COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China

COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China
COVID-19 attack rate in Mainland China.svg
Confirmed COVID-19 cases in mainland China per 100,000 inhabitants by province as of 3 October 2020[1]
  118.25 cases per 100,000 (Hubei)
  3–5 cases per 100,000
  1–3 cases per 100,000
  0.5–1 cases per 100,000
  >0–0.5 cases per 100,000
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationMainland China
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei[2]
Index case1 December 2019
(2 years, 3 months and 6 days ago)
Confirmed cases111,195[3]
Recovered102,318[4]
Deaths
4,636[3]
Vaccinations
  • 1,269,302,000[3] (total vaccinated)
  • 1,234,540,000[3] (fully vaccinated)
  • 3,160,685,000[3] (doses administered)

The COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). China was the first country to experience an outbreak of the disease, the first to impose drastic measures in response (including lockdowns and face mask mandates), and one of the first countries to bring the outbreak under control.

The outbreak was first manifested as a cluster of mysterious pneumonia cases, mostly related to the Huanan Seafood Market, in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province. It was first reported to the local government on 27 December 2019 and published on 31 December. On 8 January 2020, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the cause of the pneumonia by Chinese scientists.[5]

During the beginning of the pandemic, the Chinese government showed a pattern of secrecy and top-down control.[6] It censored discussions about the outbreak since the beginning of its spread, from as early as 1 January,[7][8] worked to censor and counter reporting and criticism about the crisis – which included the detention of several citizen journalists[9] – and portray the official response to the outbreak in a positive light,[10][11][12] and restricted and facilitated investigations probing the origins of COVID-19.[6][13] Some commentators suspect the Chinese government has deliberately under-reported the extent of infections and deaths.[14][15][16] However, contrary to popular speculation, academic studies have found no evidence that China manipulates COVID-19 data.[17][18][19][20][21]

The local governments of Wuhan and Hubei were widely criticized for their delayed responses to the virus and their censorship of the related information during the initial outbreak, especially during the local parliamentary sessions. This allowed early spread of the virus,[22] as a large number of Chinese people returned home for the Chinese New Year vacation from and through Wuhan, a major transportation hub.[23][24] However, stringent measures such as lockdown of Wuhan and the wider Hubei province and face mask mandates were introduced around 23 January,[25] which significantly lowered and delayed the epidemic peak according to epidemiology modelling.[26] Yet, by 29 January, the virus was found to have spread to all provinces of mainland China.[27][28][29] By the same date, all provinces had launched high-level public health emergency responses.[30] Many inter-province bus services[31] and railway services were suspended.[32] On 31 January, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.[29] A severe shortage of face masks and other protective gear[33] led several countries to send international aid, including medical supplies, to China.[34][35][36]

By late February, the pandemic had been brought under control in most Chinese provinces. On 25 February, the reported number of newly confirmed cases outside mainland China exceeded those reported from within for the first time; the WHO estimated that the measures taken in the country averted a significant number of cases.[37] By 6 March the reported number of new cases had dropped to fewer than 100 nationally per day, down from thousands per day at the height of the crisis. On 13 March, the reported number of newly imported cases passed that of domestically transmitted new cases for the first time.[38]

By the Summer of 2020, widespread community transmission in China had been ended, and restrictions were significantly eased.[39] Sporadic local outbreaks caused by imported cases have happened since then, which authorities responded to with testing and restrictions.[40] Different neighbourhoods or townships were classified into high-, medium- or low-risk based on the number of confirmed cases and whether there were cluster cases,[41] which formed the basis for the gradual easing of lockdown measures since March.[42] Lockdown in hard-hit Wuhan was officially lifted on 8 April.[43]

China is one of just a few of countries that have pursued a zero-COVID strategy, which aims to eliminate transmission of the virus within the country and allow resumption of normal economic and social activity.[44]

Despite concerns about automated social control, health codes generated by software have been used for contact tracing: only people with green code can move freely, while those with red or yellow code need to be reported to the government.[43][45] With domestic tourism first reopened among the pandemic-hit industries,[46][47] China's economy continued to broaden recovery from the recession during the pandemic, with stable job creation and record international trade growth, although retail consumption was still slower than predicted.[48][49] China was the only major economy to report economic growth in 2020.[50]

In July 2020, the government granted an emergency use authorization for two COVID-19 vaccines.[51][52] It has also pledged or provided humanitarian assistance to other countries dealing with the virus.[10][11] By June 2021, a billion doses of domestically produced vaccine had been administered in China, giving a dose rate similar to many European countries.[53][54] A further billion doses had been administered by late August of the same year.[55] Another 1 billion doses were administered by the end of January 2022. In February 2022, Pfizer's Covid therapy tablet Paxlovid has received conditional approval in China. It is the first oral pill created exclusively to treat the disease in the country.[56]

Graphics

Context

New infectious diseases impose a serious threat to the health of the general public. Their origins are often mysterious despite intensive research efforts.[57] Although human coronaviruses (CoVs) had been known as major pathogens to cause the common cold,[58][59] a new species of coronavirus, namely SARS-CoV caused an epidemic involving 29 countries during 2002–03 which infected 8098 persons and killed 774 of them.[59] The evidence shows that the virus might have originated from an animal coronavirus, but somehow entered the human population.[59][60][61] Its outbreak also implies that animal coronaviruses could be a potential danger to humans.[59]

Since the 2003 SARS outbreak, the general public and the scientific community in China have been worried about the potential return of the deadly virus which motivated the Chinese government to reform its public health system to handle the next public health crisis.[62][63][64] As part of the reform, China expanded the laboratory networks to handle the pathogens of the infectious diseases which included a newly built BSL-4 laboratory in Wuhan and a national key laboratory to investigate into pneumonia with unclear causes.[65] Zeng Guang, the Chief Scientist at China CDC believed that a quicker publication of the epidemic information was a lesson that China learned from the SARS outbreak as the lack of information release worsened the outbreak.[65]

With the improved public health system, China managed to handle several public health emergencies. In coping with the 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak starting from Mexico, China developed and distributed vaccines to 100 million people within months as an active prevention.[64] During the 2013 H7N9 outbreak in East China, the country's health system identified the pathogen 5 days after the outbreak. Test kits for diagnosis were designed and distributed to all mainland provinces 3 days after the identification. Within months, effective vaccines were developed. Besides, Chinese academic Li Lanjuan and her group was the first to reveal the virus's transmission methods, molecular mechanisms and effective treatment.[66]

However, Southern Metropolis Daily stated that although people paid more attention to public health, the government's funding to the health system was far from enough as CDCs in smaller municipalities had to reduce their staff. 10 years after the SARS outbreak, few people wore a face mask when they had respiratory symptoms and the hospitals were cutting the fever clinics off.[67] Despite confidence in winning the next battle against SARS, Zhong Nanshan who earned fame in fighting the SARS outbreak in 2003 still held a conservative attitude to whether the Chinese officials would lie to the people about a disease outbreak.[64]

Early cases surrounding the animal market suggested potential animal-to-human transmission while later the virus was found to be able to transmit from ill people to others.[68] There have been cases where asymptomatic patients transmitted the virus to others.[69][70] According to China NHC, the virus transmits by droplets or close contact[71] while some proposed that feces could also be where the virus hides and transmits from.[72][73] The typical symptoms of the viral infection included fever, dry cough, dyspnea, headache and pneumonia[74] which are usually developed after an incubation time lasting as long as 2 weeks.[75] The existence of mild but infectious cases complicated the epidemic control efforts.[76] It is also noticed that patients might be able to transmit the virus even during the incubation period.[77]

Initial outbreak

Discovery

One of the earliest Wuhan MHC notices about the pneumonia epidemic. It was first posted on Weibo on 30 December 2019 and was confirmed by Wuhan CDC the next day (31 December).

Based on retrospective analysis published in The Lancet in late January, the first confirmed patient started experiencing symptoms on 1 December 2019,[78] though the South China Morning Post later reported that a retrospective analysis showed the first case may have been a 55-year-old patient from Hubei province as early as 17 November.[79][80] On 27 March 2020, news outlets citing a government document reported a 57-year-old woman, who started having symptoms on 10 December 2019 and subsequently tested positive for the COVID-19 disease may have been the index case in the COVID-19 pandemic.[81][82] Although the first confirmed patient did not have any exposure to Huanan Seafood Market, an outbreak of the virus began among the people who had been exposed to the market nine days later.[23][83]

The outbreak went unnoticed until 26 December 2019, when Zhang Jixian, director of the Department of Respiratory Medicine at Hubei Xinhua Hospital, noticed a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown origin, several of whom had connections to the Huanan Seafood Market.[84] She subsequently alerted the hospital, as well as municipal and provincial health authorities, which issued an alert on 30 December.[84][85][86] Results from patient samples obtained on 29–30 December indicated the presence of a novel coronavirus, related to SARS.[84] On 1 January 2020, Jianghan District's Health Agency and Administration for Market Regulation closed down the seafood market and collected samples for testing.[87] The World Health Organization (WHO) issued its first report on the outbreak on 5 January 2020.[88] Professor Zhang Yongzhen of Fudan University completed sequencing of the novel virus on the same day, and published the results to the online database GenBank on 11 January.[84] On 14 January, the WHO tweeted:

Preliminary investigations conducted by the Chinese authorities have found no clear evidence of human-to-human transmission of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) identified in Wuhan, China.

— [89]

On 15 February 2021, WHO investigators in China said they had found evidence that the initial outbreak in Wuhan was more widespread than originally thought. They asked the Chinese government for permission to study hundreds of thousands of blood samples from Wuhan; as of 15 February, this permission had not been granted.[90]

Measures and impact in Hubei

Most people on a bus wearing a mask, Hubei province, 23 January 2020.
Semi-log graph of new cases and deaths in China during COVID-19 epidemic showing the lockdown and lifting

Semi-log graph of 3-day rolling average of new cases and deaths in China during COVID-19 epidemic showing the lockdown on 23 January and partial lifting on 19 March.

A retrospective study of antibody prevalence estimated that close to 500,000 people in Wuhan may have been infected during the outbreak.[91]

Spreading beyond Hubei

Number of cases (blue) and number of deaths (red) on a logarithmic scale. Numbers including Hong Kong and Macau.

On January 25, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping warned that China was facing a 'grave situation'.[92][93] He held a Party Politburo meeting which promised resources and experts for treatment and supplies to Hubei[94] as more and more cases of the viral infection, mostly exported from Wuhan were confirmed in other cities in Hubei[27] and multiple parts in mainland China.[95] On 29 January, Tibet announced its first confirmed case, a male who traveled from Wuhan to Lhasa by rail on 22–24 January[96] which marked that the virus spread to all parts of mainland China.[27][28][29]

The 25 January Chinese New Year celebrations were canceled in many cities. Public transportation passengers were checked for their temperatures to see whether they had a fever.[97] Henan, Wuxi, Hefei, Shanghai, Inner Mongolia suspended trade of living poultry on 21 January.[98]

Financial Times described the outbreak as China's Chernobyl moment, increasing the pressure on its leader, Xi Jinping. A trade war with the US, Hong Kong protests, and an African swine fever outbreak that led to a pork shortage already placed pressure on the current government.[99][100]

At the end of December 2019, Henan announced the suspension of passenger trains to and from Wuhan. In early January 2020, the local government of Henan Province with its complete disinfection measures, effective and intensive publicity, a strong awareness of epidemic prevention and quarantine among the people, the setting up of return spots at the village entrance and even the use of garbage trucks, the digging of trenches to block roads connecting Hubei and the hanging of slogans such as "return home with sickness is to dishonor your parents." #抄河南的作业 (lit. 'copy Henan's homework') became a trending Weibo topic hashtag.[101][102][103]

However, cutting the roads off without authorization is illegal in mainland China as Xinhua and the Public Security Ministry pointed out.[104][105] The Ministry of Transport asked the local governments to take the principle of "block one, not three (Chinese: 一断三不断)", that is, to block the virus from spreading, but not to block roads, traffic and Internet access, the transportation of emergency supplies and the transportation of essential goods.[106]

Staff examining cars for epidemic control at Qujiang entry to Xi'an Bypass
Body temperature screening at Jishuitan subway station, Beijing

Public Health Emergency declarations

Doctor father and son encouraging each other to fight the virus in Chenzhou, Hunan

By 21 January, government officials warned against hiding the disease.[107]

On 22 January, Hubei launched a Class 2 Response to Public Health Emergency.[108] Ahead of the Hubei authorities, a Class 1 Response to Public Health Emergency, the highest response level was announced by the mainland province of Zhejiang on 23.[109][110] Guangdong and Hunan followed suit later on the day. On the following day, Hubei[95] and other 13 mainland provinces[111][112][113][114] also launched a Class 1 Response. By 29, all parts of mainland initiated a Class 1 Response after Tibet upgraded its response level on that day.[30]

The highest response level authorizes a provincial government to requisition resources under the administration to control the epidemic. The government was allowed to organize and coordinate treatment for the patients, make investigations into the epidemic area, declare certain areas in the province as an epidemic control area, issue compulsory orders, manage human movement, publish information and reports, sustain social stability and to do other work related to epidemic control.[115]

National impacts

Social impacts

Holidays, tourism and events

On 26 January, the State Council extended the 2020 Spring Festival holiday to 2 February (Sunday, the ninth day of the first lunar month) with 3 February (Monday) marking the start of normal work. The educational institutions postponed the start of school.[116] The different provinces made their own policies about holiday extension.[117]

Miss Universe China 2020 was originally scheduled to take place on 8 March 2020; however, on 21 February 2020, the Miss Universe China Organization announced that the pageant was cancelled and postponed to a later date due to the pandemic.[118] The new date was later announced as 9 December 2020.

Ridership was significantly reduced at 4 May Square Station of Qingdao Metro Line 3 during the epidemic.

