COVID-19 vaccination in South Africa

COVID-19 vaccination in South Africa
Covid-19 vaccination in South Africa (Total Dose).svg
Total doses administered as of 20 July 2021
Native name Sisonke Protocol (Phase III J&J)
Date17 February 2021 - present
Time(SAST (GMT +2))
Venue3,338 vaccination clinics[1][2]
LocationSouth Africa
CauseCOVID-19 pandemic
BudgetR10 billion (Distribution 2021)
R2.2 billion (Q1 2021 purchasing vaccines)
R1.25 billion (Q2 2021 purchasing vaccines)
TBA (Q3 2021 purchasing vaccines)
USD $1,000,000,000[3][4][5]
Organised byDepartment of Health (South Africa) & Government of South Africa
Participants21,305,519 total doses administered

7,720,551 total doses administered of Janssen
23,718,577 total doses administered of Pfizer–BioNTech

(28 February 2022)
Outcome
  • 46% of the South African adult population with at least 1 dose
    46%
WebsiteVaccine Enrollment Platform

COVID-19 vaccination in South Africa is an ongoing immunisation campaign against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in response to the ongoing pandemic in the country.

Fully vaccinated people as of 20 July 2021

On 17 February 2021, South Africa started its national vaccination program against COVID-19. The program will go through in phases, prioritizing healthcare and frontline workers and then those over the age of 60. According to health officials, South Africa has administered 31,439,128 vaccine doses across the country as of 28 February 2022.[6][7] South Africa has accepted delivery of 3 different vaccines, Janssen (Johnson & Johnson), Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca, administering both Janssen and Pfizer-BioNTech, with the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine suspended, after a small study cast doubt on its effectiveness against the Beta variant.[8]

Background

Rollout strategy

National Vaccine Rollout Strategy
PhasePriority groupStart datePeople
eligible[9]
ProgressPeople Vaccinated
(2021-12-22)[10]
Phase 1
1aFront-line and health care workers (Sisonke Protocol)[11][12]17 Feb 2021[13]499254Complete499254
1bRemaining health care workers[14]17 May 2021700000In progress[a][15]320066
Phase 2
Age Based Prioritisation
2aiPeople over 60[14]17 May 20215000000In progress3 627 640
2aiiPeople 50-59[16]5 July 20214800000In progress2964409
2aiiPeople 35-49[17]15 July 202111000000In progress5731938
Employment Based Prioritisation[18]
2biTeachers and support staff[19]23 June 2021582000CompleteTBA
2biiPolice Force, SANDF, inmates & prison staff[20]5 July 2021800000CompleteTBA
2biiiFrontline social workers[21]19 July 2021240000CompleteTBA
2bivMedia workers and journalists[22]30 July 2021TBACompleteTBA
Phase 3
3People 18-34[23]20 Aug 202117900000In progress5399029
Phase 4
4aKids and teenagers 12-17 1st Dose[24]20 Oct 20216 500 000In progress846724
4bBoosters for Sisonke Trial participants [25]10 Nov 2021[26]499254Complete231 646
4cAdditional doses for immunocompromised over 18[27]1 Dec 2021TBAIn progress8 918
Phase 5
5aKids and teenagers 12-17 2nd Dose[28]9 Dec 2021846 724In progress26 846
5bUndocumented Migrants[29]TBATBANot startedN/A
5cBooster doses for those over 18[30]TBATBANot startedTBA

Registration

As of 20 October 2021, registration for the COVID-19 vaccine has been opened to people aged 12 and older.[23] There are currently 5 ways to register for the vaccine, including online on the EVDS platform. All services are zero rated, meaning airtime, data or money are not required to use the service.[31][32]

Vaccines on order

South Africa has ordered 60 million doses of vaccines, received 52.6 million doses in donations and expects a total of 9 million doses from Covax, with 320 million doses of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) and Pfizer–BioNTech vaccines to be manufactured locally for international and local distribution.[33][34] South Africa has accepted delivery of 11,059,420 doses of vaccines, with 1.5 million doses cleared after local manufacturing.

Vaccine nameApproval progressQuantityDoses arrivedAccepted deliverySection 21 (EUA)Began administeringFull Approval
Oxford–AstraZenecaEUA Suspended1.5 Million1,000,000Green check.svg 1 February 2021Dark Red x.svg SuspendedDark Red x.svg SuspendedN/A
JanssenRegistered[35]30 Million6,401,600Green check.svg 16 February 2021Green check.svg 1 April 2021 (full authorization)Green check.svg 18 Feb 2021 (Phase III)Pending
Pfizer–BioNTechRegistered[35]30 Million[36]11,274,120Green check.svg 3 May 2021Green check.svg 16 March 2021Green check.svg 17 May 2021Pending
CoronaVacEUA ApprovedTBA[37]0Dark Red x.svg Not yetGreen check.svg 3 July 2021Dark Red x.svg Not yetN/A
COVAX
Pfizer–BioNTechRegistered1.4 Million1,400,000Green check.svg 27 June 2021Green check.svg 16 March 2021Green check.svg 17 May 2021Pending
Other (TBA)EUA pending7.6 Million0Dark Red x.svg Not yetDark Red x.svg Not yetDark Red x.svg Not yetN/A
Donations
United States of America
Pfizer–BioNTechRegistered7.86 Million7.86 MillionTBATBATBAPending
Local Manufacturing
JanssenRegistered220 Million32 MillionGreen check.svg 16 February 2021Green check.svg 1 April 2021 (full authorization)Green check.svg 18 Feb 2021 (Phase III)Pending
Pfizer–BioNTechRegistered100 Million0TBA (mid 2022)TBATBAPending

Vaccine Consignments

Johnson & Johnson consignment (Phase III/Sisonke Protocol)

Consignment 1
180000 doses17 February 2021Fully used
Consignment 2
280000 doses27 February 2021Fully used
Consignment 3
3a86000 doses7 March 2021Fully used
3b40000 doses13 March 2021Fully used
3c66000 doses20 March 2021Fully used
Consignment 4
4200000 doses11 April 2021Used, remainder doses allocated for further studies

Johnson & Johnson Consignment (Section 21/EUA Approval)

Consignment 1 (manufactured locally)
11099200 dosesAprilManufactured (destroyed due to contamination)
2900000 dosesMayManufactured (destroyed due to contamination)
−199920013 JuneStock will not be used due to ingredients being contaminated[38]
Emergency Consignment (make up for contaminated doses)[39]
1300000 doses18 June[40]Fully used
21253600 doses24 JuneFully used[41][42]
Consignment 2[43]
11 454 400 doses26 JulyIn Use [44][45][46][47]
2619 200 doses9 AugIn Use[48][49]
31 413 600 doses6 SeptDelivered [50]
41 360 800 doses13 SeptDelivered [50]
5TBASept 2021TBA[51]
Consignment 3
119100000 dosesQ4 2021[52]TBA

Oxford-AstraZeneca Consignment

Consignment 1[53]
1a1000000 doses1 February 2021Received
1b500000 doses14 February 2021Canceled and refunded
1c−1000000 doses20 February 20211,000,000 doses sold to AU members

Pfizer-BioNTech Consignment

Consignment 1
1325260 doses3 May 2021Fully used
2325260 doses10 May 2021Fully used
3325260 doses16 May 2021Fully used
4325260 doses24 May 2021Fully used
Consignment 2
1636480 doses31 May 2021Fully used
2636480 doses7 June 2021Fully used
3636480 doses14 June 2021Fully used
4636480 doses21 June 2021Fully used
5636480 doses28 June 2021Fully used
Consignment 3[52][54][16][41][55][56]
1190 710 doses7 July 2021Fully used
2288 990 doses12 July 2021Fully used
3673 920 doses19 July 2021Fully used
4968 760 doses26 July 2021Fully used
Consignment 4[57][58][47][59][43][51]
11 556 100 doses2 Aug 2021Fully used
21 556 100 doses9 Aug 2021Fully used
31 556 100 doses16 Aug 2021In use
41 556 100 doses23 Aug 2021In use
51 556 100 doses30 Aug 2021Delivered
61 556 100 doses6 Sept 2021Delivered
4 063 400 dosesTBA Sept 2021TBA
Consignment 5[52][58]
8997300 dosesQ4 2021TBA

CoronaVac Consignment

Not yet ordered. Waiting for evidence of efficacy against Delta variant and for those with HIV[60][61][56][37]

Donations

United States Consignment 1 (Pfizer)[62][63][64][47][43]
12815020 doses31 July 2021In use
22845440 doses2 Aug 2021Delivered
United States Consignment 2 (Pfizer) [65][66]
12 200 000 doses28 Aug 2021Delivered

COVAX

The US delivers Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines to South Africa as part of the COVAX initiative in 2021

South Africa has so far paid R283 million ($20 million) to the organization in December 2020. COVAX has delivered 1.4 million doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine to the country on 28 June 2021.[67][68]

Covax Consignment

Consignment 1 (Pfizer)
11392300 doses27 June 2021Fully used[41]
Consignment 2 (Pfizer)
11 181 706 dosesQ3 2021TBA[58]

History

Timeline

February 2021

On 1 February 2021, 1 million doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine at O. R. Tambo International Airport sent by the Serum Institute of India.[69][70][71]

On 7 February 2021, it was announced that the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine did not work well in protecting clinical trial participants from mild or moderate illness caused by the 501.V2 variant. The vaccination program was announced to be put on a hold.[72][73][74]

On 16 February 2021, South Africa received its first consignment of 80,000 doses of the Janssen vaccine and approved the vaccine for Phase III use under Sisonke Protocol for all health workers[75]

On 17 February 2021, the national COVID vaccination program was officially rolled out, beginning at Khayelitsha District Hospital in the Western Cape Province where healthcare workers, the President Cyril Ramaphosa and Minister of Health Zweli Mkhize were given shots of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.[76][77][11]

On 27 February 2021, South Africa had received its second consignment of 80,000 doses of the Janssen vaccine.[78][79]

March 2021

On 5 March 2021, the number of doses administered surpassed 100,000.[80]

On 13 March 2021, South Africa received Part 1 of its third consignment of 40,000 Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.[81][82]

On 17 March 2021, South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) approved the Pfizer–BioNTech coronavirus vaccine for use.[83][84][85][86]

On 18 March 2021, South Africa received Part 2 of its third consignment of 66,000 Janssen vaccine.[87][88]

On 19 March 2021, ImmunityBio announced that they will be conducting Phase 1 vaccine trials with their hAd5 vaccine in the United States and South Africa.[89][90]

On 21 March 2021, South Africa sold and began transporting its 1 million doses of Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine to other African Union Members. Concerns over the rollout of the vaccine in African countries have been raised, as the 501Y.V2 variant speeds through African countries, with South Africa suspending the vaccine after a trial cast doubt on its effectiveness against the beta variant.[91][92][93][94][53]

On 29 March 2020, the manufacturing of 220 million doses of the Janssen vaccine was approved to begin at the Aspen Pharmacare manufacturing facility in Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape.[95][96]

