAI-100 – Elicits Strong Neutralizing Immune Responses in Vaccinated Animals Against SARS-CoV-2 and Multiple Major Variants of Concern". Sorrento Therapeutics. 19 August 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  480. ^ "Malaysian mRNA vaccine against Covid-19 under development, says Adham". The Edge. 21 June 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  481. ^ "COVID-19". CureVac. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  482. ^ "A Study to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine CVnCoV in Adults for COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 3 December 2020. NCT04652102. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  483. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Vaccine CVnCoV in Healthy Adults in Germany for COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 December 2020. NCT04674189. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  484. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine CVnCoV in Elderly Adults Compared to Younger Adults for COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 9 April 2021. NCT04838847. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  485. ^ "A Study to Evaluate Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine CVnCoV in Adults With Co-morbidities for COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 April 2021. NCT04860258. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  486. ^ "COVID-19: A Trial Studying the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine CVnCoV to Learn About the Immune Response, the Safety, and the Degree of Typical Vaccination Reactions When CVnCoV is Given at the Same Time as a Flu Vaccine Compared to When the Vaccines Are Separately Given in Adults 60 Years of Age and Older (CV-NCOV-011)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 19 April 2021. NCT04848467. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  487. ^ "COVID-19: A Phase 2b/3, Randomized, Observer-Blinded, Placebo Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Investigational SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccine CVnCoV in Adults 18 Years of Age and Older". EU Clinical Trials Register. 19 November 2020. 2020-003998-22. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  488. ^ "A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Vaccine CVnCoV in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 26 June 2020. NCT04449276. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  489. ^ "A Dose-Confirmation Study to Evaluate the Safety, Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of Vaccine CVnCoV in Healthy Adults for COVID-19". ClinicalTrials.gov. 17 August 2020. NCT04515147. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  490. ^ "EMA starts rolling review of CureVac's COVID-19 vaccine (CVnCoV)". European Medicines Agency (EMA) (Press release). 1 December 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  491. ^ "CureVac seeks Covid-19 shot approval in Switzerland". Swissinfo. 20 April 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  492. ^ "CORVax12: SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) Protein Plasmid DNA Vaccine Trial for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) (CORVax12)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 13 November 2020. NCT04627675. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  493. ^ "Sanofi and Translate Bio initiate Phase 1/2 clinical trial of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine candidate" (Press release). Sanofi. 12 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  494. ^ "Study of mRNA Vaccine Formulation Against COVID-19 in Healthy Adults 18 Years of Age and Older (VAW00001)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 15 March 2021. NCT04798027. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  495. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity of AdCOVID in Healthy Adults (COVID-19 Vaccine Study)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 22 December 2020. NCT04679909. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  496. ^ "Altimmune Announces Update On AdCOVID Phase 1 Clinical Trial". Altimmune. 29 June 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  497. ^ Ward D, McCormack S (22 May 2020). "Clinical trial to assess the safety of a coronavirus vaccine in healthy men and women". ISRCTN. doi:10.1186/ISRCTN17072692. ISRCTN17072692.
  498. ^ "Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of the COVID-19 Vaccine (COVID-19-101)". ClinicalTrials.gov. 4 August 2020. NCT04497298. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  499. ^ "A Study on the Safety, Tolerability and Immune Response of SARS-CoV-2 Sclamp (COVID-19) Vaccine in Healthy Adults". ClinicalTrials.gov. 3 August 2020. NCT04495933. Archived from the original on 11 October 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2020.
  500. ^ "UQ-CSL V451 Vaccine". precisionvaccinations.com. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  501. ^ "Dose Ranging Trial to Assess Safety and Immunogenicity of V590 (COVID-19 Vaccine) in Healthy Adults (V590-001)". 30 September 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  502. ^ "A Study to Assess Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of V591 (COVID-19 Vaccine) in Healthy Participants (V591-001)". 4 August 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  503. ^ "Participant Enrollment Begins for Phase I Trial of IAVI-Merck COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate". IAVI. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  504. ^ "V591 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine". www.precisionvaccinations.com. Retrieved 14 March 2021.
  505. ^ "Merck Discontinues Development of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Vaccine Candidates; Continues Development of Two Investigational Therapeutic Candidates". Merck (Press release). 25 January 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  506. ^ "Joint CDC and FDA Statement on Vaccine Boosters". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 8 July 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  507. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Authorizes Additional Vaccine Dose for Certain Immunocompromised Individuals". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 12 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  508. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccines for Moderately to Severely Immunocompromised People". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 13 August 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  509. ^ "FDA Authorizes Booster Dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for Certain Populations". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 22 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  510. ^ "Advisory committee recommends many be offered Covid vaccine boosters". Stat News. 23 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  511. ^ "C.D.C. Chief C.D.C. Chief Overrules Agency Panel and Endorses Pfizer Boosters for Frontline Workers". The New York Times. 24 September 2021. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  512. ^ a b "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Takes Additional Actions on the Use of a Booster Dose for COVID-19 Vaccines". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 21 October 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  513. ^ a b "CDC Expands Eligibility for COVID-19 Booster Shots". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 21 October 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  514. ^ "WHO Technical Consultation: Heterologous Prime-Boost Immunization in Ebola vaccine development and testing, licensure and use; 21 November 2014" (PDF). World Health Organization (WHO). Geneva. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  515. ^ Lu S (June 2009). "Heterologous prime-boost vaccination". Current Opinion in Immunology. 21 (3): 346–351. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2009.05.016. PMC 3743086. PMID 19500964.
  516. ^ Ledford H (February 2021). "Could mixing COVID vaccines boost immune response?". Nature. 590 (7846): 375–376. Bibcode:2021Natur.590..375L. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00315-5. PMID 33547431. S2CID 231946137.
  517. ^ "Angela Merkel receives Moderna dose after first AstraZeneca shot". Al Jazeera. 22 June 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  518. ^ "Getting One Vaccine Is Good. How About Mix-and-Match?". The New York Times. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  519. ^ "About". Com-COV. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  520. ^ a b Stuart, Arabella; Shaw, Robert; Walker, Laura (August 2021). "Comparing coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine schedule combinations". ISRCTN Registry. doi:10.1186/ISRCTN69254139. S2CID 242713503. ISRCTN69254139.
  521. ^ "Safety and Immunogenicity Report from the Com-COV Study – a Single-Blind Randomised Non-Inferiority Trial Comparing Heterologous And Homologous Prime-Boost Schedules with An Adenoviral Vectored and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine". June 2021. SSRN 3874014.
  522. ^ a b Vichos, Iason; Snape, Matthew (12 March 2021). "Comparing COVID-19 vaccine schedule combinations – stage 2". ISRCTN Registry. doi:10.1186/ISRCTN27841311. S2CID 243068742. ISRCTN27841311. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  523. ^ Faust S (June 2021). "Evaluating COVID-19 Vaccination Boosters". ISRCTN Registry. doi:10.1186/ISRCTN73765130. S2CID 240704676. ISRCTN73765130. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  524. ^ Interim recommendations for heterologous COVID-19 vaccine schedules (Guidance). World Health Organization (WHO). 16 December 2021. WHO/2019-nCoV/vaccines/SAGE_recommendation/heterologous_schedules/2021.1. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  525. ^ "Combination of the first component of Sputnik V vaccine (Sputnik Light vaccine) with vaccines by AstraZeneca, Sinopharm and Moderna demonstrates high safety profile during the study in Argentina's Buenos-Aires province" (Press release). Moscow: Russian Direct Investment Fund. 4 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.