On 21 January, the Wuhan Culture and Tourism Bureau postponed a tourism promotion activity to the city's citizens. All qualified citizens will be able to continue the qualification in the Bureau's next activity.[119] On 23 January, the Bureau announced the temporary closing of museums, memorials, public libraries and cultural centers in Wuhan from 23 January to 8 February.[120] All tour groups to and from Wuhan will be canceled.[121][122]

On 23 January, the City Administration of Dongcheng, Beijing cancelled temple fairs in Longtan and Temple of Earth, originally scheduled for 25 January.[123] The Beijing Culture and Tourism Bureau later announced cancellations of all major events including temple fairs.[124] The tourist attractions in Beijing[125] and Tianjin,[126] including the Forbidden City and the National Maritime Museum closed their doors to the public from 24 January. On the evening of 23 January, the Palace Museum decided to shut down from 25 January[127] and the West Lake in Hangzhou announced shutting all paid attractions and the Music Fountain down and suspended the services of all large-scale cruise ships starting the next day.[128] Since 24 January, many major attractions are shut down nationwide including the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing,[129] Shanghai Disneyland, Pingyao Ancient City in Shanxi, Canton Tower in Guangdong, the Old Town of Lijiang, Yunnan and Mount Emei in Sichuan.[130]

Sports

For the 2020 Olympic women's football qualifier, the third round of the Group B matches for the Asian division was planned to be held in Wuhan and later Nanjing,[131] but the match was finally held in Sydney, Australia.[132] The 2020 Chinese FA Super Cup, to be held in Suzhou on 5 February 2020 was postponed.[133] The 2020 Asian Champions League play-off match between Shanghai SIPG and Buriram United were played behind closed doors.[134] The Chinese Football Association announced that the 2020 season is postponed from 30 January.[135] The Asian Football Confederation postponed all home matches for Chinese clubs in the Champions League group stage. The three of them had not played a single game yet as of 3 March 2020.[136]

The Olympic boxing qualifier[137][138] has also been rescheduled to March and the venue has been moved to Amman, Jordan.[139] The Group B of the Olympic women's basketball qualifiers, originally scheduled to be held in Foshan, Guangdong was also moved to Belgrade, Serbia.[140]

As for the other major sports events, FIS Alpine Ski World Cup, scheduled for 15–16 February 2020 was canceled due to the outbreak. The event was originally planned to be the 2022 Winter Olympics' first test. The 2020 World Athletics Indoor Championships, originally scheduled to take place in Nanjing from 13 to 15 March are postponed for a year and will be held at the same venue.[141] The Confederations Cup Asia Pacific Group I, scheduled to be held in Dongguan, Guangdong was moved to Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.[142]

The State General Administration of Sports announced a suspension of all sporting events until April. The Mudanjiang Sports Culture Winter Camp[143] and China Rally Championship Changbai Mountains[144] are both suspended. After the postponement of national women's basketball games, the Chinese Volleyball Association suspended all volleyball matches and activities.[145]

The 2020 Sanya ePrix, due to take place on 21 March as the third round of the Formula E season was postponed to a yet to be announced date.[146] On 12 February, the 2020 Chinese Grand Prix, due to take place on 19 April as the fourth round of the 2020 Formula One World Championship was also postponed.[147]

The Lingshui China Masters badminton tournament, scheduled to commence on 25 February to 1 March 2020 was postponed to early May.[148]

China's 14th National Winter Games, originally scheduled for 16–26 February were also postponed.[149]

Education

On 21 January 2020, the Ministry of Education (MoE) requested the education system to do a good job in the prevention and control of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection. After that, private education providers including New Oriental, NewChannel and TAL Education,[150] education departments in Hubei,[151] Zhejiang,[152] Shenzhen,[153] and Shanghai University[154] cancelled all ongoing courses and postponed the new semester. On 27 January, MoE advised all higher education institutions to postpone the new spring semester with all local education departments to determine the starting time of the new semester for K-12 education and local colleges according to the decision of the local governments.[155] The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security also decided to put the new semester off for all vocational education facilities.[156]

The National Education Examinations Authority canceled all IELTS, TOEFL and GRE exams scheduled for February. The decision was first made for tests to be held in Wuhan and extended to those in all parts of mainland China.[157][158] MoE also urged the Chinese students studying abroad to delay their travels. For those who need to go abroad, MoE advised them to arrive earlier in case of any kind of health check and to stop traveling if they have any signs of coughing and fever.[159]

On 28 January, the National Civil Service Bureau said that it would postpone the 2020 civil service recruitment examination, public selection and public selection interview time.[160]

Civil life

Civil Affairs authorities in Shanghai, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Jinan, Ningbo and Gansu announced on 25 January that they would cancel the special arrangement of marriage registration scheduled for 2 February 2020 to avoid the spread of the epidemic and cross-infection caused by the gathering of people.[161][162][163][164] Later, on 30 January, the Ministry of Civil Affairs ordered to cancel marriage registrations on 2 February.[165]

Religion

The government of China, which upholds a policy of state atheism, used the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic to continue its antireligious campaigns, demolishing Xiangbaishu Church in Yixing and removing a Christian Cross from the steeple of a church in Guiyang County.[166][167]

Politics

A temporary hospital constructed in Wuhan in February

The outbreak made an impact on the National People's Congress (NPC), China's national parliament and many local parliaments. On 27 January, the Provincial People's Congress Standing Committee (PPCSC) of Yunnan announced to postpone local Lianghui sessions scheduled for early February which was followed by the PPCSC of Sichuan on 28 January. The local parliament sessions of cities including Hohhot, Chengdu, Jinan, Qingdao, Binzhou, Zhengzhou, Pingdingshan, Anyang, Hefei, Changzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Zhoushan, Ganzhou, Shangluo, and Jiangjin were also put off.[168]

The NPC's Standing Committee will discuss on 24 February to decide whether to delay its March session or not.[169] The 10-day session in March is an annual gathering of about 3,000 delegates from all parts of China where the major laws are passed and key economic targets are unveiled. The potential delay will be the first time since 1995 when the NPC first adopted the schedule for the March session.[170] Willy Lam, a political analyst at the Chinese University of Hong Kong believed that the sessions may not only increase the risk of infections but also "post hostile and embarrassing questions to the top officials about the outbreak." He also believed that canceling the meetings would be possible although this never happened after the Cultural Revolution.[171]

Economic impact

In late January, economists predicted a V-shaped recovery. By March, it was much more uncertain.[172] Millions of workers were stranded far from their jobs while the workplaces were short-handed. The data for February 2020—the first full month after the virus became a major factor in January—saw official indicators of economic activity fall to record lows. The Caixin manufacturing index (PMI) fell to 35.7 in February from 50 in January, showing a deep contraction. The nation's non-manufacturing index sank even further to a record low of 29.6 in February from 54.1 in January 2020. According to The Wall Street Journal, "The factory index indicated contraction for most of 2019, hit by a trade war between the United States and China. It didn't cross back into expansion until late [2019] when trade tensions between the two sides eased."[173]

China's economic growth is expected to slow by up to 1.1 percentage in the first half of 2020 as economic activity is negatively affected by the new COVID-19 outbreak, according to a Morgan Stanley study cited by Reuters.[174] But, on 1 February 2020, the People's Bank of China said that the impact of the epidemic on China's economy was temporary and the fundamentals of China's long-term positive and high-quality growth remained unchanged.[175]

Due to the outbreak, the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange announced that with the approval of the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the Spring Festival holiday was extended to 2 February and trading will resume on 3 February.[176][177] Before that, on 23 January, the last trading day of shares before the Spring Festival, all three major stock indexes opened lower, creating a drop of about 3% and the Shanghai index fell below 3000.[178] On 2 February, the first trading day after the holiday, the three major indexes even set a record low opening of about 8%.[179] By the end of the day, the decline narrowed to about 7%, the Shenzhen index fell below 10,000 points, and a total of 3,177 stocks in the two markets fell.[180]

The People's Bank of China and the State Administration of Foreign Exchange announced that the inter-bank RMB foreign exchange market, the foreign-currency-to-market and the foreign-currency market will extend their holiday closed until 2 February 2020.[181] When the market opened on 3 February, the Renminbi declined against major foreign currencies. The central parity rate of the Renminbi against the US dollar opened at 6.9249, a drop of 373 basis points from the previous trading day.[182] It fell below the 7.00 than an hour after the opening,[183] and closed at 7.0257.[184]

The sale of new cars in China was affected by the outbreak. There was a 92% reduction on the volume of cars sold during the first two weeks of February 2020.[185] According to the sources of Automative News, Chinese policymakers had discussed the extension of subsidies for electric-vehicle purchases beyond this year to revive sales,[185] while also discussing reducing requirements for zero-emission vehicle shares of production.[186]

By 13 March, most business outside of Hubei was active again.[187] The Caixin PMI increased to 50 at the end of March.[188]

During Q1 2020, China's GDP dropped by 6.8 percent, the first contraction since 1992.[189]

In May 2020, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang announced that, for the first time in history, the central government wouldn't set an economic growth target for 2020, with the economy having contracted by 6.8% compared to 2019 and China facing an "unpredictable" time. However, the government also stated an intention to create 9 million new urban jobs until the end of 2020.[190]

By late 2020, the economic recovery was accelerating amid increasing demand for Chinese manufactured goods.[191] The UK-based Centre for Economics and Business Research projected that China's "skilful management of the pandemic" would allow the Chinese economy to surpass the United States and become the world's largest economy by nominal GDP in 2028, five years sooner than previously expected.[192][193] However, a government report cautioned that the recovery was "not yet solid".[194]

Unemployment

In January and February 2020, during the height of the epidemic in Wuhan, about 5 million people in China lost their jobs.[195] Many of China's nearly 300 million rural migrant workers have been stranded at home in inland provinces or trapped in Hubei province.[196][197]

By the end of March, as many as 80 million workers may have been unemployed, according to an estimate by economist Zhang Bin of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences; this estimate included migrant workers and people in rural areas, whom the official statistics from Beijing do not take into account.[198]

Face mask shortage and production

People in Wuhan lining up in front of a drug store to buy surgical masks.
A notice at a supermarket in Beijing, which says each person can only buy a pack of surgical masks and a bottle of 84 disinfectant liquid a day.

In China, face masks have been used widely by the general public during the pandemic, and have been required in many locations.[199] As the epidemic accelerated, the mainland market saw a shortage of face masks due to the increased need from the public.[200] It was reported that Shanghai customers had to queue for nearly an hour to buy a pack of face masks which was sold out in another half an hour.[201] Some stores are hoarding, driving the prices up and other acts so the market regulator said that it will crack down on such acts.[202][203] The shortage will not be relieved until late February when most workers return from the New Year vacation according to Lei Limin, an expert in the industry.[204]

On 22 January 2020, Taobao, China's largest e-commerce platform owned by Alibaba Group said that all face masks on Taobao and Tmall would not be allowed to increase in price. The special subsidies would be provided to the retailers. Also, Alibaba Health's "urgent drug delivery" service would not be closed during the Spring Festival.[205] JD, another leading Chinese e-commerce platform said, "We are actively working to ensure supply and price stability from sources, storage and distribution, platform control and so on" and "while fully ensuring price stability for JD's own commodities, JD.com also exercised strict control over the commodities on JD's platform. Third-party vendors selling face masks are prohibited from raising prices. Once it is confirmed that the prices of third-party vendors have increased abnormally, JD will immediately remove the offending commodities from shelves and deal with the offending vendors accordingly."[206] The other major e-commerce platforms including Sunning.com and Pinduoduo also promised to keep the prices of health products stable.[207][208]

Figures from China Customs show that some 2.46 billion pieces of epidemic prevention and control materials had been imported between 24 January and 29 February, including 2.02 billion masks and 25.38 million items of protective clothing valued at 8.2 billion yuan ($1 billion). Press reported that the China Poly Group, together with other Chinese companies and state-owned enterprises, had an important role in scouring markets abroad to procure essential medical supplies and equipment for China.[209] Risland (formerly Country Garden) sourced 82 tonnes of supplies, which were subsequently airlifted to Wuhan.[210]

By March, China has been producing 100 million masks per day to meet the demand of medical staff and general public.[211]

Environment

The slowdown in manufacturing, construction, transportation and overall economic activity created a temporary reduction by about a quarter in China's greenhouse gas emissions.[212]

Lockdown and curfew

Government-issued permit for Jintan residents. Jintan announced that each family should only have one member to be outdoor for shopping life necessities for every 2 days.

Ever since Hubei's lockdown, areas bordering Hubei including Yueyang in Hunan and Xinyang in Henan set up checkpoints on roads connecting to Hubei to monitor cars and people coming from Hubei.[213][214] Between 24 and 25 January, the local governments of Shanghai, Jiangsu, Hainan and other areas announced to quarantine passengers from "key areas" of Hubei for 14 days.[215][216] Chongqing also announced mandatory screening of every person who arrived from Wuhan since 1 January, and set up 3 treatment centers.[217]

Since 1 February 2020, a curfew law that resembles that of Huanggang, Hubei, was put in place by the city of Wenzhou in Zhejiang, which is the second largest center after Hubei. Each local family can appoint one family member who may leave their house to purchase essential goods every two days.[218] Since 4 February Zhejiang's capital, Hangzhou, announced the closure of all of its villages, residential communities and work units to guests. Those who enter and exit these places must show valid identification papers. Non-residents and cars will be checked strictly.[219][220] On the same day, Yueqing, Ningbo, Zhengzhou, Linyi, Harbin, Nanjing, Xuzhou and Fuzhou began to take the same approach.[221] Zhumadian, Henan, announced that each family were only allowed to have one member leave the house to purchase essential goods every 5 days.[222]

Workers having their temperatures taken as they enter an industrial park in Shenzhen in March 2020

Factories were closed or reduced production for a few weeks. When they opened again, measures were implemented to reduce risk.[223][224]

Many local governments implemented restrictions to control the outbreak, including keeping schools closed, cutting off villages, and restricting travel.[225][226] A smartphone-based health-tracking system was introduced in much of the country.[227]

The media were issued directives instructing them not to use certain terms:

... 各媒体在报道限制出行、受控出入等防控举措时,不使用封城、封路、封门、封条等提法。[228]

... when reporting on limits on travel, controls on movement[,] and other prevention and control measures, do not use formulations like lockdown, road closures, sealed doors[,] or paper seals.

— Cyberspace Administration of China, internal government directive given to all news media, February 2020[228]

On 2 April 2020, the government ordered a Hubei-like lockdown in Jia County, Henan, after a woman tested positive for the COVID-19. It is suspected that she may have been infected when she visited a hospital where three doctors tested positive for the virus, despite showing no symptoms.[229] In early May, restrictions were tightened in Harbin.[230]

In July 2020, Xinjiang province and its capital Ürümqi were locked down in the wake of the discovery of new cases in the city.[231][232]

In January 2021, many cities and districts in the province of Hebei, Jilin and Heilongjiang were put into lockdown to contain a new outbreak in the region.[233]

In October 2021, the city of Lanzhou, capital of Gansu province, was put into lockdown after six new cases were detected.[234]

The city of Ruili bordering Myanmar was reported to have endured four lockdowns with 200 days in total in 2021.[235]

On 22 December, the border city of Dongxing next to Vietnam has ordered residents to stay at home due to one COVID-19 case.[236] The strict measures resulted in severe backlog of trucks at the border crossings and disrupted trade, prompting the Vietnam government to complain.[237]

From 23 December 2021, the city of Xi'an with 13 million people was put into strict lockdown after local authorities reported more than 250 cases,[238] traced to the Delta variant by authorities.[239] The lockdown led to stressed healthcare and delayed or insufficient food deliveries to some parts of the city.[240]

On 4 January 2022, 1.1 million people in Yuzhou, Henan received stay at home order after three asymptomatic COVID-19 cases were reported.[241] In the evening of the same day, Zhengzhou told its residents in risky areas that they could not leave the city without approval from health control authorities. The Xi'an outbreak appeared to ease, with 35 local symptomatic cases reported that day.[242]

On January 11, the city of Zhengzhou has upgraded measures and closed down non-essential services during a citywide mass testing campaign [243] while Anyang has been placed under lockdown.[244]

On January 24, lockdown restrictions were lifted in Xi'an while 2 million residents of Fengtai district of Beijing underwent mass testing.[245]

On February 7, the city of Baise in Guangxi province has been placed under lockdown after 37 symptomatic cases were reported on the day before.[246]

Further outbreaks

On 9 April, a COVID-19 cluster was detected in Heilongjiang Province, which started with an asymptomatic patient returning from the United States and quarantining at home. The US CDC reported that the infections were initially spread through a shared elevator used at different times, and led to at least 71 cases by 22 April.[247] On 10 April, the state-operated Tianshannet reported that there had been no newly confirmed cases of coronavirus in Xinjiang for the preceding 53 days and that there were no coronavirus patients in Xinjiang.[248]

As factories and other businesses reopened, extensive measures were put in place to avoid infection, including temperature checks, handwashing, disinfection, mask wearing, a mobile phone health app, avoiding public transportation, staggered lunches, physical distancing, contact tracing, and opening windows for ventilation. Rules vary by location, with different local governments enforcing different measures.[249]