April 2021

On 1 April 2021, the Janssen vaccine received Section 21 Approval (EUA), allowing for use outside of the current Phase III Trial (Sisonke Protocol).[97][98][99]

On 6 April 2021, the government officially signed a deal with Pfizer for 20 million vaccines expected to begin arriving by the end of April.[100][101]

On 13 April 2021, Minister of Health Zweli Mkhize announced the suspension of Janssen COVID-19 vaccine use following health concerns raised by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[102][103][104]

On 16 April 2021, The EVDS platform opened for Phase 2, allowing essential workers and the elderly to register.[105][106][107]

On 17 April 2021, the government announced that the first batch of 325,260 Doses of Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine would arrive on 3 May 2021. From there the same amount of doses are expected to arrive weekly, until 31 May 2021, where the number of daily doses delivered will increase to 636,480 weekly.[8]

On 23 April 2021, 500,000 Doses of the Janssen vaccine were delivered under the early access program (Sisonke Programme), with a further 1,000,000 million doses to arrive in April.[102][108]

On 24 April 2021, Aspen Pharmacare announced that 1.1 million doses of the Janssen vaccine were due for release and to be used by South Africa.[109]

On 26 April 2021, the government announced that the use of the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine would resume on Wednesday, 28 April 2021 with vaccination sites expanded to 95 sites countrywide.[108]

On 28 April 2021, the Janssen vaccines suspension was lifted, and given the full approval for use by SAPRAH.[110][111][112]

May 2021

On 2 May 2021, the government announced that the first 1.1 million doses of the Janssen vaccine would receive an extended safety assessment, in line with international regulators, and stock would be released in mid May.[113]

On 3 May 2021, the first batch of 325,260 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport via Lufthansa and Astral Aviation. The vaccines were then sent to the National Control Laboratory for quality assurance.[114][115][116][117] The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is set to be rolled out to South Africans from 17 May 2021.[118][119]

On 9 May 2021, the second batch batch of 325,260 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport via Lufthansa and Astral Aviation.[120]

On 10 May 2021, the last week of the Sisonke Protocol (Phase 3b) began. The trial was expanded to non patient facing health care workers, including administrative and supportive staff due to sufficient capacity and doses.[121]

On 15 May 2021, the Sisonke Protocol ended with a total of 478 733 doses given to health care workers. The remaining doses were allocated to the Medical research Council to conduct further studies of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine on certain population groups.[120]

On 16 May 2021, the third batch of 325,260 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport via Lufthansa and Astral Aviation.[120]

On 17 May 2021, Phase 2 of the vaccination program began and started with vaccinating old age homes with the 2-dose Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine. Phase 2 ran alongside phase 1B to vaccinate the remaining 500 000 health care workers.[122]

On 24 May 2021, the fourth and final batch of 325,260 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport via Lufthansa and Astral Aviation.[120] Following this, next week doses delivered will increase to 636,480 Doses weekly.[123]

On 31 May 2021, the first batch of 636,480 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport via Lufthansa and Astral Aviation. This delivery is the first batch of consignment 2 with an incremental increase of 311,220 Doses Weekly.[124]

On 31 May 2021, the total number of vaccine doses administered surpassed 1 million.[125]

June 2021

On 7 June 2021, the second batch of 636,480 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[126]

On 11 June 2021, the Department of Health and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a statement on the Janssen vaccine, produced at the Emergent BioSolutions Plant in Baltimore, USA.[127] This resulted in the vaccines also produced at the Port Elizabeth plant need further assessment by SAHPRA and the FDA.[128][129] To get the South African program back on the roll, 300 000 doses are cleared to be shipped to South Africa as a matter of extreme urgency.[130][131]

On 14 June 2021, the third batch of 636,480 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[132]

On 18 June 2021, 300,000 doses of the Janssen vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport. This is the first batch of the Emergency consignment due to contamination of locally manufactured doses. These doses are expected to be used mainly by teachers and the SANDF and SAPS.[40][133]

On 18 June 2021, the total number of vaccine doses administered surpassed 2 million.[134]

On 21 June 2021, the fourth batch of 636,480 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[135][136]

On 25 June 2021, the second batch of 1,200,000 Doses of the Janssen vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[135][136][137]

On 28 June 2021, the fifth batch of 636,480 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[138][139]

By the end of the month, 2.7 million vaccine doses had been administered. 2% of the target population had been fully vaccinated by the end of June.

July 2021

On 3 July 2021, SAHPRA approved China's Sinovac CoronaVac Vaccine for local use via emergency use authorisation on the condition that Sinovac provides further information on risk and efficacy.[140][141][142][143]

On 5 July 2021, the Department of Health announced that the government would now reimburse private sites for the vaccinations of all uninsured people. Allowing any person qualified for a vaccine to be allocated to the most appropriate site, regardless if it is private or public. The rollout for the Police Force, South Africa National Defense Force, Inmates and Prison Staff commenced.[144]

On 7 July 2021, the 190,710 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[145]

During the 2021 South African unrest, the vaccine rollout encountered a slowdown as businesses and vaccine sites were shut down due to protests and looting in Gauteng and Kwazulu-Natal.[146][147][148]

On 12 July 2021, 288,990 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[60][58][57]

On 14 July 2021, the rollout for educators officially ended with more than 500 000 people being vaccinated. However, any educators who could not make it to a vaccination site during the official program still qualify to be vaccinated.[149]

On 15 July 2021, the rollout for Correctional Services officials began.[20]

On 19 July 2021, the rollout for 240 000 social development staff began. This program includes early childhood development (ECD) workforce, social service professionals, community development practitioners and frontline Department of Social Development staff.[21]

On 19 July 2021, 973,920 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[62]

On 20 July 2021, the rollout for inmates at 90 correctional centres began.[20]

On 21 July 2021, Pfizer and BioNTech signed a letter of intent with Cape Town based Biovac, committing to allow Biovac to 'fill and finish' 100 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for use in the African Union. The first doses completed by Biovac will only be released in 2022.[150][151][152]

On 24 July 2021, the Janssen vaccine got incorporated into the general vaccine rollout, no longer only for essential worker programs, due to the close expiry date for the emergency consignment doses and confirmation that additional doses would soon arrive.[153]

On 25 July 2021, President Ramaphosa announced the start date of vaccinations for all people over 18 and announced that within the next 2 to 3 months an additional 31 million doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine and the Janssen vaccine will arrive.[154]

On 26 July 2021, 968,760 Doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport.[58][61]

On 31 July 2021, 2,830,000 doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine donated by the USA arrived at O.R Tambo International Airport. 7.6 million vaccine doses had been administered by the end of July, while 12% of the target population had been fully vaccinated.

August 2021

On 13 August 2021, the Department of Health announced that although vaccine supply had stabilised, demand for vaccinations was low. They specifically pointed out a lack of sustained interest from the 35-50 age group and men across the country in general. They further adjusted their goal to have 28 million people vaccinated by the end of December by administering approximately 35 million doses.[155][156]

On 18 August 2021, Cabinet approved the early start of vaccinations for all over 18, to increase demand. The start date was moved from 1 September to 20 August[23][154]

On 20 August 2021, the rollout began for all documented persons over 18, with 560 000 registrations in the 18-34 group on the first day.[157]

On 27 August 2021, the Department of Health announced that the US would donate another 2.2 Million doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine. They further stated that low weekend vaccinations were due to lack of health care workers able to work weekends with the hope that as the 3rd wave ends more workers would become available.They also said that they were in the process of procuring AstraZeneca vaccine due to data that it is efficacious against the Delta variant but were unable to find a supplier with stock. They expected stock to become available in September/October. They reiterated that they had not yet ordered CoronaVac as they were still waiting for further clinical data.[65][158][159][160][161][162][163]

On 30 August 2021, the Department of Health released an updated circular recommending all pregnant and lactating women get vaccinated with either of the available vaccines.[164]

By the end of the month, 11.1 million vaccine doses had been administered. 19% of the target population had been fully vaccinated by the end of the month.

September 2021

On 3 September 2021, the health minister stated vaccinations would only open to those under 18 once 70% of the over 18 population was vaccinated. The country had the capacity to vaccinate between 300 000 and 400 000 people a day. The Government was not yet mandating vaccinations but would rather try incentivise through entrance to entertainment, cultural and sporting events.[165][166][167][168]

On 10 September 2021, the health minister announced plans for issuing digital vaccine certificates, which would be printable and would be issued to all people with vaccination data already on the EVDS platform. These certificates would be in line with WHO guidelines to prevent fraud.[169][170][171][172]

On 11 September 2021, SAHPRA announced that the EUA for the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine was extended to include all people 12 and older, creating opportunity for teenagers and children to be included in the vaccination rollout in the future.[173][174]

On 15 September 2021, a circular was released to prioritise the Janssen vaccine stock for rural areas, pop up and mobile sites only until the supply stabilises.[175]

On 17 September 2021, the health minister stated that they were currently focussing on vaccinating people 50 years and older but would review the decision to open to under 18s at the end of October.[176] The Draft implementation of the digital vaccine certificates would be submitted to the national coronavirus command council in 2 weeks and would be rolled out once approved. The certificates would not be used for access to essential services but would give vaccinated people access to more activities. The government would not implement vaccine mandates in the public sector but would not interfere with mandates in the private sector and at higher education institutions as long as the mandates are implemented legally.[177][178][179][180][181]

On 29 September 2021, the health department confirmed that the vaccine certificate would be made available on 5 October. It would be downloadable from a website and could be printed. It would have a QR code to scan to verify authenticity and would link to the person's ID number.[182][183][184][185][186]

On 30 September 2021, President Ramaphosa stated that 60% of people over 60 and 50% of those between 50 and 59 had received at least one vaccine dose. He further restated the goal of vaccinating 70% of adults by the year end in hope to save up to 20 000 lives.[187]

By the end of the month, 17.8 million vaccine doses had been administered. 38% of the target population had been fully vaccinated by the end of the month.

October 2021

On 5 October 2021, the vaccine certificate system went online in a testing phase with the full release planned for Friday.[188][189][190][191]

On 6 October 2021, the health department confirmed that expiry dates were present on the vaccine certificates due to plans to update the system to increase security and comply with future international standards. There were plans to release a second version at the end of October and a third at the end of November [192][193][194]

On 8 October 2021, the vaccine certificates officially launched. However, verifying the authenticity of the certificate by scanning the QR code would only be implemented at the end of October. The certificate could be used for international travel, with the UK already confirming they would accept it from 11 October. The health department confirmed that an announcement about vaccinating people between 12 and 18 would be made before the end of October.[195][196][197][198][199]

On 15 October 2021, the health department confirmed that vaccinations would open to people 12 to 17 on Wednesday 20 October. They could receive 1 Pfizer dose at any vaccination site and would not require parents' consent. They would not currently get a second dose due to concerns of myocarditis in teenage boys. The Ministerial Adversary Committee also recommended a 2nd Jansen shot for all Sisonke trial participants, pending SAHPRA approval. Doses for this program would be donated by Johnson & Johnson. The health department also confirmed that pilot programs were in place to vaccinate undocumented people at specific vaccination sites and would be slowly expanded.[200][201][202][203][204][205]

On 18 October 2021, SAHPRA announced that they would not be authorising the Sputnik V vaccine for emergency use due to concerns about the use of Ad5-vectored vaccines in a population at high risk of HIV infections and the fact that the vaccine had not received Emergency Use Listing by the WHO. The rolling review would, however, remain open for further data to be submitted.[206]

On 19 October 2021, vaccinations opened to people 12 to 17 with 39 109 registrations (0.6% of the age group) on the first day.[207]

By the end of the month, 22.4 million vaccine doses had been administered. 51% of the target population had been fully vaccinated by the end of the month.

November 2021

On 27 November 2021, a circular was released recommending additional doses to all over 18 with any of the listed immunocompromised conditions or undergoing immunosuppressive treatments. It was recommenced to get an additional dose of the same vaccine 28 days after their last one. Patients would be required to full out a form to prove their condition and then record of the additional vaccine would be reflected on the EVDs. This program would commence on 1 December.[27]

By the end of the month, 25.3 million vaccine doses had been administered. 60% of the target population had been fully vaccinated by the end of the month.

December 2021

On 8 December 2021, SAHPRA approved a 3rd dose of the Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine for all those over 18, 6 months after the 2nd dose, and an additional dose for those immunocompromised, 12 and older, to be administered 28 days after the 2nd dose.[30]

On 9 December 2021, a circular was released stating that people between 12 and 17 were now allowed to get a second dose of the Comirnaty COVID-19 vaccine at the regular dosing intervals of 42 days after the 1st dose.[28]

On 23 December 2021, SAHPRA approved a second dose of the Jansen vaccine for 2 months after the first dose and also approved a heterologous booster dose where a Jansen vaccine is given 6 months after the second Comirnaty dose.[208][209]

28 million vaccine doses had been administered by the end of the month. 66% of the target population had been fully vaccinated.

January 2022

On 25 January 2022, SAHPRA registered the Comirnaty COVID-19[35]

On 31 January 2022, SAHPRA registered Sinopharm’s COVID19 vaccine under the name "COVID-19 vaccine MC Pharma" [210]

Almost 30 million vaccine doses had been administered by the end of the month. 71% of the target population had been fully vaccinated.

February 2022

On the 4th it was announced that South African scientists had replicated the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine.[211]

On the 21st, reductions were made to the minimum number of days allowed for extra doses or boosters.[212]

Vaccine Trials

On 17 March 2020, the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority announced that it would expedite review of treatments, vaccines and clinical trials. Currently a total of 6 vaccine candidates are under trial in South Africa.[213][214][215]

Vaccine Trials
VaccineType (technology)Phase IPhase IIPhase IIIStatus
JanssenViral vectorN/AGreen check.svg CompletedGreen check.svg CompletedApproved
Pfizer–BioNTechRNAN/AGreen check.svg CompletedGreen check.svg CompletedApproved
Oxford–AstraZenecaViral vectorGreen check.svg CompletedGreen check.svg CompletedN/ASuspended
NovavaxSubunitN/AGreen check.svg CompletedIn progressN/A
GRAd-COV2Viral vectorN/AGreen check.svg CompletedIn progressN/A
ImmunityBioViral vectorIn progressIn progressDark Red x.svg Not yetN/A

Janssen

Sisonke Logo

Both Phase II and Phase III trials of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine were conducted in South Africa beginning late February 2021 and April 2021.[216]

Phase II Trials, enrolled about 800 across Spain, United Kingdom and United States of America and proved to be 64% effective.[217][218]

Phase III Trials under Sisonke Protocol began early April enrolling 500,000 participants. This trial was completed successfully, it consisted of half a million of South Africa's health workers and Phase I of the vaccine rollout.[219][220][216]

In January, Johnson & Johnson, which held trials for its Janssen vaccine in South Africa, reported the level of protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 infection was 72% in the United States, but 57% in South Africa.[221]

Pfizer–BioNTech

Both Phase II and Phase III trials of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine were conducted in South Africa beginning late May 2020. Pfizers vaccine appeared to be 100% effective at preventing cases of the South African variant, B.1.351.[222][223][224]

On 17 February 2021, Pfizer announced neutralization activity was reduced by two thirds for the 501.V2 variant, while stating no claims about the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing illness for this variant could yet be made.[225][226][227]

Oxford–AstraZeneca

Both Phase I and Phase II of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were conducted in South Africa.[216]Phase 1 and Phase 2 trials began mid June 2020 consisting of about 2,130 participants.[228] The trial revealed that the vaccine does not have at least 60% efficacy against mild-moderate COVID-19 due to the B.1.351 (501Y.V2) variant. This resulted in the vaccine being suspended and the 1 million doses derived being sold to other Members of the African Union.[229][230][231]

On 6 February 2021, The Financial Times reported that provisional trial data from a study undertaken by South Africa's University of the Witwatersrand in conjunction with Oxford University demonstrated reduced efficacy of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine against the 501.V2 variant. The study found that in a sample size of 2,000 the AZD1222 vaccine afforded only "minimal protection" in all but the most severe cases of COVID-19.[94]

On 7 February 2021, the Minister for Health for South Africa suspended the planned deployment of around 1 million doses of the vaccine whilst they examined the data and awaited advice on how to proceed.[232] Ultimately, around March 2021, the roll-out of Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine in South Africa was cancelled, and the short-dated stock offered to other African countries.

Novavax

A Phase II Trial of the Novavax vaccine of 4,400 people was conducted from August 2020 to November 2021 in South Africa, that showed that the vaccine was 51% effective, compared to 89% in the US[219][220][216]

The vaccine had an efficacy of 51% against infections caused by the South African variant among people who were HIV negative. The vaccine was only 43% effective in the group that included people who were HIV positive.[233]

GRAd-COV2

Phase II and Phase III trials of GRAd-COV2 are being conducted in South Africa.[234][235]

ImmunityBio

The BioVac Institute, a state-backed South African vaccine company, has a contract with American based ImmunityBio Inc. to manufacture the ImmunityBio vaccine.[236][237][238]

ImmunityBio is currently conducting Phase I and Phase II trials. Trials began January 2021 consisting of about only 35 participants in Phase I.[239][216]

Vaccine Effectiveness

Janssen

In January, Johnson & Johnson, which held trials for its Janssen vaccine in South Africa, reported the level of protection against moderate to severe COVID-19 infection was 72% in the United States, but 57% in South Africa.[221]

After Phase III trials in South Africa completed, Johnson & Johnson received Section 21 approval from SAHPRA on 31 March 2021.

In a manufacturing deal, Johnson & Johnson began to manufacture 220 million vaccines at the Aspen Pharmacare manufacturing facility in Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape. They plan to distribute the vaccine to other African countries with 30 million to go to South Africa.[240][96][95]

Oxford–AstraZeneca

On 6 February 2021, The Financial Times reported that provisional trial data from a study undertaken by South Africa's University of the Witwatersrand in conjunction with Oxford University demonstrated reduced efficacy of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine against the 501.V2 variant. The study found that in a sample size of 2,000 the AZD1222 vaccine afforded only "minimal protection" in all but the most severe cases of COVID-19.[94]

On 7 February 2021, the government suspended the planned deployment of around 1 million doses of the vaccine whilst they examined the data and awaited advice on how to proceed.[232] The South African government subsequently cancelled the use of the vaccine, selling its supply to other African countries, and switched its vaccination program to use the Janssen COVID-19 vaccine.[241][242][243][b]

On 27 August 2021, the government announced that they were in the process of procuring the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine due to data showing good protection against the Delta variant but were only expecting stock to become available late September/early October.[159][160]

Sputnik V

The South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) has confirmed that it has received documentation for the vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Institute in Russia.[244]

The Sputnik V vaccine is one of three Covid vaccines worldwide with an efficacy higher than 90% in symptomatic cases. They are still in the process of testing its effectiveness against the 501Y.V2 variant of the virus.[245]

Pfizer–BioNTech

On 17 February 2021, Pfizer announced neutralization activity of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine was reduced by two thirds for the South African Beta variant, while stating no claims about the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing illness for this variant could yet be made.[246]

On 16 March 2021, The South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA) approved the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine for section 21 Emergency Use Authorisation.[86]

A trial ending in March 2021 of the Pfizer-BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine appeared to be highly effective at preventing cases of the Beta variant. The trial consisted of 800 people, with a total of 9 cases, all in the placebo group.[247][248]

(c) Arne Müseler / www.arne-mueseler.com, CC BY-SA 3.0 de
Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine

Moderna

In February, Moderna reported that the current Moderna vaccine produced only one-sixth of the antibodies in response to the South African variant compared with the original virus. They have launched a trial of a new vaccine to tackle the South African 501.V2 variant.[249]

Sinopharm BIBP

Other African countries have begun the roll out of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, including Morocco, Egypt, The Seychelles and Zimbabwe.[250] So far, it has proven resistant to the 501Y.V2 variant, as seen in Zimbabwe.[251]

CoronaVac

CoronaVac is yet to be approved for use by the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority (SAHPRA).[252]

On 3 July 2021, the vaccine was approved under section 21, EUA. Sinovac is currently in negotiation with South Africa to provide 5 million doses of the vaccine.[253][254]

Covaxin

Bharat Biotech, producers of Covaxin, have said that they can modify the vaccine against coronavirus South African variant within 15 days.[255]

CoviVac

The CoviVac vaccine vaccine Information has not been delivered to the South African government yet.[256]

EpiVacCorona

The EpiVacCorona vaccine Information has not been delivered to the South African government yet.[257]

Zifivax

The Zifivax vaccine Information is in the process of being delivered to the South African Government.