In June 2020, an outbreak with 45 people testing positive at Xinfadi Market in Beijing caused some alarm.[250] Authorities closed the market and nearby schools; eleven neighborhoods in the Fengtai District started requiring temperature checks and were closed to visitors.[251] By this time, public health technology included special leaf blower backpacks designed to vent hot air onto outdoor surfaces.[252] By the evening of 23 June, Chinese Vice Premier Sun Chunlan declared that the situation had been brought under control.[253] China's traffic authorities vowed to strictly guard traffic out of Beijing: those with abnormal health QR codes or without recently-taken negative PCR test proof would not be allowed to take public transportation or drive out of the capital.[254][255][256]

On 26 July, China saw its highest number of daily cases since March, mostly from outbreaks in Xinjiang and Liaoning.[257] with 61 new cases, up from 46 cases a day earlier,[258] This increased to 127 daily COVID cases on July 30.[259] The daily reported cases subsequently went down, to 16 on August 23.[260]

On October 11, officials in Qingdao urged to carry out contact tracing and mass testing after 12 new cases were found connected to the Qingdao Chest Hospital. On October 12, it was announced that Qingdao would test all 9 million of its residents.[261]

In October, 137 asymptomatic cases were detected in Kashgar, Xinjiang and were linked to a garment factory.[262][263]

On December 18, a local case was reported in Beijing. It was the first local infection in 152 days in Beijing. As of 27 December, thirteen more cases have been detected.[264]

Another outbreak linked to a traveler from South Korea was reported in Liaoning late December. On January 7, 2021, Dalian authorities reported 51 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 31 asymptomatic carriers.[265]

On January 6, 2021, after reporting 63 new cases in the northern province of Hebei, of which 20 were infections and 43 asymptomatic cases locally transmitted, the local Government decided to lockdown the provincial capital city of Shijiazhuang, as most of the cases were detected there. On January 9, the cities of Shijiazhuang and Xingtai with total population of 19 million, were placed under lockdown measures, with passenger trains suspended, as well as flights and coach service to Beijing at 300 km distance in north east direction.[266]

On January 14, Wangkui County of Suihua City, Heilongjiang Province moved into lockdown after reporting 40 confirmed COVID-19 cases. The virus sample taken from the cases in Suihua is reported to be similar to the strain identified in Dalian.[267]

Also on January 14, China reported the first death from the virus after eight months, a patient from Hebei. A team of experts from the WHO visited Wuhan to conduct investigations into the origin of the pandemic. They were also supposed to quarantine for two weeks prior to starting their inquiry.[268] On January 15, the city of Langfang of Hebei was put into lockdown.[269]

By January 18, 11 regions in China were under de facto lockdown, including five districts in Heilongjiang and the cities of Gongzhuling and Tonghua in Jilin province.[270] On January 20, residents of Daxing District of Beijing were banned from leaving the capital region.[271][272]

On April 4, China saw the largest number of reported COVID-19 cases in over two months, with 15 new reported cases of local transmission in the city of Ruili on the Burmese border.[273] This followed a previous outbreak in Ruili in September 2020.[274] Unauthorized border crossings from Myanmar remain a concern, and the local government has started vaccinating Ruili residents to work towards herd immunity.[273]

On May 30, authorities shut down Liwen district in Guangzhou and Yantian port in Shenzhen due to an outbreak in Guangdong province.[275] Foshan's Shadi Airport has cancelled all flights and suspended operations from June 12.[276]

On June 6, Ruili was again put into lockdown after three local infections associated with the Delta variant.[277]

It was reported on 10 July 2021 that the new outbreak has spread to 13 cities in five provinces including the capital Beijing. The cases were linked to cleaners who worked on a flight from Russia that arrived in Nanjing on 10 July 2021 who did not follow strict hygiene measures. Officials added that the highly contagious Delta variant of the virus was behind these new infections and there are worries about whether the Chinese vaccines would work against the Delta variant.[278]

On July 21, another local cluster was identified in Nanjing after 17 airport workers have tested positive during a routine check up.[279] By August 2, the outbreak, caused by fast-spreading Delta variant, has reached more than 20 cities. Zhuzhou, Zhangjiajie and Yangzhou were forced into lockdowns.[280] Some flights, trains and buses to Beijing have been cancelled to guard the capital against the new surge.[281]

On September 11, another cluster of infections was found in Xianyou county of Putian, Fujian province.[282] Multiple clusters have also emerged in Bayan county of Harbin, Heilongjiang, the source of infections remains unclear.[283]

On October 23, China reported the highest number of new cases since the September outbreak in Fujian, with domestic infections reported in Ejin Banner of Inner Mongolia and in Lanzhou, Gansu and new cases reported in Beijing, Ningxia, Jiangxi and Yunnan. Another outbreak by imported case was reported in the northern border town of Heihe, Heilongjiang province.[284]

In early November, Dalian reported more than 80 cases of COVID-19, the first of which occurred in a warehouse worker in the Zhuanghe district of the city on November 4. In response, on November 8 local authorities ordered all businesses handling imported chilled and frozen foods to suspend operations.[285]

In mid-December, the outbreak in the cities of Ningbo, Shaoxing and Hangzhou was developing at a "relatively rapid" speed, forcing closure of flights and venues.[286] The outbreak began to subside from mid December, with Hangzhou resuming low-risk status as of 21 December.[239]

On 26 December, 155 domestically transmitted cases with confirmed symptoms were reported from Xi'an, contributing the largest part to the countrywide highest daily count since the outbreak in Wuhan, of 158 cases.[287] The city was placed into strict lockdown until January 24, 2022.

Government response

During the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China, the government of China has followed a zero COVID strategy to prevent the spread of COVID-19.[288] After discovery of a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province, a public notice on the outbreak was distributed on 31 December 2019.[289] On 8 January 2020, a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was announced by Chinese scientists as the cause of the new disease;[290] the virus was sequenced and its genome uploaded online.[291]

On 23 January 2020, the Chinese government banned travel to and from Wuhan, enforced strict quarantines in affected regions and initiated a national response.[289] The epidemic in Hubei province peaked on 4 February 2020.[289] Large temporary hospitals were built in Wuhan to isolate patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms, with the first opening on 5 February 2020.[292] The epidemic was heavily concentrated within Hubei province and Wuhan. Through 22 March 2020, over 80% of the recorded cases in China were in Hubei province, with over 60% of cases nationwide occurring in Wuhan alone.[293]

By the summer of 2020, China had largely brought the outbreak under control, ending widespread community transmission.[294] After the initial outbreak, lockdowns and other restrictive measures were eased throughout China.[295] The lockdown in Wuhan was lifted on 8 April 2020.[295] The epidemic control measures in China held the death toll due to COVID-19 to under 5,000.[296]

China is one of a small number of countries that have pursued an elimination strategy, sustaining zero or low case numbers over the long term.[295] Most cases in China are imported from abroad, and several new outbreaks have been quickly controlled through intense short-term public health measures, including large-scale testing, contact tracking technology, and mandatory isolation of infected individuals.[295] In the 18 months after the containment of the initial outbreak in Wuhan, two COVID-19 deaths were recorded.[297][298]

In 2020 and 2021, China was the largest exporter of COVID-19 critical medical products.[299][300] China was the world's largest exporter of face masks, increasing exports by around 600% in the first half of 2020.[300] A number of COVID-19 vaccines have been developed in China. Through November 2021, China was the world's largest exporter of COVID-19 vaccines, with a cumulative share of around 40% of worldwide exports (totaling around 1.5 billion doses), according to the World Trade Organization.[301]

China's response to the initial Wuhan COVID-19 outbreak has been both praised and criticised. Some have criticised the censorship of information that might be unfavorable for local officials. Observers have attributed this to a culture of institutional censorship affecting the country's press and Internet. The government censored whistleblowers, journalists, and social media posts about the outbreak. During the beginning of the pandemic, the Chinese government made efforts to clamp down on discussion and hide reporting about it. Efforts to fund and control research into the virus's origins and to promote fringe theories about the virus have continued up to the present.[302] In October 2020, The Lancet Infectious Diseases reported: "While the world is struggling to control COVID-19, China has managed to control the pandemic rapidly and effectively."[303]

International and regional relations

Information sharing

China's scientists have been praised for rapidly sharing information on the virus to the international community,[304][305] and leading some of the world's research on the disease.[306] Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said on 21 January that the Chinese authorities would share information of the epidemic "with the WHO, relevant nations and China's Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions in a timely manner including the genome sequence of the new coronavirus."[307] During the sidelines of the World Economic Forum, Germany's health minister Jens Spahn praised China for its improved transparency since 2003.[308] US officials and WHO also praised China for sharing data about the epidemic and keeping transparent. The US experts had been invited by China's NHC.[309] On 23 January, the WHO director-general, Tedros Adhanom and the WHO regional director for the Western Pacific, Takeshi Kasai, arrived in Beijing to discuss the new coronavirus outbreak with the Chinese authorities and health experts.[310] China agreed on 28 January that the WHO would send international experts to China.[311]

John Mackenzie, a member of the World Health Organization's emergency committee criticized China for being too slow to share all of the infected cases, especially during major political meetings in Wuhan after Tedros Adhanom praised China for helping "prevent the spread of coronavirus to the other countries."[312] US President Donald Trump said that China was "very secretive and that's unfortunate" regarding the information on the pandemic.[313] Yanzhong Huang, a health expert at Seton Hall University, said that China could have been more forceful and "when there was a cover-up and there was inaction".[314]

A number of other countries' governments have called for an international examination of the virus's origin and spread.[315][316]

After an initial block, the Chinese government granted permission for a WHO team to visit China and investigate COVID-19's origins. In January 2021, Tedros Adhanom expressed his dismay as China blocked the team's entry.[317] The Chinese government had previously agreed to allow the team's entry.[318][319] A few days later, permission was granted for the team to arrive.[320][13][321] A WHO-affiliated health expert said expectations that the team would reach a conclusion from their trip should be "very low".[322]

Evacuations

Multiple countries evacuated or are trying to evacuate their citizens from Wuhan including South Korea, Japan, the US, the UK, Kazakhstan, Germany, Spain, Canada, Russia, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, France, Switzerland and Thailand.[323] Korean media Channel A said that China asked the evacuation flights to arrive in the evening and leave Wuhan in the next morning so the evacuation would not be seen by the public.[324] According to BBC, any Chinese national, even with a UK citizenship is not allowed to be evacuated by the UK.[325]

Taiwan

After initially refusing to allow Taiwanese citizens to evacuate due to the One-China policy,[326] the Chinese government eventually allowed Taiwan to evacuate its nationals from Wuhan with the assistance of the local Taiwan Affairs Office.[327] There were around 500 Taiwanese trapped in Wuhan. The first flight to help them leave left Wuhan on 3 February.[328] All of them would be quarantined for two weeks after they enter Taiwan.[327]

The evacuation halted after the first flight was found to carry an infected case. The Taiwanese government said that the person was not in the evacuation list and the most vulnerable were not included in the first flight. It also said that it was not prepared to take these people with a high risk of viral infections home.[329] Tsai Ing-wen criticized China's attempt to rule Taiwan out in WHO and said, "The information obtained by the WHO was obviously inaccurate ... and could cause the WHO to make mistakes in dealing with the global epidemic."[330] Premier Su Tseng-chang called for a government-to-government negotiation for the following arrangement of chapter flights[331] despite the fact that the cross-strait communication mechanism between governments had been suspended since 2016 when Tsai was elected president.[332]

The State Council's Taiwan Affairs Office urged the Taiwanese government to stop impeding the evacuation.[333] The office said that before the flight, all of the passengers signed a personal declaration claiming that they have no contact with any confirmed or suspected cases and promising to comply with quarantine measures after returning to the island. All of the passengers are checked for their temperature three times before the flight and showed no abnormality. The office said critically that the Taiwanese government first expressed appreciation before the flight, but changed its attitude after the flight.[334] Wuhan's Taiwan Affairs Office asked Taiwan for more details about the infected case as the basic descriptions of the patient including age and gender were not given as previously 17 cases in Taiwan. The office also said that the patient's close relatives were not at all informed of the viral infection.[335]

Immigration control

Since 25 January 2020, all passengers entering or exiting mainland China in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong must write a health declaration where the individual must answer whether they have been to Hubei Province. This declaration form can also be filled by using WeChat.[336]

The State Administration of Immigration promised that the border inspection agencies at all ports of entry and exit in China would continue to provide necessary facilities and services for Chinese citizens returning home.[337] On 25 January, the General Administration of Customs reactivated the health declaration system where people entering or exiting mainland China are asked to write a health declaration. Border control staff shall also cooperate in health and quarantine work such as body temperature monitoring, medical inspection, and medical check-up.[338] On 31 January, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that it was arranging charter flights to take the Chinese citizens from Hubei and Wuhan back to Wuhan 124, given the practical difficulties that they faced overseas.[339]

Hubei suspended the processing of applications from mainland Chinese residents for entry and exit of mainland China. For those with a valid visa to enter Hong Kong and Macao, but fail to enter the areas due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the Chinese Immigration Administration will issue a new visa for free on request of the visa holder after the outbreak is lifted. Some of automated border clearance systems will be shut down according to the needs of the epidemic prevention. After Wuhan declared lockdown on 23 January, the Tianhe Airport and Hankou River ports have been without passengers for several days.[337]

Since 25 January,[340] Taiwan's government banned anyone from mainland China entering the country with[328] the ban extended to mainland Chinese overseas.[341] Although the global health officials advised not to apply travel restrictions on China, the US and Australia restricted all Chinese citizens from China from entering their borders.[342] Travel restrictions were announced by Russia, Japan, Pakistan and Italy and other countries despite China's criticism of border control.[343][344]

Since 28 January, the Hong Kong government began to cut traffic down connecting mainland China.[311][345] On the same day, China's National Immigration Administration announced that with immediate effect, the application of mainland residents' visa to Hong Kong and Macau would be suspended.[346] On 3 February, Hong Kong closed most of its border to mainland China.[347][348] However, Hong Kong nurses still held a strike, demanding a complete closure.[349]

International aid

China received funds and equipment in donations from a number of other countries to help fight the pandemic.[34][35][36][350] The United Front Work Department (UFWD) also coordinated diplomatic channels, state-owned businesses and Chinese diaspora community associations in urging overseas Chinese to buy masks and send them to China. Jorge Guajardo, Mexico's former ambassador to China, suggested that "China was evidently hiding the extent of a pandemic...while covertly securing PPE at low prices", according to Global News. Guajardo called it a "surreptitious" operation that left "the world naked with no supply of PPE."[351]

China has also sent tests, equipment, experts, and vaccines to other countries to help fight the pandemic.[352][12][353] European Commissioner for Crisis Management Janez Lenarčič expressed gratitude and praised collaboration between the EU and China.[354] Chinese aid has also been well received in parts of Latin America and Africa.[355][356] Chinese-Americans also marshalled networks in China to obtain medical supplies.[357]

On 13 March, China sent medical supplies, including masks and respirators to Italy, together with a team of Chinese medical staff.[358][359] While the head of the Italian Red Cross, Francesco Rocca said these medical supplies were donated by the Chinese Red Cross,[360] there were other sources that said that these were paid products and services.[361][12] Chinese billionaire and Alibaba co-founder Jack Ma also donated 500,000 masks and other medical supplies, which landed at Liege Airport in Belgium on 13 March and then sent to Italy.[359][362] Italian Prime Minister Conte thanked China for its support and assistance.[363] A former Mexican ambassador Jorge Guajardo said that masks sent to China in January and February were being sold back to Mexico at 20 to 30 times the price.[351]

A U.S. congressional report released in April concluded that "the Chinese government may selectively release some medical supplies for overseas delivery, with designated countries selected, according to political calculations."[351]