Novavax

A study on the Novavax vaccine showed 60% efficacy (for HIV-negative participants) in South Africa, compared to 90% efficacy in Britain.[258][259]

ImmunityBio

The Biovac Institute, a state-backed South African vaccine company, plans to use a deal it won to manufacture the ImmunityBio vaccine. The contract with American based ImmunityBio Inc is currently conducting phase 1 vaccine trials with their hAd5 vaccine in the United States and South Africa.[236]

ImmunityBio and Biovac plan to distribute the vaccines throughout South African and Africa.[237][238]

Vaccine Exports

South Africa is the first country in Africa to locally manufacture any covid vaccine.[44][45] The vaccines are to be reserved for purchased exclusively to Africa. South Africa is currently manufacturing 220 000 million doses of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine in Port Elizabeth.[260] Pfizer-BioNTech production is expected to begin in Cape Town end of 2021.[150][152] If the ImmunityBio vaccine makes it through the trials, manufacturing will commence locally.[237]

Export Consignments

Johnson & Johnson Export
CountryDosesDateReference
South Africa1.5 Million26 July 2021[46][44]
Europe32 MillionAugust 2021[261][262][263]
TBA17 MillionTBA (August–September)[145]
Pfizer-BioNTech Export
CountryDosesDateReference
TBA100 MillionTBA (2021)[264][152]

Timeline

On 11 July 2021, President Cyril Ramaphosa addressed the nation and announced that South Africa will be delivering 17 million doses of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine to members of the African Union over the next 3 months.[145]

On 26 July 2021, the first batch of 1.5 million doses of the Janssen vaccine were cleared for release at Aspens Facility in Port Elizabeth.[261][45] The vaccines were transported from Port Elizabeth Airport to O. R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg via Star Air Cargo at 21:39 (SAST).[262][260] The vaccines are then expected to be transported to a facility in Midrand for testing and distribution in the days to come.[44]

On 16 August 2021, the New York Times released a report stating that around 32 million vaccines finished at the Aspens Facility had been exported to countries in Europe. They further claimed that in the agreement to order doses, the South African Government had waived its right to ban exports and had paid more than the European commission per dose.[263][265]

On 17 August 2021, the Health Justice Initiative filed a request under South Africa's Promotion of Access to Information Act to get access to the contracts between Johnson & Johnson and the South African government, prompted by the New York Times report.[266][267]

On 2 September 2021, the AU coronavirus envoy stated that vaccine shipments from Aspens Facility to Europe had been suspended and 20 million doses already sent to Europe would be returned for distribution across Africa.[268][269]

Statistics

National

The most up to date vaccination statistics can be found on SACoronavirus site.

Cumulative vaccinations in South Africa

Graph of cumulative doses administered across the country

  Fully vaccinated (All doses)  Partially vaccinated (1st dose only)

Provincial

Daily COVID-19 vaccinations by province as of 7 August 2021
ProvinceTotal Doses
Eastern Cape1,107,038
Free State465,412
Gauteng2,118,874
KwaZulu-Natal1,613,565
Limpopo941,632
Mpumalanga409,232
North West443,191
Northern Cape163,629
Western Cape1,325,891

Progress By Province

Daily vaccinations chart of South Africa

2021 Civil Unrest

During the 2021 South African unrest, the vaccine rollout encountered a slowdown as businesses and vaccine sites were shut down due to protests and looting in Gauteng and Kwazulu-Natal.[146][147][148]

It is estimated that 47 500 vaccine doses and 120 private pharmacies were destroyed during the unrest.[270]

Distribution

Vaccines administered per pharmaceutical company as of 27 Jul 2021 (9 339 755)

  Janssen (2 067 035) (22.13%)
  Pfizer–BioNTech (7 272 720) (77.87%)
  Oxford–AstraZeneca (0) (0%)

Doses administration by vaccine type in South Africa

Graph of cumulative doses administered by vaccine type as of 15 June 2021

   Janssen   Pfizer-BioNTech   Oxford-AstraZeneca[c]   CoronaVac

Vaccines distribution

As of 13 August 2021
1,000,000
2,000,000
3,000,000
4,000,000
5,000,000
6,000,000
7,000,000
8,000,000
  •   Janssen
  •   Pfizer–BioNTech
  •   Oxford-AstraZeneca
  •   CoronaVac

Vaccination sites

The COVID-19 Vaccine can be obtained at 1397[1] different locations nationwide, as of 28 August. Any person qualified for a vaccine will be allocated to the most appropriate site, regardless if it is private or public or if they are insured or not.[144] Vaccination sites are expected to increase to 3,338 locations, as Phase II and Phase III progress ramps up.[271] So far it is planned that all Clicks, Dis-Chem, and other pharmacies and hospitals nationwide be used to distribute vaccines.[272][273]

Vaccination Sites in South Africa

Planned vaccination sites

ProvinceSmallMediumLargeX-LargeTotal
Eastern Cape96611158
Free State5227180
Gauteng555164141734
Kwa-Zulu Natal778584840
Limpopo55991569
Mpumalanga9111102
North West4726174
Northern Cape1678175
Western Cape5128491606
Total28574483123,338

Active Sites

A list of active sites can be found on the SACoronavirus site.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ as of 12 August 2021
  2. ^ South Africa's Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was sold to African Union members and the additional 500,000 Doses were canceled
  3. ^ The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is current suspended