On 18 May 2020, the Chinese government pledged US$2 billion to help other countries fight COVID-19 and to aid economic and social development "especially [in] developing countries".[315]

China has also provided vaccines to other countries. In November 2021, the Chinese government pledged to provide 1 billion vaccine doses to African countries, including 600 million donated doses and 400 million other doses, in addition to the 200 million doses it had already provided. In the same announcement, Xi pledged additional investment in Africa and promised to send 1,500 public health experts.[364]

Equipment exports

From March through December 2020, China exported pandemic control equipment worth ¥438.5 billion (US$67.82 billion), including 224.1 billion masks, 2.31 billion other pieces of PPE clothing, 1.08 billion test kits, and 271,000 ventilators. A customs spokesperson said the mask exports were equivalent to "nearly 40 masks for everyone in the world outside China".[365]

Officials in Spain, Turkey, and the Netherlands have rejected Chinese-made equipment for being defective.[366] The Dutch Ministry of Health announced it had recalled 600,000 face masks which were made in China.[367][366] The Spanish government said they bought thousands of test kits to combat the virus, but later revealed that almost 60,000 did not produce accurate results. The Chinese embassy in Spain said that the company that made the kits was unlicensed, and that these kits were separate from the ones donated by the Chinese government.[366] The government of the United Kingdom paid two companies in China at least $20 million for test kits later found to be faulty.[368]

Discrimination

Fear, regional discrimination in China, and racial discrimination within and beyond China increased with the growing number of reported cases of infections despite calls for stopping the discrimination by many governments.[369][370] Some rumors circulated across Chinese social media, along with endorsements and counter-rumor efforts by media and governments.[371][372] The Chinese government has worked to censor and counter reporting and criticism about the crisis – which included the prosecution of several citizen journalists[9] – and portray the official response to the outbreak in a positive light. They have also provided humanitarian assistance to other countries dealing with the virus.[10][11][12] News outlets have reported concerns that the Chinese government has deliberately under-reported the extent of infections and deaths.[14][15][16]

Hubei residents

Although there has been support from Chinese online towards those in virus-stricken areas,[373] instances of regional discrimination have also arisen.[369] According to World Journal, there have been instances of Wuhan natives in other provinces being turned away from hotels, having their ID numbers, home addresses and telephone numbers deliberately leaked online or dealing with harassing phone calls from strangers. Some places also reportedly had signs saying "people from Wuhan and cars from Hubei are not welcomed here."[374] Numerous hotels, and guest houses refused entry to residents of Wuhan or kicked out residents of Hubei.[375] Multiple hotels purportedly refused a Wuhan tour guide to check in after she returned to Hangzhou from Singapore with one of them calling the police to give her a health check and asking the police to quarantine her. Amidst these incidents, various cities and prefectures outside of Hubei adopted resettlement measures for Hubei people in their region such as designated hotel accommodation for visitors from the province.[376] In Zhengding, Jingxing and Luquan of Shijiazhuang City, the local governments rewarded anyone who reported those who had been to Wuhan, but not recorded in official documents at least 1,000 yuan RMB. In Meizhou, residents reporting people entering from Hunan were awarded with 30 face masks.[377]

It was reported that on a scheduled 27 January China Southern Airlines flight from Nagoya to Shanghai, some Shanghainese travellers refused to board with 16 others from Wuhan. Two of the Wuhan travellers were unable to board due to a fever while the Shanghainese on the spot alleged that the others had taken medicine to bypass the temperature check.[374] One of the Wuhan tourists protested on Weibo, "are they really my countrymen?", to which a Shanghai tourist who was purportedly at the scene replied that they did it to protect Shanghai from the virus.[376] Many netizens criticized the Wuhan tourists for travelling with a fever, although some also called for understanding and for Shanghainese not to regionally discriminate.[378][379]

Outside mainland China

Mainland Chinese overseas have experienced discrimination and anti-Chinese sentiment during the COVID-19 outbreak.[380] In Hong Kong, a Japanese noodle restaurant said it would refuse mainland Chinese customers and said on Facebook, "We want to live longer. We want to safeguard local customers. Please excuse us."[381] In Japan, a sweet shop in Hakone and a ramen restaurant in Sapporo posted "no Chinese" signs outside.[382] Similar events were reported in South Korea.[380] The French newspaper Courrier Picard published two articles titled "Yellow Alert" and "New Yellow Peril?" which may allude to historical racist tropes about the Chinese.[382]

Beyond only Chinese, Asians in general are affected by anti-Chinese sentiment. Disinformation about Asian food and Asian communities have circulated, and videos showing Asian people eating bats have gone viral along with dehumanizing comments and implications of the cause of the virus outbreak.[383]

Africans in China

The City of Guangzhou issued an open letter after cases of discrimination of African nationals appeared, mentioning zero tolerance on racism and sexism.

Guangzhou has a sizeable community of black Africans including migrants, who were allegedly singled out by local authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to Chinese state media, five Nigerian men who had tested positive for COVID-19 broke quarantine and infected others, which triggered suspicion and anti-foreigner sentiment. In April 2020, Africans were forced to undergo coronavirus testing and quarantine, regardless of their travel history, symptoms, or contact with known patients.[384] Some restaurants – including a branch of McDonald's[385] – reportedly refused to service Africans, while landlords and hotels targeted Africans for eviction resulting in some becoming homeless.[386][387] Xinhua reported 111 Africans tested positive for the COVID-19 in Guangzhou out of a total of 4,553 tested, also saying that 19 of the cases were imported from unspecified countries.[388][389][390]

It has been noted that public sensitivity in China to racism, particularly to Africans, has been low with little education against racism or use of political correctness, while government censors appear to tolerate racism online. In the preceding few years, many Chinese believed that foreigners have been given extra benefits, leading to concerns about unfairness and inequality.[389] Many Chinese internet users soon posted racist comments, including calls for all Africans to be deported, while a cartoon depicting foreigners as different types of trash to be sorted through went viral on social media.[391]

Local media in African countries were the first to report on the issue, while Beijing initially attempted to deny such reports, calling them "rumors" or "misunderstandings" while framing it as a "wedge driving attempt" by Western media.[392] As further incidents of Africans being targeted were shared on social media, the United States Consulate General in Guangzhou warned African Americans to avoid travel to Guangzhou. The governments of Nigeria, Ghana, South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda, in addition to the African Union, placed diplomatic pressure on Beijing over the incidents, and a group of African ambassadors in Beijing wrote a letter of complaint to the Chinese government about the stigmatisation and discrimination being faced by Africans.[389] The Nigerian Speaker of the House Femi Gbajabiamila showed one of the social media videos to the Chinese ambassador while the Ghanaian Minister for Foreign Affairs Shirley Ayorkor Botchway described the incidents as inhumane treatment.[391] A U.S. State Department spokesman said, "The abuse and mistreatment of Africans living and working in China is a sad reminder of how hollow the PRC-Africa partnership really is".[393]

In response to the diplomatic pressure and media coverage, the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued an official statement on 12 April 2020, saying that the Chinese government attached great importance to the life and health of foreign nationals in China, has zero tolerance for discrimination, and treats all foreigners equally.[394][395] In a regular press conference on the following day, Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson Zhao Lijian added that a series of new measures were adopted in Guangzhou to address the concerns of some African citizens and avoid racist and discrimination problems, while saying the United States was "making unwarranted allegations in an attempt to sow discords and stoke troubles".[396][397] China's state media later described the incidents as "small rifts", while officials made PR visits to quarantined Africans with flowers and food accompanied by television cameras, and Chinese envoys have continued to reassure their African counterparts that they would correct the misunderstandings and establish an effective communication mechanism with African Consulates-General in Guangzhou.[398][399][400] Chinese officials expressed remorse to African politicians but did not explicitly apologize, suggesting that it was largely due to "poor communication".[392]

Misinformation and conspiracy theories

There were conspiracy theories about COVID-19 being the CIA's creation to keep China down on China's Internet, according to London-based The Economist.[401]

Multiple conspiracy articles in Chinese from the SARS era resurfaced during the outbreak with altered details, claiming that SARS is biological warfare conducted by the US against China. Some of these articles claim that BGI Group from China sold genetic information of the Chinese people to the US, with the US then being able to deploy the virus specifically targeting the genome of Chinese individuals.[402]

In late January 2020, Chinese military news site Xilu published an article claiming that the virus had been artificially combined by the US to target Chinese people from the Han ethnicity, to which the large majority of Chinese belongs. The article claimed that the poor performance of US military athletes participating in the Wuhan 2019 Military World Games, which lasted until the end of October 2019, was evidence that they had in fact been "biowarfare operatives" tasked with spreading the virus.[403] The claim was later repeated on other popular sites in China.[404][405]

In March 2020, this conspiracy theory was endorsed on Twitter by Zhao Lijian, a spokesperson from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China.[406][407][408] On 13 March, the US government summoned Chinese Ambassador Cui Tiankai to Washington DC over this conspiracy theory;[409] Cui had called this theory "crazy" on Face the Nation on 9 February, and re-affirmed this belief after Zhao's tweets.[410]

In the United States, Trump administration officials, including President Donald Trump, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and others also pushed conspiracy theories repeatedly asserting that the virus had originated from a laboratory leak in Wuhan, despite widespread rejection from the scientific community and by allied intelligence.[411]

Statistics

The case count in mainland China only includes symptomatic cases. It excludes patients who test positive but do not have symptoms, of which there were 889 as of 11 February 2020.[412] Asymptomatic infections are reported separately. It is also reported that there were more than 43,000 by the end of February 2020.[413][414][415] On 17 April, following the Wuhan government's issuance of a report on accounting for COVID-19 deaths that occurred at home that went previously unreported, as well as the subtraction of deaths that were previously double-counted by different hospitals, the NHC retrospectively revised their cumulative totals dating to 16 April, adding 325 cumulative cases and 1,290 deaths.[416]

Around March 2020, there was speculation that China's COVID numbers were deliberately inaccurate, but now China's COVID elimination strategy is considered to have been successful and its statistics are considered to be accurate.[417][418][419] China is part of a small group of countries such as Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore that have pursued a zero-COVID strategy. The Chinese government's strategy involves extensive testing, mask wearing, temperature checks, ventilation, contact tracing, quarantines, isolation of infected people, and heavy restrictions in response to local outbreaks.

References

  1. ^ 新型肺炎疫情地圖 實時更新 [New pneumonia epidemic map updated in real time]. NetEase news (in Chinese). 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  2. ^ Sheikh, Knvul; Rabin, Roni Caryn (10 March 2020). "The Coronavirus: What Scientists Have Learned So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  4. ^ 截至3月3日24时新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情最新情况 (in Chinese (China)). National Health Commission. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022. 31个省(自治区、直辖市)和新疆生产建设兵团报告新增确诊病例294例。其中境外输入病例233例(广东117例,上海43例,广西26例,四川13例,北京9例,浙江7例,河南5例,天津3例,吉林3例,福建2例,山东2例,云南2例,黑龙江1例),含14例由无症状感染者转为确诊病例(广东6例,四川4例,河南2例,黑龙江1例,浙江1例);本土病例61例(广东22例,均在深圳市;内蒙古9例,均在呼和浩特市;河北5例,其中邢台市4例、石家庄市1例;吉林5例,其中延边朝鲜族自治州4例、吉林市1例;湖北4例,均在武汉市;云南4例,其中红河哈尼族彝族自治州2例、保山市1例、德宏傣族景颇族自治州1例;黑龙江3例,均在哈尔滨市;广西3例,均在防城港市;上海2例,其中闵行区1例、松江区1例;浙江2例,均在温州市;天津1例,在东丽区;江苏1例,在徐州市),含5例由无症状感染者转为确诊病例(广西2例,云南2例,广东1例)。
  5. ^ Khan, Natasha (9 January 2020). "New Virus Discovered by Chinese Scientists Investigating Pneumonia Outbreak". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b "China clamps down in hidden hunt for coronavirus origins". AP News. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  7. ^ Javier C. Hernández. "As China Cracks Down on Coronavirus Coverage, Journalists Fight Back – The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  8. ^ "Coronavirus: Chinese app WeChat censored virus content since 1 Jan – BBC News". BBC News. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  9. ^ a b Gan, Nectar; Griffiths, James. "Chinese journalist who documented Wuhan coronavirus outbreak jailed for 4 years". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Hernández, Javier C. (14 March 2020). "As China Cracks Down on Coronavirus Coverage, Journalists Fight Back". The New York Times.
  11. ^ a b c Myers, Steven Lee (10 March 2020). "Xi Goes to Wuhan, Coronavirus Epicenter, in Show of Confidence". The New York Times.
  12. ^ a b c d Myers, Steven Lee; Rubin, Alissa J. (18 March 2020). "Its Coronavirus Cases Dwindling, China Turns Focus Outward". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  13. ^ a b "China: WHO experts arriving Thursday for virus origins probe". ABC News. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  14. ^ a b "China accused of under-reporting coronavirus outbreak". Financial Times. Health experts question the timeliness and accuracy of China's official data, saying the testing system captured only a fraction of the cases in China's hospitals, particularly those that are poorly run. Neil Ferguson, a professor of epidemiology at Imperial College London, said only the most severe infections were being diagnosed and as few as 10 per cent of cases were being properly detected, in a video released by the university.(subscription required)
  15. ^ a b Sobey, Rick (31 March 2020). "Chinese government lying about coronavirus could impact U.S. business ties: Experts". Bostonherald.com. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  16. ^ a b "China Says It's Beating Coronavirus. But Can We Believe Its Numbers?". Time. 1 April 2020. The move follows criticism from health experts and the U.S. and other governments that it risked a resurgence of the deadly pandemic by downplaying the number of cases within its borders.
  17. ^ Koch, Christoffer; Okamura, Ken (1 November 2020). "Benford's Law and COVID-19 reporting". Economics Letters. 196: 109573. doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2020.109573. ISSN 0165-1765. PMC 7487520. PMID 32952242. We find no evidence of manipulation of Chinese COVID-19 data using Benford's Law. [...] Media and politicians have cast doubt on Chinese reported data on COVID-19 cases. We find Chinese confirmed infections match the distribution expected in Benford's Law and are similar to that seen in the U.S. and Italy. [...] Contrary to popular speculation, we find no evidence that the Chinese massaged their COVID-19 statistics.
  18. ^ Isea, Raul (May 2020). "How Valid are the Reported Cases of People Infected with Covid-19 in the World?". International Journal of Coronaviruses. 1 (2): 53–56. doi:10.14302/issn.2692-1537.ijcv-20-3376. S2CID 225826960. The results obtained from the analysis based on Benford's Law of infected cases with Covid-19 obtained that China, Germany, Brazil, Venezuela, Norway, South Africa, Singapore, Ecuador, Egypt, Ireland, France, Australia, Colombia, India, Russia, Croatia don't manipulate the information register in the John Hopkins dataset.
  19. ^ Zhang, Junyi (13 February 2020). "Testing Case Number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China with Newcomb-Benford Law". arXiv. arXiv:2002.05695. In this article, we propose a test of the reported case number of coronavirus disease 2019 in China with Newcomb-Benford law. We find a p-value of 92.8% in favour that the cumulative case numbers abide by the Newcomb-Benford law. Even though the reported case number can be lower than the real number of affected people due to various reasons, this test does not seem to indicate the detection of frauds.
  20. ^ Kolias, Pavlos (1 January 2022). "Applying Benford's law to COVID-19 data: The case of the European Union". MedRxiv: 2. doi:10.1101/2021.12.24.21268373. S2CID 245475209. Previous studies, in different fields, have applied Benford's distribution (or law) analysis to detect fraudulent and manipulated data. Specifically, for COVID-19, it was found that deaths were underreported in the USA (Campolieti, 2021), while in China no manipulation was found (Koch & Okamura, 2020).
  21. ^ Idrovo, Alvaro Javier; Manrique-Hernández, Edgar Fabián (May 2020). "Data Quality of Chinese Surveillance of COVID-19: Objective Analysis Based on WHO's Situation Reports". Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health. 32 (4): 165–167. doi:10.1177/1010539520927265. ISSN 1010-5395. PMC 7231903. PMID 32408808. Was there quality in the Chinese epidemiological surveillance system during the COVID-19 pandemic? Using data of World World Health Organization's situation reports (until situation report 55), an objective analysis was realized to answer this important question. Fulfillment of Benford's law (first digit law) is a rapid tool to suggest good data quality. Results suggest that China had an acceptable quality in its epidemiological surveillance system. Furthermore, more detailed and complete analyses could complement the evaluation of the Chinese surveillance system.
  22. ^ Wong, Edward; Barnes, Julian E.; Kanno-Youngs, Zolan (19 August 2020). "Local Officials in China Hid Coronavirus Dangers From Beijing, U.S. Agencies Find". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  23. ^ a b 时间线:武汉疫情如何一步步扩散至全球. BBC News 中文 (in Simplified Chinese). 5 February 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  24. ^ Wong, Maggie Hiufu. "Wuhan: Inside the Chinese city at the center of the coronavirus outbreak". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  25. ^ Cadell, Cate; Chen, Yawen (8 April 2020). "'Painful lesson': how a military-style lockdown unfolded in Wuhan". Reuters. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  26. ^ Prem, Kiesha; Liu, Yang; Russell, Timothy W.; Kucharski, Adam J.; Eggo, Rosalind M.; Davies, Nicholas; Flasche, Stefan; Clifford, Samuel; Pearson, Carl A. B.; Munday, James D.; Abbott, Sam (1 May 2020). "The effect of control strategies to reduce social mixing on outcomes of the COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan, China: a modelling study". The Lancet Public Health. 5 (5): e261–e270. doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30073-6. ISSN 2468-2667. PMC 7158905. PMID 32220655.
  27. ^ a b c 眾新聞 | 【武漢肺炎大爆發】西藏首宗確診 全國淪陷 內地確診累計7711宗 湖北黃岡疫情僅次武漢. 眾新聞 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  28. ^ a b Chappell, Bill (30 January 2020). "Coronavirus Has Now Spread To All Regions Of mainland China". NPR. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  29. ^ a b c "Coronavirus declared global health emergency". BBC News. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  30. ^ a b 中国内地31省份全部启动突发公共卫生事件一级响应. Caixin. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  31. ^ Yu, Xinyi (28 January 2020). 【各地在行动②】全国19省份暂停省际长途客运. People's Daily Online. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  32. ^ 武汉肺炎:香港宣布大幅削减来往中国大陆交通服务 [Wuhan Pneumonia: Hong Kong Announces Significant Cuts in Transport Services to and from mainland China]. BBC News Chinese (in Simplified Chinese). 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  33. ^ Safi (now), Michael; Rourke (earlier), Alison; Greenfield, Patrick; Giuffrida, Angela; Kollewe, Julia; Oltermann, Philip (3 February 2020). "China issues 'urgent' appeal for protective medical equipment – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  34. ^ a b "Equatorial Guinea donates $2m to China to help combat coronavirus". Africanews. 5 February 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Feature: Japan offers warm support to China in battle against virus outbreak – Xinhua". Xinhuanet.com. 13 February 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  36. ^ a b "China's Xi Writes Thank-You Letter to Bill Gates for Virus Help". Bloomberg. 21 February 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  37. ^ "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the mission briefing on COVID-19 – 26 February 2020". World Health Organization. 26 February 2020.
  38. ^ "Mainland China sees imported coronavirus cases exceed new local infections for first time". The Straits Times. 13 March 2020.
  39. ^ Lancet, The (25 July 2020). "COVID-19 and China: lessons and the way forward". The Lancet. 396 (10246): 213. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31637-8. PMC 7377676. PMID 32711779.
  40. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (23 December 2020). "China extends stimulus measures for small businesses — a sign the recovery is not yet complete". CNBC. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  41. ^ "What are the Criteria to Determine Low, Medium and High Risk Areas? Experts: Criteria Based on Three Factors". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  42. ^ "疫情风险分区分级后,这些知识点你get到了吗?". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  43. ^ a b Almond, Kyle. "Wuhan was on lockdown for 76 days. Now life is returning — slowly". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  44. ^ Normile, Dennis (19 November 2021). "'Zero COVID' is getting harder—but China is sticking with it". Science. 374 (6570): 924. Bibcode:2021Sci...374..924N. doi:10.1126/science.acx9657. eISSN 1095-9203. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 34793217. S2CID 244403712.
  45. ^ Mozur, Paul; Zhong, Raymond; Krolik, Aaron (2 March 2020). "In Coronavirus Fight, China Gives Citizens a Color Code, With Red Flags". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  46. ^ "The Latest: China eases restrictions on domestic tourism". AP NEWS. 14 July 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  47. ^ "China opens up domestic tourism to unleash pent up spending power". South China Morning Post. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  48. ^ "China's economy continues to bounce back from virus slump". BBC News. 19 October 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  49. ^ "China's economic recovery continues but signals mixed in October". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  50. ^ Cheng, Jonathan (18 January 2021). "China Is the Only Major Economy to Report Economic Growth for 2020". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  51. ^ "China Says 1 Million Vaccines Given; Plans Further Rollout". Bloomberg.com. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  52. ^ "China to vaccinate high-risk groups over winter and spring, health official says". CNBC. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  53. ^ Davidson, Helen (15 June 2021). "China set to administer 1bn Covid vaccine doses by end of this week". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  54. ^ Xiong, Yong; Gan, Nectar; He, Laura (20 June 2021). "China has administered more than 1 billion Covid-19 vaccine doses". CNN. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
  55. ^ "China claims to have given 2 billion jabs to citizens". hindustantimes. 28 August 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  56. ^ "China conditionally approves Pfizer's Covid treatment pill Paxlovid". The Guardian. 12 February 2022. p. 1. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  57. ^ Wu, Fan; Zhao, Su; Yu, Bin; Chen, Yan-Mei; Wang, Wen; Song, Zhi-Gang; Hu, Yi; Tao, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Jun-Hua; Pei, Yuan-Yuan; Yuan, Ming-Li (3 February 2020). "A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China". Nature. 579 (7798): 265–269. Bibcode:2020Natur.579..265W. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2008-3. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 7094943. PMID 32015508.
  58. ^ Tyrrell, David A. J.; Myint, Steven H. (1996), Baron, Samuel (ed.), "Coronaviruses", Medical Microbiology (4th ed.), University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, ISBN 978-0-9631172-1-2, PMID 21413266, retrieved 5 February 2020
  59. ^ a b c d Kahn, Jeffrey S.; McIntosh, Kenneth (2005). "History and Recent Advances in Coronavirus Discovery". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 24 (11): S223–7, discussion S226. doi:10.1097/01.inf.0000188166.17324.60. ISSN 0891-3668. PMID 16378050. S2CID 10654941.
  60. ^ Al-Omari, Awad; Rabaan, Ali A.; Salih, Samer; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.; Memish, Ziad A. (2019). "MERS coronavirus outbreak: Implications for emerging viral infections". Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 93 (3): 265–285. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.10.011. ISSN 1879-0070. PMC 7127703. PMID 30413355.
  61. ^ To, Kelvin K. W.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2013). "From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses". Journal of Thoracic Disease. 5 (Suppl 2): S103–S108. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.06.02. ISSN 2072-1439. PMC 3747523. PMID 23977429.
  62. ^ Tang, Song (14 January 2005). 警惕非典再来(今日谈). People's Daily (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  63. ^ Bai, Jianfeng (16 December 2003). 非典之后再回首. People's Daily (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  64. ^ a b c Liu, Weining (25 February 2013). 钟南山:如果"非典"再来一次 不会成为挑战. Yangcheng Evening News (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020 – via Sohu.
  65. ^ a b Zhang, Lin (12 April 2013). 致命病毒:再相逢能否从容. China Science Daily (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  66. ^ Li, Jianping (10 January 2018). 十年建起一道防治新发传染病屏障. China Youth Daily (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  67. ^ 如果再来一次非典....... Southern Metropolis Daily (in Chinese (China)). 6 March 2013. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  68. ^ "About Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". CDC. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  69. ^ Rothe, Camilla; Schunk, Mirjam; Sothmann, Peter; Bretzel, Gisela; Froeschl, Guenter; Wallrauch, Claudia; Zimmer, Thorbjörn; Thiel, Verena; Janke, Christian; Guggemos, Wolfgang; Seilmaier, Michael (30 January 2020). "Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany". New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (10): 970–971. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2001468. ISSN 0028-4793. PMC 7120970. PMID 32003551.
  70. ^ "Transmission of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC". cdc.gov. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  71. ^ 新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎诊疗方案(试行第四版) (PDF). National Health Commission (in Chinese (China)). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2020.
  72. ^ "Coronavirus lurking in feces may be a hidden source of spread". Japan Times. 2 February 2020. ISSN 0447-5763. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  73. ^ Gale, Jason (1 February 2020). "Coronavirus Lurking in Feces May Reveal Hidden Risk of Spread". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  74. ^ Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wang, Xian-Guang; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Si, Hao-Rui; Zhu, Yan; Li, Bei; Huang, Chao-Lin; Chen, Hui-Dong (3 February 2020). "A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature. 579 (7798): 270–273. Bibcode:2020Natur.579..270Z. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7. ISSN 1476-4687. PMC 7095418. PMID 32015507.
  75. ^ "Symptoms of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) | CDC". cdc.gov. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  76. ^ Mahase, Elisabeth (28 January 2020). "China coronavirus: mild but infectious cases may make it hard to control outbreak, report warns". BMJ. 368: m325. doi:10.1136/bmj.m325. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 31992570. S2CID 210949384. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  77. ^ Rabin, Roni Caryn (4 February 2020). "Even Without Symptoms, Wuhan Coronavirus May Spread, Experts Fear". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  78. ^ Huang, Chaolin; Wang, Yeming; Li, Xingwang; Ren, Lili; Zhao, Jianping; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Fan, Guohui; Xu, Jiuyang; Gu, Xiaoying; Cheng, Zhenshun (15 February 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". The Lancet. 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 7159299. PMID 31986264.
  79. ^ "China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17". South China Morning Post. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  80. ^ Davidson, Helen (13 March 2020). "First Covid-19 case happened in November, China government records show—report". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  81. ^ Oliveira, Nelson (27 March 2020). "Shrimp vendor identified as possible coronavirus 'patient zero,' leaked document says". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  82. ^ Page, Jeremy; Fan, Wenxin; Khan, Natasha (6 March 2020). "How It All Started: China's Early Coronavirus Missteps". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  83. ^ Huang, Chaolin; Wang, Yeming; Li, Xingwang; Ren, Lili; Zhao, Jianping; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Li; Fan, Guohui; Xu, Jiuyang; Gu, Xiaoying; Cheng, Zhenshun (24 January 2020). "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China". The Lancet. 395 (10223): 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 7159299. PMID 31986264. S2CID 210886197.
  84. ^ a b c d Yu, Gao; Yanfeng, Peng; Rui, Yang; Yuding, Feng; Danmeng, Ma; Murphy, Flynn; Wei, Han; Shen, Timmy (29 February 2020). "In Depth: How Early Signs of a SARS-Like Virus Were Spotted, Spread, and Throttled". Caixin Global. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  85. ^ "File:关于做好不明原因肺炎救治工作的紧急通知.pdf" (PDF), 维基百科,自由的百科全书 (in Chinese), retrieved 29 September 2020
  86. ^ www.bjnews.com.cn. "武汉疾控证实:当地现不明原因肺炎病人,发病数在统计". www.bjnews.com.cn. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  87. ^ 武汉华南海鲜市场休市整治:多数商户已关门停业(图). January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 January 2020.
  88. ^ "Previously unknown virus may be causing pneumonia outbreak in China, WHO says". CBC. 9 January 2020. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  89. ^ @who (14 January 2020). "Preliminary investigations conducted by the Chinese authorities" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  90. ^ "CNN Exclusive: WHO Wuhan mission finds possible signs of wider original outbreak in 2019". CNN. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  91. ^ Gan, Nectar (29 December 2020). "True toll of Wuhan infections may be nearly 10 times official number, Chinese researchers say". Coronavirus. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  92. ^ "CPC leadership meets to discuss novel coronavirus prevention, control". People's Daily. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020. Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee, chaired the meeting.
  93. ^ "Xi says China faces 'grave situation' as virus death toll hits 42". Reuters. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  94. ^ "China battles coronavirus outbreak: All the latest updates". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  95. ^ a b 多个省市启动一级响应抗击疫情,为何湖北省却不是最快的?. 第一财经 [China Business Network]. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  96. ^ 自保失败 西藏武汉肺炎疑沦陷. RFI Chinese (in Simplified Chinese). 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  97. ^ "China virus spread is accelerating, Xi warns". BBC News. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  98. ^ 多地启动联防联控措施 严禁销售活禽、野生动物. Caijing (in Chinese). 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020.
  99. ^ Anderlini, Jamil (10 February 2020). "Xi Jinping faces China's Chernobyl moment". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 February 2020.(subscription required)
  100. ^ Coughlin, Con (12 February 2020). "The coronavirus crisis could be China's Chernobyl". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  101. ^ 田宇 (25 January 2020). 既过年关,也过难关. 人民网 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  102. ^ 何小桃 (25 January 2020). 防控肺炎病毒,"硬核"河南究竟有多硬核?. 每日经济新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020.
  103. ^ 张丰 (24 January 2020). 快评丨"快来抄作业",面对疫情防控,河南做对了什么?. 红星新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  104. ^ 擅自封路是"硬核抗疫"?违法乱为不可纵!. Xinhua News Agency. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  105. ^ 拦截、断路、阻断交通?部委回应:行为违法,将依法妥处. Xinhua News Agency. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  106. ^ 交通运输部:按照"一断三不断"原则推动工作. Xinhua News Agency. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  107. ^ William Zheng and Mimi Lau (21 January 2020). "China's credibility on the line as it tries to dispel cover-up fears". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Party's law and order body warns officials that anyone who tries to hide the spread of the disease will be 'nailed on the pillar of shame for eternity'
  108. ^ 湖北省人民政府关于加强新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎防控工作的通告. Hubei Province People's Government. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  109. ^ 杨利, ed. (23 January 2020). 浙江新增新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎确诊病例17例. Provincial Health Commission of Zhejiang via The Beijing Times. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  110. ^ 俞菀 (23 January 2020). 周楚卿 (ed.). 浙江:新增新型冠状病毒感染肺炎确诊病例17例 启动重大公共突发卫生事件一级响应 (in Chinese (China)). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  111. ^ 北京市启动重大突发公共卫生事件一级响应. Beijing Youth Daily. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  112. ^ 上海、天津、重庆、安徽启动重大突发公共卫生事件一级响应机制. Xinhua News Agency. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  113. ^ 储白珊 (24 January 2020). 福建启动重大突发公共卫生事件一级响应机制. 福建日报. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  114. ^ 苏子牧 (24 January 2020). 【武汉肺炎疫情】中国14省市启动一级响应. 多维新闻. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  115. ^ 防控小知识|突发公共卫生事件I级应急响应意味着什么?. 吉林电视台. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  116. ^ 国务院办公厅关于延长2020年春节假期的通知. 中国政府网. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  117. ^ Ding, Ke (3 February 2020). 29省发布延迟开工通知 来看各地复工具体时间及安排. 券商中国.