References

  1. ^ a b "Active Vaccination Sites - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  2. ^ "New Covid-19 vaccine sites confirmed in Cape Town and Joburg – but Durban lags behind". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  3. ^ "COVID-19 Coronavirus vaccine strategy | South African Government". www.gov.za. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  4. ^ Staff Writer. "South Africa sets aside extra R4 billion for Covid-19 vaccines and grants". Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Budget 2021: R10 billion allocated for Covid-19 vaccines". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  6. ^ "SA's COVID-19 Vaccination Rollout Kicks Off In Khayelitsha - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  7. ^ "Latest Vaccine Statistics - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
  8. ^ a b Felix, Jason. "First batch of Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine set to arrive in May, Mkhize tells Parliament". News24. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  9. ^ "South Africa: population, by age group". Statista. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Latest Vaccine Statistics - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  11. ^ a b "In switch, South Africa to give health workers J&J vaccine". ABC News. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  12. ^ "Sisonke - Protecting Healthcare Workers". sisonkestudy.samrc.ac.za. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  13. ^ "Latest Vaccine Statistics - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  14. ^ a b Karim, Aisha Abdool; Dyk, Joan van (17 May 2021). "Here's how phase 2 of SA's COVID vaccine roll-out works". Bhekisisa. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  15. ^ Health Minister Dr Joe Phaahla's media briefing on COVID-19 and vaccination rollout plans., retrieved 28 August 2021
  16. ^ a b Team, Bhekisisa; Hack, Media (7 May 2021). "When will you get your COVID jab? Find out". Bhekisisa. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  17. ^ Staff Writer. "Covid vaccines for people over 35 in South Africa – registration and rollout dates". Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  18. ^ "3. What will happen to essential worker programmes?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  19. ^ "Teacher inoculation gets underway". SAnews. 23 June 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  20. ^ a b c "Launch Of Vaccination Programme For Correctional Services Officials And Inmates - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  21. ^ a b "MINISTERS ZULU AND KUBAYI TO VISIT VACCINATION SITES IN TEMBISA - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  22. ^ McCain, Nicole. "Covid-19: Donation of 5.6 milion vaccine doses to relieve vaccine supply pressure". News24. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  23. ^ a b c "Statement from Government 20 October 2021" (PDF). www.gcis.gov.za. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2021. Retrieved 20 October 2021.
  24. ^ "[Thread] 1. BREAKING: Teens in SA (people between 12 and 17 years) will be able to get vaccinated". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  25. ^ "When will #Sisonke #HealthWorkers start to get #COVIDvaccine boosters?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  26. ^ "Sisonke2 - Protecting Healthcare Workers". sisonkestudy.samrc.ac.za. Retrieved 20 November 2021.
  27. ^ a b "From 1 Dec, additional #COVID19 #vaccine doses will be available in SA for". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 November 2021. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
  28. ^ a b "Circular: Changes To Vaccine Roll-out Eligibility Criteria For Adolescents (12-17 Years) 09 Dec 2021 - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  29. ^ "@miamalan@inaskosana - genuine question.What is the situation as regards foreign nationals and vaccines? Ie those perhaps in the country illegally (work seeking) - can they get? Or are they excluded?Asking for someone who asked me :)". Twitter. Archived from the original on 23 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  30. ^ a b "SAHPRA approval of booster dosing with the Pfizer (Comirnaty®) COVID-19 vaccine". SAHPRA. 8 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  31. ^ Kobedi, Puseletso (19 May 2021). "COVID-19 VACCINE- HOW TO REGISTER". NICD. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  32. ^ "How to register for COVID-19 vaccine". SAnews. 17 May 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  33. ^ "SA has secured more than 40 million Covid-19 vaccine doses - Ramaphosa". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  34. ^ "South Africa has secured 51 million vaccine doses – Mkhize". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  35. ^ a b c "Vaccines - News and updates". SAHPRA. 7 February 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  36. ^ "7. What vaccines can we expect?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 30 July 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  37. ^ a b ".@healthza's Nicholas Crisp". Twitter. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  38. ^ Mokhoali, Veronica. "SAHPRA won't release 2 million J&J vaccines stored in Gqeberha". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 14 June 2021.
  39. ^ Merten, Marianne (17 June 2021). "Covid-19 Vaccines: Nearly 500,000 teachers and education sector workers to be vaccinated over 10 days, starting on Tuesday". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  40. ^ a b Nortier, Christi (18 June 2021). "VACCINATION DIARY: Johnson & Johnson jabs arrive for teachers and school staff as French embassy starts vaccinating its citizens living in SA". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  41. ^ a b c Team, Bhekisisa; Hack, Media (7 May 2021). "When will you get your COVID jab? Find out". Bhekisisa. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  42. ^ "BREAKING: 1. The expiry date of SA's 1st batch of 1.5 mil #JnJ doses, with an original expiry date of 10 Aug (11:59pm), was extended to 27 Sep on Aug 11 (approved by @SAHPRA1)". Twitter. Archived from the original on 12 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  43. ^ a b c Health Minister Dr Joe Phaahla's media briefing on COVID-19 and vaccination rollout plans., retrieved 13 August 2021
  44. ^ a b c d "J&J vaccine doses to arrive in SA on Monday | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  45. ^ a b c Mashego, Penelope. "Aspen to release first batch of Johnson & Johnson Covid-19 vaccines". Fin24. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  46. ^ a b Staff Writer. "Aspen confirms Johnson & Johnson Covid-19 vaccines for South Africa". Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  47. ^ a b c "[Thread] 1. When will our new vaccine stock reach #VaccineRollOutSA sites?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 2 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  48. ^ "Mia Malan@miamalanEditor-in-chief: @bhekisisa_MG". Twitter. Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  49. ^ "They expired yesterday at 11:59. We have a new batch of about 1.4 million doses which have been distributed to clinics - with normal expiry dates and another batch of 600 000 will be distributed soon". Twitter. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  50. ^ a b "[Thread] 1. How are we doing with #JnJ supply?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 September 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2021.
  51. ^ a b "3. Are more #CovidVaccines coming in?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  52. ^ a b c "Minister Zweli Mkhize confirms total of 1 567 513 cases of Coronavirus COVID-19 | South African Government". www.gov.za. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  53. ^ a b "South Africa in shock after AstraZeneca vaccine rollout halted". BBC News. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  54. ^ "MEDIA ADVISORY: ACTING HEALTH MINISTER LEADS VIRTUAL MEDIA BRIEFING ON COVID-19 UPDATE AND THE VACCINATION ROLLOUT PLAN - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  55. ^ "Mia Malan @miamalan Editor-in-chief: @bhekisisa_MG 7:13 PM · Jul 21, 2021". Twitter. Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  56. ^ a b Portfolio Committee on Health, 21 July 2021, retrieved 22 July 2021
  57. ^ a b "Mia Malan@miamalan Editor-in-chief: @bhekisisa_MG Vaccine arrival UPDATE". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  58. ^ a b c d e Team, Bhekisisa; Hack, Media (7 May 2021). "When will you get your COVID jab? Find out". Bhekisisa. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  59. ^ "2. How many #Pfizer jabs will we receive in August?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 5 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  60. ^ a b Persens, Lizell. "First batch of CoronaVac vials expected to land in SA before the end of July". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  61. ^ a b "Mia Malan @miamalanEditor-in-chief: @bhekisisa_MG 7:36 PM · Jul 21, 2021". Twitter. Archived from the original on 21 July 2021. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  62. ^ a b "Mia Malan@miamalan Half of the 5.6 million #Pfizer doses the US government is donating to SA arrived this afternoon. On Sun night, 1.5 million more #Pfizer doses (from the stock SA bought directly from Pfizer) will arrive. And on Tuesday, the other half of the donated Pfizer doses will land". Twitter. Archived from the original on 31 July 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  63. ^ "EXCLUSIVE: US donation of almost 5.7-million Pfizer shots en route to SA". BusinessLIVE. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  64. ^ "SA set to receive over 5.6 million Pfizer vaccines this week". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 28 July 2021.
  65. ^ a b "[JUST IN] #JoPhaahla: The US has donated another 2.2 million #Pfizer #COVIDVaccine doses to SA. These will arrive on Sat, 28 Aug". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  66. ^ "[Thread] 1. How many #CovidVaccines has SA received + have left?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  67. ^ "SA paid Covax R280 million 5 months ago – and hasn't received a single vaccine dose yet". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  68. ^ "This is how much SA has to pay for the COVAX vaccine scheme". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  69. ^ "FULL SPEECH | Ramaphosa drops alcohol sales ban, opens beaches and eases curfew. Here are 12 takeouts". News24. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  70. ^ News, Eyewitness. "GALLERY: The arrival of hope as vaccines land in SA". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  71. ^ Lindeque, Mia. "7 things you need to know about the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  72. ^ Mueller, Benjamin; Robbins, Rebecca; Chutel, Lynsey (7 February 2021). "AstraZeneca's Vaccine Does Not Work Well Against Virus Variant in South Africa". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  73. ^ Mueller, Benjamin; Robbins, Rebecca; Chutel, Lynsey (7 February 2021). "South Africa says AstraZeneca's vaccine doesn't work well against a variant". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  74. ^ Ray, Siladitya. "Report: South Africa Asks Indian Maker Of AstraZeneca Vaccine To Take Back One Million Doses". Forbes. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  75. ^ "J&J vaccines arrive in SA on Tuesday night". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  76. ^ "'Can I close my eyes?' Ramaphosa has Covid-19 jab with Khayelitsha hospital staff". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  77. ^ Brandt, Kevin. "No tears: Ramaphosa gets his COVID-19 vaccine jab". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  78. ^ "Second batch of 80 000 doses of Johnson & Johnson vaccine arrives in SA". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  79. ^ Pietromarchi, Virginia. "South Africa launches vaccine roll-out with Johnson & Johnson jab". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  80. ^ "SA hits vaccine milestone as 100,000 shots have now been administered". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  81. ^ Persens, Lizell. "SA to receive more tranches of J&J vaccine this week, authorities say". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  82. ^ Persens, Lizell. "SA to receive more tranches of J&J vaccine this week, authorities say". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  83. ^ "South Africa approves another COVID-19 vaccine | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  84. ^ "J&J Covid-19 Vaccine Approved in South Africa for Wider Use". Bloomberg.com. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  85. ^ "South Africa approves another COVID-19 vaccine | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  86. ^ a b Staff Writer. "South Africa approves Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine for emergency use". Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  87. ^ "66 000 more doses of J&J Covid-19 vaccine touches down in South Africa". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  88. ^ Palm, Kaylynn. "More than 60k additional doses of J&J vaccine land in SA". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  89. ^ Sguazzin, Antony. "SA's BioVac to use deal with US-based ImmunityBio to boost local vaccine creation, CEO says". Fin24. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  90. ^ "Covid-19 to Serve as Platform for South African Vaccine Industry". Bloomberg.com. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  91. ^ Monama, Tebogo. "SA to sell AstraZeneca vaccines to African Union to help 20 countries vaccinate health staff". News24. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  92. ^ AfricaNews (23 March 2021). "South Africa sells Astrazeneca jabs to other AU member states". Africanews. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  93. ^ "S. Africa sells its AstraZeneca vaccine doses to AU". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  94. ^ a b c Booth, William; Johnson, Carolyn Y. (7 February 2021). "South Africa suspends Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine rollout after researchers report 'minimal' protection against coronavirus variant". The Washington Post. London. Retrieved 8 February 2021. South Africa will suspend use of the coronavirus vaccine being developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca after researchers found it provided "minimal protection" against mild to moderate coronavirus infections caused by the new variant first detected in that country.
  95. ^ a b "'No setbacks.' SA factory on track to produce J&J vaccine". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  96. ^ a b "COVID-19 vaccine: J&J commits 30 million doses for SA | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  97. ^ Bloomberg. "Johnson & Johnson Covid vaccine approved for general use in South Africa". Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  98. ^ "J&J Covid-19 Vaccine Approved in South Africa for Wider Use". Bloomberg.com. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  99. ^ Mukherjee, Promit (1 April 2021). "South African health regulator approves J&J's COVID-19 vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  100. ^ "Covid-19: SA signs deal for 20 million Pfizer vaccine doses". News24. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  101. ^ "SA signs deal for 20 million doses of Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  102. ^ a b Staff Writer. "South Africa suspends rollout of Johnson & Johnson Covid vaccine". Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  103. ^ Brandt, Kevin. "Mkhize to announce SA's response to global concern about J&J vaccine at 7pm". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  104. ^ Kobedi, Puseletso (14 April 2021). "COVID-19 J&J Vaccine Rollout Temporarily on Hold". NICD. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  105. ^ "Registration for COVID-19 vaccine now open for those over 60". SAnews. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  106. ^ Lindeque, Mia. "COVID-19 vaccine registration for elderly S. Africans to open on Friday - Mkhize". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  107. ^ "SA's vaccine registration portal opens to people 60 years and older – here's how to book your jab". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  108. ^ a b "Health on the status of Coronavirus COVID-19 vaccine rollout in South Africa | South African Government". www.gov.za. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  109. ^ "First locally made vaccines ready for rollout". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 1 May 2021.
  110. ^ "South Africa restarts inoculation with J&J's Covid-19 vaccine". www.pharmaceutical-technology.com. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  111. ^ "SA government support for J&J programme lifts JSE". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  112. ^ "WRAP | J&J vaccination rollout resumes with warnings of side effects". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  113. ^ "Media Statement: Update on Status of Delivery of Market Doses of Pfizer and Johnson and Johnson. @DrZweliMkhize". Twitter. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  114. ^ "First batch of Pfizer vaccines arrive in South Africa | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  115. ^ Ellis, Estelle (2 May 2021). "CORONAVIRUS: Zweli Mkhize announces imminent arrival of the first batch of the Pfizer Covid vaccine". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  116. ^ Staff Writer. "Some good news for South Africa's Covid-19 vaccine rollout". Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  117. ^ "Update On Status Of Delivery Of Market Doses Of Pfizer And Johnson And Johnson - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  118. ^ "COVID-19 LIVE UPDATES | Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine for SA has '95% success rate'". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  119. ^ "COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout: When and How Will South Africans Get Protected?". Global Citizen. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  120. ^ a b c d "Update On Covid-19 (16th May 2021) - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  121. ^ "Calling all health personnel to come forward for enrolment in the last week of the Sisonke Phase 3 b study". South African Medical Research Council. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  122. ^ Nortier, Christi (16 May 2021). "MAVERICK CITIZEN : Phase Two of Covid vaccine roll-out starts off by prioritising old age homes". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  123. ^ "COVID-19 in SA: Provinces speed up vaccine rollout | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  124. ^ Ntshidi, Edwin. "Ramaphosa announces arrival of more COVID-19 vaccine doses in SA". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  125. ^ "LATEST CONFIRMED CASES OF COVID-19 IN SOUTH AFRICA (1 JUNE 2021)". NICD (Press release). 1 June 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  126. ^ Staff Writer. "Ramaphosa to address the nation on Sunday: report". Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  127. ^ "US FDA asks J&J to discard millions of Covid-19 vaccine doses". News24. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  128. ^ Bloomberg. "J&J vaccine delivery to South Africa in limbo after US ruling". Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  129. ^ "SA's batch of J&J vaccines is safe, says health ministry". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  130. ^ "Statement On The Status Of Johnson And Johnson Rollout In South Africa Based On The FDA Announcement - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  131. ^ Lange, Dawie Boonzaaier and Liezel De. "2 million doses of J&J vaccine in South Africa possibly contaminated". Citypress. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  132. ^ "[WATCH] President Ramaphosa addresses the nation at 8pm on Sunday 27 June". CapeTalk. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  133. ^ "LIVE ARCHIVE: Ramaphosa moves SA back to lockdown Level 4". Moneyweb. 27 June 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  134. ^ Brandt, Kevin. "SA vaccinates over 2 million people as authorities give J&J study thumbs up". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  135. ^ a b "Ramaphosa tightens Covid-19 restrictions. Read the president's full speech here". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  136. ^ a b "WATCH | Ramaphosa addresses the nation | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  137. ^ "SPEAKING NOTES FOR ACTING MINISTER MMAMOLOKO KUBAYI (25th June 2021) - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  138. ^ News, Eyewitness. "LIVE: President Cyril Ramaphosa gives the latest COVID-19 update". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  139. ^ Charles, Marvin. "Ramaphosa to address the nation on Sunday: More restrictions on the cards?". News24. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  140. ^ "Sahpra approves use of Sinovac Covid-19 vaccine". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  141. ^ "South Africa approves Sinovac's Covid-19 vaccine". Moneyweb. 3 July 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  142. ^ "China welcomes approval of Sinovac to fight Covid-19 in South Africa". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  143. ^ "HEALTH DEPARTMENT WELCOME THE APPROVAL OF CORONAVAC COVID- 19 VACCINE - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  144. ^ a b "NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION: REIMBURSEMENT OF UNINSURED PATIENTS AT PRIVATE SITES - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  145. ^ a b c "Level 4 lockdown continues, with some adjustments: Read Ramaphosa's full speech". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
  146. ^ a b Bhengu, Lwandile. "#UnrestSA: Vaccine rollout halted in parts of KZN, Gauteng due to looting". News24. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  147. ^ a b "South Africa says vaccine rollout, essential healthcare disrupted by unrest". Reuters. 13 July 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  148. ^ a b Staff Writer. "Here's what happens if you miss your Covid-19 vaccine due to looting in South Africa". Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  149. ^ "South Africa: Over Half a Million Educators, Staff Vaccinated". allAfrica.com. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  150. ^ a b Staff Writer. "Pfizer Covid-19 vaccines to be manufactured in South Africa from 2022". Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  151. ^ "Pfizer/BioNTech to produce COVID-19 vaccine in SA | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  152. ^ a b c McKenzie, David; Ravindran, Jeevan. "Pfizer-BioNTech to start producing Covid-19 vaccines in South Africa in 2022". CNN. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  153. ^ "2. What are we doing with our current #JnJ doses?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  154. ^ a b "STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT CYRIL RAMAPHOSA ON PROGRESS IN THE NATIONAL EFFORT TO CONTAIN THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC (25 July 2021) - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  155. ^ Bloomberg. "South Africa's vaccine headache switches from supply to demand". Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  156. ^ Ellis, Estelle (13 August 2021). "Maverick Citizen: Covid-19: South Africa is 'losing momentum' in its vaccination drive". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  157. ^ "#JoPhaahla: The uptake of vaccines in the 18-34 yrs group, has been overwhelming". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  158. ^ "Thread] 1. Why do we still have low weekend vaccination rates? @healthza's Nicholas Crisp". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  159. ^ a b "2. AstraZeneca". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  160. ^ a b "3. AstraZeneca". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  161. ^ "4. Sinovac". Twitter. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
  162. ^ "REMARKS BY HEALTH MINISTER DR JOE PHAALA DURING COVID-19 MEDIA BRIEFING – FRIDAY, 27 AUGUST 2021 - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  163. ^ VIRTUAL BRIEFING ON COVID-19 AND VACCINATION ROLLOUT PLANS - 27 August 2021, retrieved 1 September 2021
  164. ^ "UPDATED CIRCULAR: VACCINATION OF PREGNANT AND BREASTFEEDING WOMEN - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  165. ^ "#Phaahla: When will SA start to vaccinate people younger than 18?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  166. ^ "#Phaahla: SA now has enough #CovidVaccine stock to vaccinate everyone who needs a jab". Twitter. Archived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  167. ^ "#Phaahla: The SA government is looking into "soft incentives" to encourage vaccination". Twitter. Archived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  168. ^ "Government looking into 'soft incentives' to encourage Covid-19 vaccination, says Joe Phaahla". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  169. ^ "#Phaahla: [Thread] 1. BREAKING In about 1 week, vaccinated SAs are likely to be issued with digital vaccination certificates". Twitter. Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  170. ^ "3. #Phaahla: Digital vaccination certificates for vaccinated people in SA will". Twitter. Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  171. ^ Staff Writer. "Government to introduce new digital Covid-19 certificate for South Africa – what you should know". Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  172. ^ "Digital vaccination certificates just a week away, says health ministry". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  173. ^ "SAHPRA update on Section 21 authorisation for Pfizer Comirnaty Vaccine". SAHPRA. 10 September 2021. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  174. ^ "S.Africa's regulator approves Pfizer COVID-19 shot for children 12 and up". Reuters. 11 September 2021. Retrieved 11 September 2021.
  175. ^ "Circular: Preferential Use Of J&J Covid-19 Vaccines To Reach Rural & Hard-to-reach Communities - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  176. ^ "[Thread] 1. #Phaahla: Vaccinations of people below 18". Twitter. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  177. ^ "7. What about vaccine mandates at institutions of higher education?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  178. ^ "6. What about vaccine mandates from employers?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  179. ^ "4. When will vaccine certificates be issued?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  180. ^ "[Thread] 2. #Phaahla on VACCINE PASSPORTS". Twitter. Archived from the original on 17 September 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  181. ^ "Vaccine passports and jabs for kids are on the way, says Joe Phaahla". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  182. ^ "[Thread] 1. What's the LATEST on SA's #VaccinePassports?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  183. ^ FTR - YOUR DIGITAL VACCINATION CERTIFICATE, retrieved 29 September 2021
  184. ^ "2. How will you get your digital vaccine card?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  185. ^ "3. What should you do if you don't have a smartphone?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  186. ^ "4. Each card will have a QR code. What's the purpose of that?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 29 September 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  187. ^ "STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT CYRIL RAMAPHOSA ON PROGRESS IN THE NATIONAL EFFORT TO CONTAIN THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC, UNION BUILDINGS, TSHWANE, 30 SEPTEMBER 2021 - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  188. ^ "JUST IN: @healthza on #COVID jab certificates". Twitter. Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  189. ^ Staff Writer. "South Africa launches digital Covid-19 vaccination certificate – how it works". Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  190. ^ "SA has launched its digital Covid-19 vaccine certificate with QR code – here's how it works". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  191. ^ "Access To Digital COVID-19 Vaccination Certificates - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  192. ^ "4. Why is there a note on the cards saying they're only valid until Jan 2022?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  193. ^ "5. Why will there be new versions of the digital #COVID19 vaccination cards?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  194. ^ "6. When will the new versions of the digital #COVID19 vaccination cards become available?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 6 October 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  195. ^ "The Minister of Health, Dr Joe Phaahla, has just launched the #COVID-19 vaccination certificates". Twitter. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  196. ^ "There is a QR code on your vaccination card, but that code doesn't yet work". Twitter. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  197. ^ "Approved COVID-19 vaccines and countries with approved COVID-19 proof of vaccination". GOV.UK. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  198. ^ "#JoePhaalha: When will adolescents get vaccinated against #COVID19 in SA?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 8 October 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  199. ^ Staff Writer. "South Africa to look at Covid-19 vaccines for under-18s before end of October: health minister". Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  200. ^ "Covid-19 vaccine roll-out expands to 12-17 age group from next week". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  201. ^ Virtual briefing on COVID-19 and vaccination rollout programme, retrieved 16 October 2021
  202. ^ News, S. A. "South Africa to look at first use of booster Covid-19 vaccines". Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  203. ^ "[THREAD] 1. What is happening with jabs 4 undocumented people (migrants without IDs/SAs without IDs)?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  204. ^ "THREAD] 1. What type of booster dose will #Sisonke trial participants (health workers) receive?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  205. ^ "2. Do teens need their parents' consent to get vaccinated?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 15 October 2021. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  206. ^ "MEDIA RELEASE UPDATE ON THE SAHPRA REVIEW OF THE SPUTNIK V VACCINE" (PDF). SAHPRA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  207. ^ "[Thread] 1. Teen (12-17 yrs) vaccinations started today. How did it go?". Twitter. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  208. ^ "SAHPRA approval of second/booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine Janssen". SAHPRA. 8 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  209. ^ "BREAKING [Thread] 1. @SAHPRA1has approved a 2nd dose of #JnJ and heterologous (mix/match) booster for adults". Twitter. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  210. ^ "SAHPRA registers two COVID-19 vaccines". SAHPRA. 7 February 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  211. ^ "Covid: South Africa makes its own version of Moderna vaccine". BBC News. 4 February 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  212. ^ "Health announces changes on vaccination programme". Government of South Africa. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  213. ^ "South Africa – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker". covid19.trackvaccines.org. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  214. ^ Baleta, Adele (1 April 2020). "COVID-19: SA to start enrolling patients in landmark WHO trial". Spotlight. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  215. ^ "SAHPRA responds to coronavirus (COVID-19): Medicines/medical devices supply challenges" (PDF). South African Health Products Regulatory Authority. 17 March 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  216. ^ a b c d e "Janssen (Johnson & Johnson): Ad26.COV2.S – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker". covid19.trackvaccines.org. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  217. ^ "J&J vaccine works better against SA variant than previously reported". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  218. ^ Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. (16 March 2021). "An Open-label, Phase 2 Study to Evaluate the Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S in Healthy Pregnant Participants". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  219. ^ a b Wits Health Consortium (Pty) Ltd (13 April 2021). "Open-label, Single-arm Phase 3B Implementation Study to Monitor the Effectiveness of the Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 Vaccine Among Health Care Workers in South Africa (VAC31518COV3012)". National Department of Health of South Africa, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal Research Innovation and Sequencing Platform - KRISP, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Hutchinson Center Research Institute of South Africa (HCRISA), Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  220. ^ a b "Health care workers urged to vaccinate in Sisonke Protocol". SAnews. 7 May 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  221. ^ a b "Johnson & Johnson Announces Single-Shot Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Met Primary Endpoints in Interim Analysis of its Phase 3 ENSEMBLE Trial". jnj.com. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  222. ^ "Pfizer/BioNTech: BNT162b2 – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker". covid19.trackvaccines.org. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  223. ^ BioNTech SE (29 April 2021). "A PHASE 1/2/3, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED, RANDOMIZED, OBSERVER-BLIND, DOSE-FINDING STUDY TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY, TOLERABILITY, IMMUNOGENICITY, AND EFFICACY OF SARS-COV-2 RNA VACCINE CANDIDATES AGAINST COVID-19 IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS". Pfizer. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  224. ^ "Trial: Pfizer COVID Vax Effective Against South African Variant". www.medpagetoday.com. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  225. ^ Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Xia, Hongjie; Zhang, Xianwen; Fontes-Garfias, Camila R.; Swanson, Kena A.; Cai, Hui; Sarkar, Ritu; Chen, Wei; Cutler, Mark; Cooper, David; Weaver, Scott C.; Muik, Alexander; Sahin, Ugur; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Xie, Xuping; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Shi, Pei-Yong (17 February 2021). "Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum — Preliminary Report". New England Journal of Medicine. 384 (15): 1466–1468. doi:10.1056/nejmc2102017. PMC 7944950. PMID 33684280.
  226. ^ "Phase III trial of Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine starts in South Africa". www.clinicaltrialsarena.com. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  227. ^ "What are the India, Brazil, South Africa and UK variants?". BBC News. 8 May 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  228. ^ University of Oxford (23 November 2020). "An Adaptive Phase I/II Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial to Determine Safety, Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Non-replicating ChAdOx1 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in South African Adults Living Without HIV; and Safety and Immunogenicity in Adults Living With HIV". Medical Research Council, South Africa, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Wits Health Consortium (Pty) Ltd, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  229. ^ Voysey M, Clemens SA, Madhi SA, Weckx LY, Folegatti PM, Aley PK, et al. (January 2021). "Safety and efficacy of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222) against SARS-CoV-2: an interim analysis of four randomised controlled trials in Brazil, South Africa, and the UK". Lancet. 397 (10269): 99–111. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32661-1. PMC 7723445. PMID 33306989.
  230. ^ "Latest - Oxford Covid-19 vaccine trial results - Wits University". www.wits.ac.za. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  231. ^ "South African Oxford AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine study a global game-changer". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  232. ^ a b "Covid: South Africa halts AstraZeneca vaccine rollout over new variant". BBC News. 8 February 2021. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  233. ^ "Novavax vaccine shows 51% efficacy against South African variant - study". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  234. ^ "ReiThera: GRAd-COV2 – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker". covid19.trackvaccines.org. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  235. ^ "ReiThera GRAd-COV2 vaccine". clinicaltrialsregister. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  236. ^ a b "Covid-19 to Serve as Platform for South African Vaccine Industry". Bloomberg.com. 19 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  237. ^ a b c Fisher, Shamiela. "Nzimande excited about vaccine partnership between Biovac & ImmunityBio". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  238. ^ a b Sguazzin, Antony. "SA's BioVac to use deal with US-based ImmunityBio to boost local vaccine creation, CEO says". Fin24. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  239. ^ ImmunityBio, Inc. (9 March 2021). "Phase 1b Open-Label Study of the Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of a Prophylactic COVID-19 Vaccination Using a 2nd Generation (E1/E2B/E3-Deleted) Adenoviral Platform in Healthy South African Adults (ProVIVA-SA-1)". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  240. ^ "Covid-19: SA plans to vaccinate 200 000 people a day - report". News24. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  241. ^ "South Africa sells AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines to other African countries". Reuters. 21 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  242. ^ "South Africa gets rid of 1 million AstraZeneca vaccine doses, but why?". RFI. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  243. ^ Seleka, Ntwaagae. "Covid-19: SA finalising sale of 1m AstraZeneca vaccine doses to AU at price purchased from India". News24. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  244. ^ "Sahpra begins evaluation of Russia's Sputnik V vaccine for use in SA". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  245. ^ Monama, Tebogo. "Covid-19: SA begins process to register Russia's Sputnik V vaccine". News24. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  246. ^ Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Xia, Hongjie; Zhang, Xianwen; Fontes-Garfias, Camila R.; Swanson, Kena A.; Cai, Hui; Sarkar, Ritu; Chen, Wei; Cutler, Mark; Cooper, David; Weaver, Scott C.; Muik, Alexander; Sahin, Ugur; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Xie, Xuping; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Shi, Pei-Yong (17 February 2021). "Neutralizing Activity of BNT162b2-Elicited Serum — Preliminary Report". New England Journal of Medicine. 384 (15): 1466–1468. doi:10.1056/nejmc2102017. PMC 7944950. PMID 33684280.
  247. ^ "Trial: Pfizer COVID Vax Effective Against South African Variant". www.medpagetoday.com. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  248. ^ "Pfizer, BioNTech say coronavirus vaccine highly effective against South African variant". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  249. ^ Kuchler, Hannah (25 January 2021). "Moderna develops new vaccine to tackle mutant Covid strain". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  250. ^ "Other African countries are rapidly rolling out China's vaccine – as SA awaits more data". BusinessInsider. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  251. ^ "Covid: South Africa variant now 'dominant' in Zimbabwe". BBC News. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  252. ^ "China's Sinovac offers SA 5-million vaccine doses 'within weeks'". 702. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  253. ^ "Sinovac May Supply South Africa With 5 Million Vaccines, Report Says". Bloomberg.com. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  254. ^ Makhafola, Compiled by Getrude. "Sahpra approves use of China's Sinovac vaccine for South Africans". News24. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  255. ^ Bhandari, Shashwat (23 February 2021). "Covaxin can neutralise South African variant 15 days Bharat Biotech big statement | India News – India TV". www.indiatvnews.com. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  256. ^ Ellis, Ralph. "Vaccine Not as Effective Against S. African Variant". WebMD. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  257. ^ "COVID-19: Latest global developments | eNCA". www.enca.com. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  258. ^ "Novavax COVID-19 Vaccine Demonstrates 89.3% Efficacy in UK Phase 3 Trial". ir.novavax.com. 28 January 2021. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  259. ^ "Novavax Covid-19 Vaccine Trial - Wits University". www.wits.ac.za. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  260. ^ a b Zulu, Sifiso. "Aspen Pharmacare to release J&J COVID-19 vaccines to SA on Monday". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  261. ^ a b Wasserman, Helena. "Breakthrough: J&J will allow SA to produce vaccine under licence, Ramaphosa says". Fin24. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  262. ^ a b "Aspen to start J&J COVID-19 vaccine supplies to South Africa from Monday". Reuters. 26 July 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  263. ^ a b "J&J vaccines produced in SA are being exported to Europe". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  264. ^ AfricaNews (21 July 2021). "Pfizer to produce Covid-19 vaccines in South Africa". Africanews. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  265. ^ Robbins, Rebecca; Mueller, Benjamin (16 August 2021). "Covid Vaccines Produced in Africa Are Being Exported to Europe". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  266. ^ Monama, Teebogo. "Health campaigners want access to govt's vaccine procurement contract with J&J". News24. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  267. ^ "South African activists slam J&J for exporting vaccines". AP NEWS. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  268. ^ Reuters (2 September 2021). "Newsdeck: J&J vaccine shipments from S.Africa to Europe halted, AU says". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  269. ^ "Aspen seeks licence for J&J Covid shot". Moneyweb. 2 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  270. ^ "Department of Health @HealthZA Official tweets from the National Department of Health South Africa. Follows and re-tweets do not imply endorsement by the department". Twitter. Archived from the original on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  271. ^ "Active Vaccination Sites (as of 04th June 2021)". sacoronavirus. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  272. ^ "Update On Covid-19 (20th May 2021) - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  273. ^ "Active Vaccination Sites - SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 22 May 2021.