  118. ^ "Miss China Official 中国环球小姐 on Instagram: "We would like to apologize and humbly announce that due to the coronavirus, the original on-date (March 8, 2020, Lijiang, China) Miss..."". Instagram. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  119. ^ 武汉2020春节文化旅游惠民活动延期举行. China News Service. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  120. ^ 倪伟 (23 January 2020). 武汉文博场馆闭馆至元宵节,全国多地博物馆取消公众活动. The Beijing Times. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  121. ^ 武汉市文化和旅游局:全市所有旅游团队一律取消. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  122. ^ 武汉对进出武汉人员加强管控 遏制疫情扩散. Ta Kung Pao. 21 January 2020.
  123. ^ 北京龙潭、地坛庙会取消. Beijing Youth Daily. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  124. ^ 北京宣布即日起取消包括庙会在内的大型活动. Beijing Daily. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  125. ^ 北京故宫恭王府世纪坛宣布明日起暂停开放. The Beijing Times. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  126. ^ 国家海洋博物馆 (24 January 2020). 关于国家海洋博物馆暂停试运行开放的公告.
  127. ^ 应妮 (23 January 2020). 郭泽华 (ed.). 故宫博物院发布闭馆公告 中国多地取消新春文化活动. China News Service (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  128. ^ 西湖景区收费景点、博物馆明起全部关闭 游船、喷泉暂停. 浙江新闻客户端. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  129. ^ 苏湘洋 (24 January 2020). 南京秦淮灯会多个展区即日起闭园. 現代快報. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  130. ^ 葉琪 (24 January 2020). 【武漢肺炎】全國多地旅遊景區關閉防疫 上海迪士尼年初一起關閉. HK01. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  131. ^ 腾讯体育_新型冠状病毒席卷武汉 女足奥预赛易地南京举行. n.d. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020.
  132. ^ 女足将隔离备战奥预赛 王珊珊回归盼解锋无力难题. Sina Sports. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  133. ^ 中国足协延期举行超级杯 中超联赛或将同样延期. 中新社 (in Chinese). 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020.
  134. ^ "Coronavirus affects AFC Champions League". ESPN. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  135. ^ 中国足协延期开始2020赛季全国各级各类足球比赛. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  136. ^ "AFC calls for emergency meetings with National and Club representatives (Updated)". Asian Football Confederation. 28 February 2020.
  137. ^ 受武汉疫情影响 东京奥运会拳击预选赛被终止. Sina Sports. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  138. ^ 东京奥运拳击项目武汉站资格赛取消. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  139. ^ 东京奥运会拳击资格赛将从武汉改至约旦安曼举行. Sina Sports. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  140. ^ 女篮奥运资格赛因疫情易地,中国队失去主场优势. The Beijing Times. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  141. ^ 室内田径世锦赛因疫情推迟1年 田联仍交由南京举办. 163.com Sports. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  142. ^ 受疫情影响 网球联合会杯从东莞改至哈萨克进行. 163.com Sports. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  143. ^ 体育总局:防控疫情,取消举办体育六艺系列活动之乐动冰雪_中国政库_澎湃新闻-The Paper. Thepaper.cn. n.d. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  144. ^ 防控疫情:2020年中国长白山冰雪汽车拉力赛暂停举办. 澎湃新闻. n.d. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  145. ^ WCBA后续赛事延迟,中国排协暂停一切排球赛事和活动. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  146. ^ "Formula E postpones China race amid virus outbreak". motorsport.com. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  147. ^ "2020 F1 Chinese Grand Prix postponed due to novel coronavirus outbreak | Formula One". Formula One. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  148. ^ "BWF Statement on Postponement of Lingshui China Masters". bwfbadminton.com. Badminton World Federation. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  149. ^ 受疫情影响 第14届全国冬季运动会将推迟举办. 163.com Sports. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  150. ^ 人民日报 (21 January 2020). 武汉新东方、新航道、学而思等校外培训机构停课防疫. 新浪财经_新浪网. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  151. ^ 湖北:全省学校推迟开学时间 党政机关出差取消. Xinhua News Agency. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  152. ^ 浙江省教育厅紧急通知!切实做好新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情防控工作. 浙江在线. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  153. ^ 深圳即日起停止校外培训机构春节假期补课,何时复课等官方通知. n.d. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020.
  154. ^ 关于2019-2020学年寒假延期的通知-上海大学. n.d. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  155. ^ 教育部发布2020年春季学期延期开学的通知. 央视新闻客户端 (in Chinese). 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  156. ^ 人社部:全国技工院校2020年春季学期延期开学. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  157. ^ 雅思官微:取消在武汉的2月8日、13日及20日雅思考试_教育家_澎湃新闻-The Paper. Thepaper.cn. n.d. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  158. ^ 教育部考试中心:取消2月所有托福、雅思考试. bjd.com.cn. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  159. ^ 教育部:留学人员无特殊需要建议推迟出境时间-中新网. chinanews.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  160. ^ 国家公务员局:国考面试时间推迟. 人民日报客户端 (in Chinese (China)). 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  161. ^ 陈咏 (25 January 2020). 扬州取消2月2日结婚登记. 扬子晚报 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  162. ^ 徐俊勇 (25 January 2020). 甘肃省取消2 February 2020 结婚登记办理. 甘肃日报 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 26 January 2020.
  163. ^ 苏赞 (25 January 2020). 广州取消2 February 2020 婚姻登记工作. 广州日报 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  164. ^ 上海因防疫取消2月2日结婚登记办理. 星洲日报 (in Chinese). 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  165. ^ 民政部:建议取消2月2日开放婚姻登记. 人民日报客户端 (in Chinese). 31 January 2020.
  166. ^ Parke, Caleb (23 March 2020). "In coronavirus fight, China hasn't stopped persecuting Christians: watchdog". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  167. ^ Klett, Leah MarieAnn (21 March 2020). "China demolishes church, removes crosses as Christians worship at home". The Christian Post. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  168. ^ 防控疫情 浙江宁波"两会"推迟召开. Caixin. 9 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  169. ^ "China parliament may delay key annual March session: Xinhua". Reuters. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  170. ^ "China may delay annual meeting of parliament due to virus outbreak: sources". Reuters. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  171. ^ Birtles, Bill (13 February 2020). "Xi Jinping faces big dilemma as coronavirus threatens China's showpiece political event". ABC News. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  172. ^ The Economist, March 28th 2020, page 37.
  173. ^ "China Purchasing Indexes Drop to Record Lows as Epidemic Stalls Output: Factory and nonfactory figures tumble to levels below readings during the financial crisis". The Wall Street Journal. 28 February 2020.
  174. ^ 武汉肺炎累经济亮红灯 上半年减至少一个百分点. 法广. 29 January 2020. Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  175. ^ 吴雨 (1 February 2020). 人民银行:疫情对中国经济的影响是暂时的. @新华视点. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  176. ^ "Lockdowns rise as China tries to control virus". United Kingdom: BBC. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 23 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  177. ^ 深交所:延长2020年春节休市至2月2日 2月3日起照常开市. 上海证券报·中国证券网. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  178. ^ 股市猪年收官日:A股大跌 沪指跌破3000点关口. n.d.
  179. ^ "Why is the stock market dropping?". EquityBAZAR. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  180. ^ A股鼠年开市3177只个股跌停 外资200亿资金抄底. n.d.
  181. ^ 澎湃新闻 (28 January 2020). 央行、外汇局:延长银行间市场休市时间,2月3日起恢复. Sina Corp. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  182. ^ 3日人民币对美元汇率中间价下调373个基点. n.d.
  183. ^ 双双破"7",在岸、离岸人民币对美元汇率跌破7.01_金改实验室_澎湃新闻-The Paper. thepaper.cn. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  184. ^ 避险情绪释放 人民币对美元汇率破"7"_中证网. cs.com.cn. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  185. ^ a b "China sales slump 92% in first half of February on coronavirus". Automotive News Europe. 21 February 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2020. Separately, Chinese policy makers have been discussing extending subsidies for electric-vehicle purchases beyond this year to revive sales, people familiar with the matter have said.
  186. ^ Berman, Bradley (1 April 2020). "China set to backslide on electric car quotas while extending subsidies". Electrek.
  187. ^ "China's coronavirus epicenter of Wuhan sees single-digit new cases for second day". The Jakarta Post. Beijing. Reuters. 13 March 2020. Outside Hubei, about 60% of small- and medium-sized firms and 95% of large ones have gone back to work, vice industry minister Xin Guobin said on Friday.
  188. ^ "Caixin China manufacturing PMI rebounds in March". MarketWatch. 31 March 2020.
  189. ^ "China's Q1 economy shrinks 6.8%, first contraction in decades". The Straits Times. 18 April 2020. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  190. ^ "South China Morning Post – China GDP: Beijing abandons 2020 economic growth target, Premier Li Keqiang confirms at NPC". South China Morning Post. 22 May 2020. Archived from the original on 22 May 2020.
  191. ^ "China's factory recovery steps up as export, consumer demand grows". Reuters. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  192. ^ "China set to surpass U.S. as world's biggest economy by 2028, says report". CNBC. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  193. ^ "China to leapfrog U.S. as world's biggest economy by 2028: think tank". Reuters. 26 December 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  194. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (21 December 2020). "The foundation of China's economic recovery is 'not yet solid,' leaders say at planning meeting". CNBC. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  195. ^ "Roughly 5 million people in China lost their jobs in the first 2 months of 2020". CNBC. 16 March 2020.
  196. ^ "Coronavirus Lockdowns Torment an Army of Poor Migrant Workers in China". The New York Times. 23 February 2020.
  197. ^ "Coronavirus: Hubei's migrant workers 'living in fear' as debts mount under lockdown". South China Morning Post. 18 March 2020.
  198. ^ He, Laura; Gan, Nectar (8 May 2020). "80 million Chinese may already be out of work. 9 million more will soon be competing for jobs, too". CNN. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  199. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma; Kuo, Lily (19 March 2020). "China's coronavirus lockdown strategy: brutal but effective". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  200. ^ 谢斌 张纯 (21 January 2020). 一罩难求:南都民调实测走访发现,线上线下口罩基本卖脱销. 南方都市报. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  201. ^ 徐榆涵 (23 January 2020). 全球各地瘋搶口罩 專家:不必買N95. 聯合報. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  202. ^ 刘灏 (21 January 2020). 广东市场监管部门:将坚决打击囤积居奇、哄抬价格等行为. 南方网. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  203. ^ 市场价格行为提醒书. n.d. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020.
  204. ^ Liu, Yuying (31 January 2020). 专家:口罩短缺2月底或缓解. 中新网. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  205. ^ 陈泽云 (22 January 2020). 口罩买不到怎么办?这些药店平台春节期间持续供应. 金羊网. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  206. ^ 京东:禁止第三方商家口罩涨价. The Beijing News. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  207. ^ 拼多多:对口罩等产品进行监测,恶意涨价者将下架. The Beijing News. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  208. ^ 苏宁易购:口罩等健康类商品禁涨价,并开展百亿补贴. The Beijing News. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  209. ^ Millar, Kate McClymont, Royce (2 April 2020). "Billions of face masks sent to China during bushfire crisis". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  210. ^ McClymont, Kate (27 March 2020). "Second developer flew 82 tonnes of medical supplies to China". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  211. ^ "Why healthy Chinese wearing face masks outdoors?". NHC.gov.cn. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020.
  212. ^ Myllyvirta, Lauri (19 February 2020). "Analysis: Coronavirus has temporarily reduced China's CO2 emissions by a quarter". Carbon Brief. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  213. ^ 劝返实录:汨罗大荆收费站劝返一辆湖北籍小车. hunan.voc.com.cn. 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  214. ^ 记者探访信阳市鄂豫交界卡点:7小时劝返133人. Sina Corp. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  215. ^ 吴怡 (25 January 2020). 海南:对来自湖北的过海登岛旅客进行集中医学观察14天. 澎湃新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  216. ^ 陈思思 (25 January 2020). 对重点地区来沪人员,上海三方面措施落实社区防控. 澎湃新闻 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 27 January 2020.
  217. ^ 重庆将开展网格化筛查应对疫情. 重庆日报 (in Chinese). 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020.
  218. ^ ◤武汉肺炎◢ 浙江温州封城 每户2天可有1人出门|中國報. 中國報 China Press. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  219. ^ 武漢肺炎防疫 杭州全市實行封閉式管理 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). Central News Agency. 2 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020.
  220. ^ 杭州市人民政府关于实施"防控疫情,人人有责" 十项措施的通告. 杭州网 (in Chinese (China)). 2 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020.
  221. ^ 武漢肺炎》六朝古都也淪陷! 南京宣布封城. Liberty Times. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  222. ^ 深夜突发!南京、宁波、福州、哈尔滨...所有小区封闭管理!最狠这座城:每户5天只能1人外出采购1次. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  223. ^ "Quarantine, red-tape and face masks: inside China's coronavirus-hit wind industry". Recharge | Latest renewable energy news. 19 February 2020.
  224. ^ Alvarez, Simon (17 March 2020). "Tesla China shares Giga Shanghai safety measures against COVID-19 virus". TESLARATI.
  225. ^ "Chinese villages walled off against outsiders as coronavirus toll mounts". Los Angeles Times. 1 February 2020. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  226. ^ "What back-to-school looks like for students in China's coronavirus epicenter of Wuhan". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  227. ^ Ankel, Sophia. "As China lifts its coronavirus lockdowns, authorities are using a color-coded health system to dictate where citizens can go. Here's how it works". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  228. ^ a b Zhong, Raymond; Mozur, Paul; Kao, Jeff; Krolik, Aaron (19 December 2020). "No 'Negative' News: How China Censored the Coronavirus". The New York Times, ProPublica. Retrieved 20 December 2020.
  229. ^ "Chinese County Back Under Lockdown After Coronavirus Cases Re-Emerge". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg L.P. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  230. ^ "Harbin city shuts eateries, coronavirus curbs ease elsewhere in China". Reuters. 2 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  231. ^ "Xinjiang residents protest online against COVID-19 lockdown". Channel News Asia. 24 August 2020. Archived from the original on 8 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  232. ^ Javier C. Hernández (25 August 2020). "China Locks Down Xinjiang to Fight Covid-19, Angering Residents". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  233. ^ Tian, Yew Lun (13 January 2021). "As China COVID-19 cases rise, millions more placed under lockdown". Reuters. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  234. ^ "China locks down city of 4m people after six Covid cases detected". Guardian. 26 October 2021. Retrieved 1 November 2021.
  235. ^ "Ruili, China's gateway to Myanmar, hit by dual hardships of coronavirus and conflict across border". SCMP. 28 October 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  236. ^ "Chinese city orders residents to stay at home, cuts public transport, due to one COVID-19 case". Reuters. 22 December 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  237. ^ "Vietnam complains China's border controls to stop coronavirus spreading are 'overkill'". SCMP. 2 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  238. ^ "13 million people under lockdown in Xi'an, China". NHK. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  239. ^ a b Cheng, Evelyn (22 December 2021). "Major Chinese city locks down to control Covid outbreak". CNBC. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  240. ^ "Tales of anguish emerge from China's locked-down Xian, as hospitals demand patients be covid-free". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  241. ^ "Yuzhou: Second Chinese city forced into Covid lockdown". BBC News. BBC News. 4 January 2022. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  242. ^ Woo, Ryan; Liu, Roxanne; Crossley, Gabriel; Cao, Ella (5 January 2022). "China's Henan hit by COVID curbs after sporadic cases". Reuters. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  243. ^ "China's Zhengzhou upgrades measures to curb COVID-19 spread". Xinhua News. 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  244. ^ "China locks down 3rd city, raising affected to 20 million". Associated Press. AP News. 11 January 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
  245. ^ "China tests 2M in Beijing, lifts COVID lockdown in Xi'an". AP News. 24 January 2022.
  246. ^ "Covid-19: China locks down Baise city on Vietnam border as cases rise". Khaleej News. 7 February 2022. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  247. ^ Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Jiaquan; Xiang, Dandan (2020). "Large SARS-CoV-2 Outbreak Caused by Asymptomatic Traveler, China". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 26 (9): 2260–2263. doi:10.3201/eid2609.201798. PMC 7454089. PMID 32603652. S2CID 220282338. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  248. ^ 王东升, ed. (11 April 2020). 4月10日新疆(含兵团)无新增新冠肺炎确诊病例. Tianshannet (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  249. ^ Stevenson, Alexandra; Li, Cao (12 May 2020). "China's Coronavirus Back-to-Work Lessons: Masks and Vigilance". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  250. ^ "Beijing district in 'wartime emergency' after virus cluster at major food market". Reuters. 13 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  251. ^ Dwyer, Colin; Cheng, Amy (13 June 2020). "Beijing In 'Wartime Emergency Mode' Amid Fresh Cluster Of Coronavirus Cases". NPR.
  252. ^ "China releases genome of virus that caused Beijing outbreak, saying it could be linked to Europe". see photo by Carlos Garcia Rawlins, Reuters: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Reuters. 19 June 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  253. ^ "Vice premier stresses more targeted COVID-19 control in Beijing - Xinhua". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  254. ^ Wang, Dan (9 April 2020). "Life After COVID-19: The View From Beijing". Intelligencer. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  255. ^ Gan, Nectar; Culver, David. "China is fighting the coronavirus with a digital QR code. Here's how it works". CNN. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  256. ^ "As Chinese authorities expand use of health tracking apps, privacy concerns grow". Reuters. 26 May 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  257. ^ Adam Vaughan (27 July 2020). "Coronavirus: Second wave hits Asia as global cases continue to soar". NewScientist.
  258. ^ "China Reports 61 New COVID-19 Cases for Sunday, Highest Daily Domestic Infections Since March 6". US News. 26 July 2020. Reporting by Huizhong Wu, Judy Hua and Ryan Woo; Editing by Himani Sarkar and Kenneth Maxwell
  259. ^ "China reports 127 new coronavirus cases, highest since March 5". Reuters. 30 July 2020. Reporting by David Stanway and Wang Jing; Editing by Muralikumar Anantharaman
  260. ^ Reporting by Jing Wang and David Stanway; writing by Se Young Lee; Editing by Himani Sarkar (23 August 2020). "China reports 16 new COVID-19 cases, eighth day without local infections". Reuters.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  261. ^ "China is testing an entire city of 9 million for COVID-19 after it found 12 cases connected to a hospital there". Buiness Insider. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  262. ^ Davidson, Helen (26 October 2020). "China: new coronavirus outbreak detected in Xinjiang city of Kashgar". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  263. ^ Dou, Eva (26 October 2020). "China's Kashgar had a coronavirus outbreak. Within two days, 4.5 million people were tested". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  264. ^ "Coronavirus: Beijing goes into emergency mode after five new cases recorded". South China Morning Post. 27 December 2020.
  265. ^ Xiaomin, Zhang (7 January 2021). "More info released on Dalian outbreak". China Daily. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  266. ^ Cai, Jane; Ji, Siqi (6 January 2021). "Coronavirus: Chinese city in lockdown as Hebei province has biggest outbreak in months". South China Morning Post.
  267. ^ "China's Heilongjiang reports 40 confirmed COVID-19 cases". China.org. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  268. ^ "China records first Covid death since May as WHO team arrives in Wuhan". The Guardian. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  269. ^ McNulty, Tim (15 January 2021). "China locks down 5 million people in Langfang City after one Covid case reported". Express. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  270. ^ "China Locks Down Two Northeast Cities Amid Covid-19 Resurgence". Caixin. 19 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
  271. ^ "Partial lockdown in Beijing over Covid-19 outbreak". France 24. 20 January 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  272. ^ "Daxing District of Beijing provides supplies for quarantined residents - Xinhua". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  273. ^ a b "China reports biggest daily COVID-19 case jump in over two months". Reuters. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  274. ^ "New coronavirus cluster closes China-Myanmar bridge, sparks lockdown". South China Morning Post. 31 March 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  275. ^ "Covid-19 in China: parts of Guangzhou shut down as province battles latest outbreak". South China Morning Post. 29 May 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  276. ^ Shenzhen airport tightens COVID-19 measures as China logs 30 new cases https://www.reuters.com/world/china/shenzhen-airport-tightens-covid-19-measures-china-logs-30-new-cases-2021-06-19
  277. ^ "Third Lockdown Imposed on Southwest China Border Town After Delta Variant Appears". Caixin Global. 6 July 2021. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  278. ^ "New virus outbreak worst since Wuhan, say Chinese state media". BBC News. 31 July 2021. Archived from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  279. ^ "17 airport workers test positive for Covid-19 in Nanjing". The Straits Times. 21 July 2021.
  280. ^ Millions under strict lockdown in China after Covid outbreak https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/aug/02/millions-under-strict-lockdown-china-covid-outbreak
  281. ^ Transport into Beijing cut to guard capital 'at all costs' against Covid-19 surge https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3143485/transport-beijing-halted-bid-guard-capital-all-costs-amid-covid
  282. ^ "Chinese city imposes travel curbs, closes public venues in new COVID-19 outbreak". Reuters. 13 September 2021.
  283. ^ https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3150458/harbin-residents-told-stay-home-holiday-amid-covid-19-outbreak Harbin residents told to stay home for the holiday amid Covid-19 outbreak
  284. ^ "China reports highest number of Covid-19 cases in over a month". SCMP. 23 October 2021.
  285. ^ Patton, Dominique (11 November 2021). "Chinese city Dalian halts frozen food trade after COVID-19 cases". Reuters. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  286. ^ "China faces new COVID outbreak as first Omicron case is reported". Al Jazeera. 14 December 2021.