External links

Media files used on this page

Covid-19 vaccination in South Africa (Total Dose).svg
Author/Creator: TapticInfo, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Map of Covid-19 Doses Administered in South Africa
Coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2.png
Author/Creator: Alexey Solodovnikov (Idea, Producer, CG, Editor), Valeria Arkhipova (Scientific Сonsultant), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain (genetic variant) of the coronavirus that caused coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first identified in Wuhan, China, during December 2019

Each separate locus (amorphous blob) is an atom of:

 
cobalt: membrane
 
crimson: E protein
 
green: M protein
 
orange: glucose (glycan)
 
turquoise : S (spike) glycoprotein
SARS-CoV-2 (Wikimedia colors).svg
Author/Creator: Geraki, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
SARS-CoV-2 logo in Wikimedia colors
Green check.svg
Green check icon
Dark Red x.svg
Dark Red "X"/Cross logic icon.
Daily Covid-19 vaccination in South Africa.svg
Author/Creator: TapticInfo, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Daily Covid-19 Vaccinations in South Africa
Kbh.jpg
Author/Creator: Barry Ne, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Karl Bremer Hospital 2018
Covid-19 vaccination in South Africa (Fully vaccinated).svg
Author/Creator: TapticInfo, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Map of Covid-19 Fully vaccinated people in South Africa
Covid19 vaccine biontech pfizer 3.jpg
(c) Arne Müseler / www.arne-mueseler.com, CC BY-SA 3.0 de
BioNTech vaccine
Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine.
Charlotte.Maxeke. Joburg.Hospital.JPG
Author/Creator: Ekem, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital
Sisonke Logo White.png
Sisonke Vaccine Program Logo
Tygerberg from air.jpg
Author/Creator: Dfmalan, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Stellenbosch University's Tygerberg medical campus viewed from the air.
The United States Delivers COVID-19 Vaccine Doses to South Africa (51349896728).jpg
The United States delivers more than 5.660 million Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine doses to South Africa on July 31, 2021. [U.S. government photo/ Public Domain]
The Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto.jpg
Author/Creator: Robert Cutts, Licence: CC BY 2.0

This is the view of the hospital looking south from Hospital Footbridge in <a href="https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WHCTIOKPSTUC&lpg=PA79&dq=Diepkloof&pg=PA79#v=onepage&q=&f=false" rel="nofollow">Diepkloof </a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soweto" rel="nofollow">Soweto</a> in the province of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauteng" rel="nofollow">Gauteng</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" rel="nofollow">South Africa</a> . The bridge spans the Potchefstroom Road at the north of the hospital. The hospital's entrance gates are at the position of marker A on <a href="http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?f=q&source=embed&hl=en&geocode=&q=Chris+Hani+Baragwanath+Hospital,+Diepkloof,+South+Africa&sll=-26.286028,27.909393&sspn=1.108144,1.234589&ie=UTF8&hq=Chris+Hani+Baragwanath+Hospital,&hnear=Diepkloof,+Johannesburg,+Gauteng,+South+Africa&t=h&ll=-26.261168,27.942975&spn=0.01424,0.01929&z=16" rel="nofollow">this map</a>. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potchefstroom,_North_West" rel="nofollow">Potchefstroom</a> is a town lying about 110 km southwest of Soweto.

As can be seen from this <a href="http://maps.google.co.uk/maps?f=q&source=embed&hl=en&geocode=&q=Chris+Hani+Baragwanath+Hospital,+Diepkloof,+South+Africa&sll=-26.286028,27.909393&sspn=1.108144,1.234589&ie=UTF8&hq=Chris+Hani+Baragwanath+Hospital,&hnear=Diepkloof,+Johannesburg,+Gauteng,+South+Africa&t=h&ll=-26.261168,27.942975&spn=0.01424,0.01929&layer=c&cbll=-26.259756,27.943984&panoid=2waRe0I9jBUvv-5-9OdIug&cbp=12,219.9,,0,6.66" rel="nofollow">Street View</a>, the construction referred to in the yellow notice on the photo has been completed and the entrance is open again. The StreetView also shows that bridge itself has been covered over since we were there in 2007 when it looked more like <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/57544605@N00/358342867">this</a>.

As at 2007, with 3200 beds and 6760 staff members, occupying 173 acres the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Hani_Baragwanath_Hospital" rel="nofollow">Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital</a> is reputedly the largest hospital in the world. Certainly it's the largest in the Southern Hemisphere. There's an aerial view of the site <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol4no4/klug2.jpg" rel="nofollow">here</a>. The hospital was opened by the then Prime Minister, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Smuts" rel="nofollow">Jan Smuts</a> on 23 September 1942. It was the middle of WWII and six years were to pass before the seeds of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid" rel="nofollow">apartheid</a> were to be planted by Smuts' successor, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Fran%c3%a7ois_Malan" rel="nofollow">Daniel Malan</a>. During the opening ceremony, Smuts said that after the war the Imperial Military Hospital, Baragwanath, as it was then called, would be used for the Black population of the Witwatersrand. In the meantime the hospital would be treating the war casualties. At first they were mainly from the Middle East command but, towards the end of the war, the hospital began to specialise in tuberculosis patients, both from the Middle East Command and from the Far East Command.

The hospital was built next to the site of a hostel founded by <a href="http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/CORNISH-GEN/2005-07/1122303715" rel="nofollow">John Albert Baragwanath</a> (1842-1928), a Cornishman who had emigrated to South Africa in the 1890's. He was born in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falmouth,_Cornwall" rel="nofollow">Falmouth</a>, but the family's roots were in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Towednack" rel="nofollow">Towednack</a> near St Ives. There are still Baragwanaths in South Africa. Read about them <a href="http://boards.ancestry.com/thread.aspx?mv=flat&m=4931&p=localities.africa.southafrica.general" rel="nofollow">here</a>, <a href="http://www.baragwanath.co.za/name/index.htm" rel="nofollow">here</a> and <a href="http://webs.lanset.com/azazella/baragwanath.html" rel="nofollow">here</a>. .

In 1948 Smuts' <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Party_(South_Africa)" rel="nofollow">United Party</a> was defeated by the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Party_(South_Africa)" rel="nofollow">National Party</a> led by Malan. A few years later, South Africa left the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations" rel="nofollow">British Commonwealth</a>. This made Imperial an inappropriate description so the establishment was renamed Baragwanath Hospital. Read more about the history of the hospital <a href="https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=jz59whwhQ-MC&pg=PA48&dq=Baragwanath+Hospital&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=sw9zSq2INYmGzAS-9dnnAg&client=firefox-a#v=onepage&q=Baragwanath Hospital&f=false" rel="nofollow">here</a> and about how it is in the present day <a href="http://www.chrishanibaragwanathhospital.co.za/bara/index.jsp" rel="nofollow">here</a>. In 1997, the hospital, already by then one of the largest in the world, was renamed the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in his memory. Nowadays it admits more than two thousand patients daily. About half of them are <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV" rel="nofollow">HIV positive</a>.

It's said that, in his time, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Hani" rel="nofollow">Chris Hani</a> was the most popular member of the leadership of the ANC after <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela" rel="nofollow">Nelson Mandela</a> – particularly among the poorest communities. He was born as <a href="http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/online books/turningpoints/bk5/images/hani-chris.jpg" rel="nofollow">Martin Thembisile Hani</a>, the fifth of six children, on June 28, 1942 in kuSabalele in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transkei" rel="nofollow">Transkei</a> (now the Eastern Cape). That region was the birthplace of many other leaders of South Africa's protest movements – names such as Nelson Mandela himself, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Sisulu" rel="nofollow">Walter Sisulu</a>, <a href="http://www.thepresidency.gov.za/orders_list.asp?show=204" rel="nofollow">Clarence Makwetu</a>, <a href="http://www.ecyc.gov.za/pg_Story.aspx?action=news&id=52" rel="nofollow">Bathandwa Ndondo</a>, <a href="http://www.thedplg.gov.za/subwebsites/profiles/DirectorGeneralNarrative.htm" rel="nofollow">Lindiwe Msengana-Ndlela</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Biko" rel="nofollow">Steve Biko</a> and <a href="http://www.mgslg.co.za/about-us/about-us.html" rel="nofollow">Matthew Goniwe</a> were all born in and around the Eastern Cape.

Chris Hani attended Lovedale school and went on to study literature at the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Fort_Hare" rel="nofollow">University of Fort Hare</a>. When 15 he joined the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANC_Youth_League" rel="nofollow">ANC Youth League</a> and engaded in protests against the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_Education_Act" rel="nofollow">Bantu Education Act</a>. After graduating, he joined <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umkhonto_we_Sizwe" rel="nofollow">Umkhonto we Sizwe</a>, the armed wing of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_National_Congress" rel="nofollow">African National Congress</a> (ANC). In 1963 he was exiled to <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lesotho" rel="nofollow">Lesotho</a> where he was the target of assassination attempts. He received military training in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union" rel="nofollow">Soviet Union</a> and, after serving in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhodesian_Bush_War" rel="nofollow">Rhodesian Bush War</a> in what is now <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwe" rel="nofollow">Zimbabwe</a>, he moved to the ANC's headquarters in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lusaka" rel="nofollow">Lusaka</a>, Zambia becoming head of Umkhonto we Sizwe.

In February 1990, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F.W._de_Klerk" rel="nofollow">President F.W. de Klerk</a> announced the lifting of the bans on the ANC, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan_Africanist_Congress" rel="nofollow">Pan Africanist Congress</a> (PAC), the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_Communist_Party" rel="nofollow">South African Communist Party</a> (SACP) and thirty-one other organizations which, unitl then, had been declared to be illegal by the apartheid regime. Soon after, Chris Hani returned to South Africa and took over from Joe Slovo § as head of the SACP in 1991. He supported the suspension of the ANC's armed struggle in favour of negotiations.

On 10 April 1993, Chris Hani was assassinated by a Polish far-right immigrant named <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Janusz_Walu%c5%9b" rel="nofollow">Janusz Waluś</a>, who shot him in the head as he stepped out of his car. Waluś fled the scene, but was arrested soon afterwards after Hani's neighbour, a white woman, called the police. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clive_Derby-Lewis" rel="nofollow">Clive Derby-Lewis</a>, a senior <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_Party_(South_Africa)" rel="nofollow">South African Conservative Party</a> M.P., who had lent Waluś his pistol, was also arrested for complicity in Hani's murder. Derby-Lewis was tried and sentenced to death for his role in the assassination but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment when capital punishment was outlawed in 1995.

In June 2010 Derby-Lewis applied for parole on the grounds that he was over 70, and was entitled to parole in terms of South African law for having served in excess of 15 years in prison. In November 2010, Derby-Lewis' lawyer reported that Derby-Lewis was receiving treatment for skin cancer and prostate cancer, hypertension, and for a gangrenous spot in his leg. The Correctional Services department reported that a decision on his parole could be announced in early December. As at March 2011 I don't know whether or not such an announcement was made.

The Diepkloof district of Soweto has associations with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Paton" rel="nofollow">Alan Paton</a>, the author of the inspirational book <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cry,_The_Beloved_Country#Plot_summary" rel="nofollow">Cry, the Beloved Country</a> that was written in 1946 while the author was touring Europe and America. Smuts was still Prime Minister of South Africa while the book was being written but by 1948, when the book was published, the National Party had won power and the seeds of Apartheid were being sown. There is a mention of the hospital in the book.

Paton was born in 1903 in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pietermaritzburg" rel="nofollow">Pietermaritzburg</a> capital of what was then Natal and is now <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KwaZulu-Natal" rel="nofollow">KwaZulu-Natal</a>. He was the Principal of the nearby Diepkloof Reformatory from July 1935 to June 1948. In <a href="https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QFPB5w-wFFEC&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=&f=false" rel="nofollow">Diepkloof – Reflections of Diepkloof Reformatory</a>, <a href="http://www.cyc-net.org/cyc-online/cycol-0401-oldbooks.html" rel="nofollow">Clyde Broster</a>, senior English master at <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rondebosch_Boys'_High_School" rel="nofollow">Rondebosch Boys' High School, Cape Town</a>, has selected some extracts from Paton's works that were inspired by his time at the Reformatory. First in the collection is <a href="https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QFPB5w-wFFEC&lpg=PP1&dq=Diepkloof&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q=&f=false" rel="nofollow">To a Small Boy Who Died at Diepkloof Reformatotory</a> – a poem in memory of a 6-year-old pupil of the Reformatory. I trust that such a boy, should he have offended nowadays, would be more humanely treated. Also in the book is a poignant short story about a boy called Ha'penny spent time in the Reformatory in the early 1940s. It can be read in full <a href="http://www.cyc-net.org/cyc-online/cycol-0401-paton.html" rel="nofollow">here</a>. It's only a couple of pages long – but it's well worth reading. Alan Paton died in 1988 – just before the ANC Government took power. He had constantly opposed the apartheid regime and many of his stated beliefs are now enshrined in South Africa's <a href="http://www.rebirth.co.za/bill_of_rights_S.A.1.htm" rel="nofollow">Bill of Rights</a>.

A few days before first writing this in January 2009 I had heard the news of the death of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helen_Suzman" rel="nofollow">Helen Suzman</a>, a great South African dissident with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithuania" rel="nofollow">Lithuanian</a> Jewish ancestry. Suzman was born in Germiston in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Witwatersrand" rel="nofollow">Witwatersrand</a> in 1917 and first entered the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_Parliament" rel="nofollow">South African Parliament</a> in 1953 as a member of the fast-declining <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Party_(South_Africa)" rel="nofollow">United Party</a>. She later switched to the Progressive Party which eventually became the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Reform_Party" rel="nofollow"> Progressive Reform Party</a>. At one stage Suzman was the only woman – and the only member opposing apartheid – in the South African Parliament. Suzman often asked questions in parliament about abuses of civil rights. On one such occasion, a cabinet minister yelled at her "You put these questions just to embarrass South Africa overseas." She replied "It is not my questions that embarrass South Africa – it is your answers". Her Progressive Reform Party was one of those which merged to become the present-day <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democratic_Alliance_(South_Africa)" rel="nofollow">Democratic Alliance (South_Africa)</a>, now (February 2009) the official opposition party in the South African Parliament. Helen Suzman stood beside Nelson Mandela, the country's first black president, when he signed the new constitution in 1996.

<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Slovo" rel="nofollow">Joe Slovo</a> (1926-1995) was another great South African dissident with Lithuanian Jewish ancestry. His family emigrated to South Africa in 1934 when he was eight. He joined the SACP in 1942 and in the early 1960's was instrumental in forming an alliance between the Communists and the ANC. In 1963 he was exiled and lived in Britain for a while. In was elected general secretary of the SACP in1984 and returned to South Africa in 1990. He died of cancer in 1995. A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Slovo,_Cape_Town" rel="nofollow">settlement</a> east of Cape Town has been named after him.

In case you're wondering, the Motorizr Z3 is (or perhaps was) a mobile phone.

Photos of some of the people referred to in this description can be seen in my comment below. Others can be seen by clicking on the appropriate links that follow. Some of the links contain additional information:

<a href="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b4/Chris_Hani.jpg" rel="nofollow">Chris Hani</a> <a href="http://www.addotourism.co.za/index.php?page_name=page&menu_id=8&area_id=7" rel="nofollow">Jan Smuts</a> <a href="http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/2628630/Hulton-Archive" rel="nofollow">Daniel Malan</a> <a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1103882/Hundreds-gather-mourn-South-African-anti-apartheid-activist-Helen-Suzman.html" rel="nofollow">Nelson Mandela and Helen Suzman</a> (scroll down to see four relevant photos) <a href="http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0506-06.htm" rel="nofollow">Walter Sisulu</a> <a href="http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/people/bios/makwetu-c.htm" rel="nofollow">Clarence Makwetu</a> <a href="http://www.andiquote.co.za/authors/Steve_Biko.html" rel="nofollow">Steve Biko</a> <a href="http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/images/fw-de-klerk-apartheid.jpg" rel="nofollow">F.W. de Klerk</a> <a href="http://i.wp.pl/a/f/jpeg/24177/afp_janusz_walus_rpa.jpeg" rel="nofollow">Janusz Waluś</a> <a href="http://www.timeslive.co.za/multimedia/dynamic/00727/Clive_Derby-Lewis_727730b.jpg" rel="nofollow">Clive Derby-Lewis</a> <a href="http://rwrant.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/AlanPaton.jpg" rel="nofollow">Alan Paton</a> <a href="http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2009/8/17/1250512893687/Joe-Slovo-001.jpg" rel="nofollow">Joe Slovo</a>

Robert Cutts, bob@winton.me.uk

This description was first incorporated in June 2007 and has been revised and expanded several times since. The current version dates from March 2011.

Photo uploaded: June 2007