  287. ^ Liu, Roxanne; Qiu, Stella; Woo, Ryan (27 December 2021). "China's local COVID case count driven to 21-month high by Xian outbreak". Reuters. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  288. ^ Mallapaty, Smriti (27 January 2022). "China's zero-COVID strategy: what happens next?". Nature. 602 (7895): 15–16. doi:10.1038/d41586-022-00191-7. Retrieved 13 February 2022. China’s stringent zero-COVID strategy is likely to face its toughest test yet in the next few weeks, as millions of people travel around the country for Chinese New Year, and the Winter Olympics begin in Beijing. The approach — which was introduced by the central government early in the pandemic and has involved large-scale lockdowns, mass testing and international travel bans...
  289. ^ a b c Tian, Huaiyu; Liu, Yonghong; Li, Yidan; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Chen, Bin; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Li, Bingying; Cai, Jun; Xu, Bo; Yang, Qiqi; Wang, Ben; Yang, Peng; Cui, Yujun; Song, Yimeng; Zheng, Pai; Wang, Quanyi; Bjornstad, Ottar N.; Yang, Ruifu; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Dye, Christopher (31 March 2020). "An investigation of transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China". Science. 368 (6491): 638–642. Bibcode:2020Sci...368..638T. doi:10.1126/science.abb6105. PMC 7164389. PMID 32234804.
  290. ^ Khan, Natasha (9 January 2020). "New Virus Discovered by Chinese Scientists Investigating Pneumonia Outbreak". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  291. ^ "Novel Coronavirus 2019 | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 13 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  292. ^ Burki, Talha (8 October 2020). "China's successful control of COVID-19". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 20 (11): 1240–1241. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30800-8. PMC 7544475. PMID 33038941.
  293. ^ Zanin, Mark; Xiao, Cheng; Liang, Tingting; Ling, Shiman; Zhao, Fengming; Huang, Zhenting; Lin, Fangmei; Lin, Xia; Jiang, Zhanpeng; Wong, Sook-San (August 2020). "The public health response to the COVID-19 outbreak in mainland China: a narrative review". Journal of Thoracic Disease. 12 (8): 4434–4449. doi:10.21037/jtd-20-2363. PMC 7475588. PMID 32944357.
  294. ^ Lancet, The (25 July 2020). "COVID-19 and China: lessons and the way forward". The Lancet. 396 (10246): 213. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31637-8. PMC 7377676. PMID 32711779.
  295. ^ a b c d Lu, Guangyu; Razum, Oliver; Jahn, Albrecht; Zhang, Yuying; Sutton, Brett; Sridhar, Devi; Ariyoshi, Koya; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Müllerc, Olaf (20 January 2021). "COVID-19 in Germany and China: mitigation versus elimination strategy". Global Health Action. 14 (1). doi:10.1080/16549716.2021.1875601. PMC 7833051. PMID 33472568. S2CID 231663818.
  296. ^ Liu, Jiangmei; Zhang, Lan; Yan, Yaqiong; Zhou, Yuchang; Yin, Peng; Qi, Jinlei; Wang, Lijun (24 February 2021). "Excess mortality in Wuhan city and other parts of China during the three months of the covid-19 outbreak: findings from nationwide mortality registries". The BMJ. 372: n415. doi:10.1136/bmj.n415. PMC 7900645. PMID 33627311.
  297. ^ An, Zhijie; Wang, Fuzhen; Pan, An; Yin, Zundong; Rodewald, Lance; Feng, Zijian (2 December 2021). "Vaccination strategy and challenges for consolidating successful containment of covid-19 with population immunity in China". The BMJ. 375: e066125. doi:10.1136/bmj-2021-066125. PMC 8634348. PMID 34853010.
  298. ^ Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Fengfeng; Cui, Jinzhao; Peng, Zhibin; Chang, Zhaorui; Lai, Shengjie; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Liping; Gao, George F.; Feng, Zijian (15 April 2021). "Comprehensive large-scale nucleic acid–testing strategies support China's sustained containment of COVID-19". Nature Medicine. 27 (5): 740–742. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01308-7. PMID 33859409. S2CID 233258711.
  299. ^ Trade in Medical Goods in the Context of Tackling COVID-19: Developments in the First Half of 2021 (Report). World Trade Organization. 14 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  300. ^ a b Trade in Medical Goods in the Context of Tackling COVID-19: Developments in the First Half of 2020 (Report). World Trade Organization. 22 December 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  301. ^ "WTO-IMF COVID-19 Vaccine Trade Tracker". World Trade Organization. 17 December 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  302. ^ Cheng, Maria; Kang, Dake; McNeil, Sam (30 December 2020). "China clamps down in hidden hunt for coronavirus origins". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  303. ^ Burki, Talha (8 October 2020). "China's successful control of COVID-19". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 20 (11): 1240–1241. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30800-8. PMC 7544475. PMID 33038941.
  304. ^ "Rapid Data Sharing and Genomics Vital to China Virus Response". Yale School of Public Health. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  305. ^ Normile, Dennis; Cohen, Jon; Kupferschmidt, Kai (9 January 2020). "Scientists urge China to quickly share data on virus linked to pneumonia outbreak". Science. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  306. ^ Apuzzo, Matt; Kirkpatrick, David D. (1 April 2020). "Covid-19 Changed How the World Does Science, Together". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  307. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Geng Shuang's Regular Press Conference on January 21, 2020". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of People's Republic of China. 21 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  308. ^ Delfs, Arne; Lacqua, Francine (n.d.). "China Praised By Germany For Transparency in Combating Virus". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  309. ^ Karlin-Smith, Sarah. "U.S. officials praise Chinese transparency on virus – up to a point". Politico. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  310. ^ "世界卫生组织总干事抵达北京 与中国方面讨论新型冠状病毒疫情". Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  311. ^ a b "Hong Kong to slash border travel as virus spreads". BBC News. 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  312. ^ Riordan, Primrose; Wong, Sue-Lin (5 February 2020). "WHO expert says China too slow to report coronavirus cases". Financial Times. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  313. ^ Press Trust of India. "'Little upset with China' over coronavirus info sharing: Trump | Business Standard News". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  314. ^ Javier C. Hernández (4 April 2020). "Trump Slammed the W.H.O. Over Coronavirus. He's Not Alone. – The New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  315. ^ a b Cheng, Evelyn (18 May 2020). "China's Xi pledges $2 billion to help fight coronavirus". CNBC. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  316. ^ "Australia welcomes growing support for COVID-19 inquiry at WHO meeting". Reuters. 18 May 2020. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  317. ^ "China blocks entry to WHO team studying Covid's origins". The Guardian. 5 January 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  318. ^ Hinshaw, Drew (6 January 2021). "WHO Criticizes China for Stymying Investigation Into Covid-19 Origins". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  319. ^ Regan, Helen; Sidhu, Sandi (6 January 2021). "WHO team blocked from entering China to study origins of coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  320. ^ "WHO coronavirus investigation team to arrive in China on Thursday". South China Morning Post. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  321. ^ "China reports biggest daily COVID-19 case jump in over 5 months". Reuters. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  322. ^ "China says WHO team to probe COVID-19 origins will arrive Thursday". Reuters. 10 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  323. ^ "Factbox: Countries evacuating nationals from China virus areas". Reuters. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  324. ^ "擔心各國撤僑「掃顏面」 韓媒:大陸要求半夜才能撤 | ETtoday新聞雲". ETtoday (in Traditional Chinese). 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  325. ^ "British evacuation flight out of Wuhan delayed". BBC News. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  326. ^ "'One China' dispute means one big headache for Taiwan in coronavirus crisis". The Washington Post. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  327. ^ a b Everington, Keoni (n.d.). "China finally to allow evacuation of 200 Taiwanese from Wuhan tonight". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  328. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Taiwan evacuates first group from Wuhan, announces limit on mask purchases". The Straits Times. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  329. ^ "Taiwan's latest Wuhan virus patient was not listed for evacuation from China". Focus Taiwan. 5 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  330. ^ "Taiwan Hits Out at China's Management of Evacuation Flight, Quarantine". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  331. ^ 第二批滯留武漢台商返台生變 兩岸再互嗆. Union Daily News (in Chinese). 6 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  332. ^ "China-Taiwan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  333. ^ "mainland urges Taiwan authority to stop impeding Taiwan compatriots returning from Hubei". Xinhua News Agency. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  334. ^ "Taiwan bars return of residents from mainland, says Beijing – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  335. ^ 武汉台办:台卫生机构应对台胞确诊病例相关情况作出说明. Xinhua News Agency. n.d. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  336. ^ "出入境健康申报指引". 中央广播电视总台国际在线. 30 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  337. ^ a b 国家移民管理局:武汉已4天无人员出境. 北京日报客户端 (in Chinese (China)). 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  338. ^ "海关总署公告2020年第16号(关于重新启动出入境人员填写健康申明卡制度的公告)". 海关总署. 25 January 2020. Archived from the original on 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  339. ^ 外交部:決定派包機接海外湖北公民回國 (in Chinese (Hong Kong)). RTHK. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  340. ^ 防武汉肺炎 台湾扩大管制大陆人士赴台. Duowei News (in Chinese (China)). 26 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  341. ^ 台灣嚴防疫情 海外大陸籍人士也禁止入境. World Journal (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 28 January 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  342. ^ Andone, Dakin. "US travel restrictions go into effect to combat coronavirus spread". CNN. Archived from the original on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  343. ^ "Countries close borders as coronavirus spreads". BBC News. 1 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  344. ^ Stevenson, Alexandra (1 February 2020). "China Increasingly Walled Off as Countries Seek to Stem Coronavirus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  345. ^ Newey, Sarah; Smith, Nicola; Yan, Sophia (28 January 2020). "Hong Kong to close borders with mainland China as global alarm spreads over coronavirus". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  346. ^ 国家移民管理局暂停办理内地居民往来港澳地区旅游签注. 国家移民管理局 (in Chinese (China)). 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  347. ^ Wang, Sam Meredith, Weizhen Tan, Evelyn Cheng, Christine (2 February 2020). "Hong Kong closes most border crossings with mainland China, coronavirus death toll at 362". CNBC. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  348. ^ "Hong Kong closes most crossings to China as coronavirus spreads". Financial Times. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  349. ^ "Hong Kong hospital strike over virus border fears". BBC News. 3 February 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  350. ^ "21 countries donate medical supplies to China: spokesperson". www.xinhuanet.com. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  351. ^ a b c "United Front groups in Canada helped Beijing stockpile coronavirus safety supplies – National". Globalnews.ca. 30 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  352. ^ "China's fight against the coronavirus opens up diplomatic opportunities". TRT World. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  353. ^ "EU falls behind China, US on vaccine donations: Document". POLITICO. 2 August 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  354. ^ "Coronavirus: Chinese aid to the EU delivered to Italy". European Commission. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  355. ^ "With U.S. hit by virus, China courts Latin America with medical diplomacy". Reuters. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  356. ^ "Despite calls for global cooperation, US and China fight over leading coronavirus response". ABC News. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  357. ^ Gorce, Tammy La (5 April 2020). "Chinese-Americans, Facing Abuse, Unite to Aid Hospitals in Coronavirus Battle". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  358. ^ Pelosi, Gerardo (11 March 2020). "Coronavirus, attese per oggi un milione di mascherine". Il Sole 24 Ore (in Italian). Retrieved 14 March 2020. Only China has responded bilaterally. This is not a good sign of EU solidarity
  359. ^ a b "China sends essential coronavirus supplies to Italy". Al Jazeera. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  360. ^ Balmer, Crispian (13 March 2020). "China sends medical supplies, experts to help Italy battle coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  361. ^ Giulia Pompili (12 March 2020). "But what help from China against the virus, it's all stuff we purchase". Il Foglio (in Italian). Retrieved 16 March 2020. confermano al Foglio fonti della Farnesina e la Protezione civile, non c'è nessuna donazione, niente di gratis
  362. ^ Blenkinsop, Philip (14 March 2020). "Jack Ma donates two million masks for coronavirus crisis in Europe". Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  363. ^ "President Xi Jinping Talked with Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte over the Phone". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. 16 March 2020.
  364. ^ Mcallister, Edward; Daly, Tom (30 November 2021). "China's Xi pledges another 1 bln COVID-19 vaccine doses for Africa". Reuters. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  365. ^ "China exported 40 masks per person around world in 2020 as trade surplus soared". South China Morning Post. 14 January 2021. Retrieved 24 January 2021.
  366. ^ a b c "Coronavirus: Countries reject Chinese-made equipment". BBC. 30 March 2020.
  367. ^ Moynihan, Adam Payne, Sinéad Baker, Ruqayyah. "The Netherlands has recalled 600,000 coronavirus face masks it imported from China after discovering they were faulty". Business Insider.
  368. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Bradley, Jane (16 April 2020). "U.K. Paid $20 Million for New Coronavirus Tests. They Didn't Work". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  369. ^ a b Wuhan coronavirus reaches India as countries evacuate citizens from China, retrieved 10 February 2020
  370. ^ Benjamin, Patrick; Zhi, Sakura (6 February 2020). "Life under lockdown: Young people in Wuhan tell their coronavirus stories". Dazed. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  371. ^ 关于新型冠状病毒肺炎 这九大谣言别"中招". Beijing News (in Chinese (China)). n.d. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  372. ^ 聚焦 | 关于新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情的最新辟谣! (in Chinese (China)). Xinhua News Agency. n.d. Archived from the original on 2 February 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  373. ^ "Coronavirus: Tales of solidarity from China's virus-hit Wuhan". BBC. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  374. ^ a b 恐慌擴散!機上有武漢人...上海旅客拒登機. World Journal (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 29 January 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  375. ^ Gan, Nectar. "Wuhan people outcasts in their own country amid coronavirus outbreak". CNN. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  376. ^ a b 疫情嚴峻 多省圍堵驅趕武漢人 武漢網民投訴上海人拒同機 央視籲勿歧視 – 20200129 – 中國. 明報新聞網 (in Traditional Chinese). Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  377. ^ 鼓勵舉報湖北人 廣東這個鎮懸賞30個口罩. World Journal (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 5 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  378. ^ 上海人拒與發燒武漢人同機 旅客怒:不是同胞嗎?. World Journal (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 27 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  379. ^ 武漢肺炎》上海人拒同機 武漢人嗆「沒同胞愛」反遭中網友罵爆. Liberty Times (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 28 January 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  380. ^ a b Rich, Motoko (30 January 2020). "As Coronavirus Spreads, So Does Anti-Chinese Sentiment". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  381. ^ "Fears of new virus trigger anti-China sentiment worldwide". ABC News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  382. ^ a b Peel, Michael; Mallet, Victor (1 February 2020). "'Why don't you stay home?' — coronavirus sparks racism fears". Financial Times. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  383. ^ "Fear of coronavirus fuels racist sentiment targeting Asians". Los Angeles Times. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  384. ^ Shi, Jiangtao (11 April 2020). "US warns African-Americans to avoid Guangzhou after reports black people are being targeted in coronavirus clampdown". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  385. ^ "'Unacceptable': Nigeria condemns treatment of citizens in China | News". Al Jazeera. 14 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  386. ^ Jenni Marsh; Shawn Deng; Nectar Gan. "Africans in Guangzhou on edge as coronavirus fears spark anti-foreigner sentiment in China". CNN. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  387. ^ "US warns African-Americans to avoid Guangzhou due to discrimination fears". South China Morning Post. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  388. ^ "China downplays African evictions on coronavirus, blames US media â€" Quartz Africa". Qz.com. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  389. ^ a b c Hangwei Li (17 April 2020). "Mistreatment of Africans in Guangzhou threatens China's coronavirus diplomacy". Theconversation.com. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  390. ^ Marsh, Jenni (12 April 2020). "Africans in Guangzhou left homeless amid rising xenophobia as China fights a second wave of coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  391. ^ a b "'If you're black you can't go out': Africans in China face racism in Covid-19 crackdown". France24.com. 11 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  392. ^ a b Olander, Eric (25 August 2020). "It's been 6 months since Guangzhou, what have we learned?". The Africa Report. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  393. ^ "Coronavirus: US accuses China of 'xenophobia' in treatment of Africans". The Straits Times. Agence France-Presse. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  394. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian's Remarks on Guangdong's Anti-epidemic Measures Concerning African Citizens in China". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  395. ^ "Africa reassesses its relations with China as Covid-19 exposes racial tensions". North Africa Journal. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020. On Sunday, as international pressure mounted, the foreign ministry in Beijing issued a statement saying the country attached "great importance to the life and health of foreign nationals" and rejected all "racist and discriminatory" remarks.
  396. ^ "Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Zhao Lijian's Regular Press Conference on April 13, 2020". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  397. ^ Chambers, Alice; Davies, Guy (29 April 2020). "How foreigners, especially black people, became unwelcome in parts of China amid COVID crisis". ABC News. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  398. ^ Davidson, Helen (13 April 2020). "Chinese official: claims of racial targeting are 'reasonable concerns'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  399. ^ Li, Hangwei. "The mistreatment of Africans in Guangzhou is a big threat to China's coronavirus diplomacy". Quartz. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  400. ^ Brown, Matthew. "Fact check: Black people being targeted in Guangzhou, China, over COVID-19 fears". USA TODAY. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  401. ^ "China's rulers see the coronavirus as a chance to tighten their grip". The Economist. 8 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  402. ^ 中國家長指稱「武漢肺炎是美國投放病毒」 網友傻爆眼 (in Chinese (China)). Archived from the original on 19 February 2020.
  403. ^ "Blaming America: China weaponizes misinformation about COVID-19". military.com. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  404. ^ 为什么武汉这场瘟疫,必须得靠解放军? (in Chinese (China)). 红歌会网. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  405. ^ 朋友圈智商鉴定,冠状病毒是美国投的毒? (in Chinese (China)). 中华网. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  406. ^ Cheng, Ching-Tse (13 March 2020). "China's foreign ministry accuses US military of bringing virus to Wuhan". Taiwan News. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  407. ^ BUDRYK, ZACK (12 March 2020). "China, pushing conspiracy theory, accuses US Army of bringing coronavirus to Wuhan". The Hill. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  408. ^ Tang, Didi. "China accuses US of bringing coronavirus to Wuhan". The Times. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  409. ^ "US summons China's ambassador to Washington over coronavirus conspiracy theory". Al Arabiya English. 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  410. ^ Swan, Jonathan; Allen-Ebrahimian, Bethany (22 March 2020). "Top Chinese official disowns U.S. Military lab coronavirus conspiracy". Axios. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  411. ^ "Pompeo admits the US can't be certain coronavirus outbreak originated in Wuhan lab". CNN. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  412. ^ 新型冠状病毒肺炎流行病学特征分析. 中华流行病学杂志 (in Chinese). 41 (2): 145–151. n.d.
  413. ^ "Coronavirus Live Updates: Olympics Postponed; New York City Braces for a Deluge of Patients". The New York Times. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  414. ^ "A third of virus cases may be 'silent carriers', classified data suggests". South China Morning Post. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  415. ^ Kuo, Lily (23 March 2020). "Life after lockdown: has China really beaten coronavirus?". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  416. ^ "湖北省武汉市新冠肺炎疫情数据订正情况" [Revision of the data of the new coronary pneumonia epidemic situation in Wuhan City, Hubei Province] (in Chinese (China)). National Health Commission. 17 April 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  417. ^ Wallace, Jeremy. "Numbers Aren't Reality, but You Can't Govern Without Them". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  418. ^ Au, Lavender (19 November 2020). "How China crushed coronavirus". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  419. ^ Myers, Steven Lee; Bradsher, Keith; Wee, Sui-Lee; Buckley, Chris (5 February 2021). "Power, Patriotism and 1.4 Billion People: How China Beat the Virus and Roared Back". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 March 2021.

External links

Media files used on this page

Unbalanced scales.svg
Unbalanced scales icon
SARS-CoV-2 (Wikimedia colors).svg
Author/Creator: Geraki, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
SARS-CoV-2 logo in Wikimedia colors
WHO Rod.svg
The rod of Asclepius as depicted in the WHO logo.
Sida-aids.png
Author/Creator: User:FoeNyx © 2004 (artistic illustration), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
VIH - HIV / SIDA - AIDS viruses.
2020-1-23 湖北黄冈黄州区的一个公交车上.jpg
Author/Creator: Walter Grassroot, Licence: CC0
2020-1-23 湖北黄冈黄州区的一个公交车上
塔子湖体育中心改造的方舱医院 07.jpg
Author/Creator: 汮汐, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A Fangcang hospital (makeshift hospital) in Wuhan, Hubei, China, which was converted from Tazihu Sports Center for treating mild COVID-19 patients. There were 16 Fangcang hospitals in Wuhan, and each of them could accommodate hundreds of mild patients. After these hospitals had come into use, the epidemic in Wuhan eased.[1][2]
PRC Exit-Entry Health Declaration Form - February 2020.jpg
Author/Creator: Amakuha, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Exit/Entry Health Declaration Form of the People's Republic of China. (Second edition. Published on 29 January 2020). Travellers leaving China had to fill in this form in early February. Third question: "Have you been to Hubei Province, China in the past 14 days?". Location of the photo: Futian Checkpoint, Shenzhen.
COVID-19-China-log.svg
Author/Creator: Hbf878, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Diagram showing the number of COVID-19 ("Corona") cases in China. Logarithmic Scale. For related diagrams and data sources see User:Hbf878#COVID-19.
Workers having their temperatures taken as they enter an industrial park (cropped).jpg
Author/Creator: Mx. Granger, Licence: CC0
Workers having their temperatures taken as they enter an industrial park (安托山高科技工业园) in Shenzhen, China, amid the COVID-19 pandemic.
关于做好不明原因肺炎救治工作的紧急通知.pdf
武汉市卫生健康委员会医政医管处于2019年12月30日发布的《关于做好不明原因肺炎救治工作的急通知》。
Exit-Entry Permit for Residents During the Outbreak of 2019-nCoV.png
Exit-Entry Permit for Residents During the Outbreak of 2019-nCoV, issued by People's Government of Jintan.
COVID-19 attack rate in Mainland China.svg
Author/Creator: BoyuZhang1998, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
2019-nCoV in Mainland China by attack rate.
  Less than 0.5 cases per 100,000 people
  0.5~1 cases per 100,000 people
  1~3 cases per 100,000 people
  3~5 cases per 100,000 people
  Hubei Province with 118.25 cases per 100,000 people
Covid 19 new cases and deaths China showing Hubei lockdown.png
Author/Creator: Chris55, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Shows 3 day rolling average of new cases and daily deaths in China taken from worldometers.info over the period mid-January to mid-April 2020. The dates of lockdown (21 Jan) and partical lifting of the lockdown (19 Mar) in Hubei are shown.
20200123 Qingdao Metro Line 3 car No.3016.jpg
Author/Creator: qdjuncheng, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
2020年1月23日,青岛地铁3号线3016号车厢。由于武汉肺炎发生,且开始在全国各地包括山东省和青岛等市传播,青岛地铁加紧预防措施,亦由于民众的自觉性,使得列车车厢客流大幅度减少。
National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg
National emblem of the People's Republic of China
湖南抗疫一线医生父子隔防护玻璃互相打气.webm
(c) China News Service, CC BY 3.0
1月26日中午12:10分,湖南省郴州市第一人民医院急诊科主任徐自强,已在抗击新型冠状病毒感染肺炎疫情一线连续工作48小时,趁着午餐时间抽空到相隔不到10米的发热门诊隔离区看望同样在值班的儿子徐秋笔。父子俩人虽近在咫尺,却隔着防护玻璃无法交流。徐自强随手拿出一张处方笺,在上面写下“秋笔,加油!”然后,左手举着处方笺,右手笔划一个V字,给儿子加油鼓劲!隔离病房里,同为急诊科医生的儿子徐秋笔,会心地与父亲相视点头。
Check for 2019-nCoV in Jishuitan metro station (Beijing).jpg
Author/Creator: Pau Colominas, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Control mèdic a l'estació de metro de Jishuitan (Pequín) a causa de l'amenaça de coronavirus 2019-nCoV. Els operaris, vestits de blanc, prenen la temperatura a tot aquell que vulgui accedir al metro.
Together We Shall Beat COVID-19, Together We Shall Build a Brighter Future - A Letter to Everyone in Guangzhou.jpg
Author/Creator: H2NCH2COOH, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
2019冠状病毒病(新型冠状病毒肺炎)广州疫情期间的一封公开信《同舟共济战疫情 戮力同心创未来——致所有在穗人员的一封信》
雁塔 曲江收费站的防疫检查 01.jpg
Author/Creator: Liuxingy, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
西安市雁塔区曲江收费站的防疫检查