COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa

COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa
Za-covid-actives.svg
Confirmed active COVID-19 cases in provinces as of 4 March 2022.
CoViD-19-deaths-and-excess-deaths-South-Africa-weekly.svg
Natural excess deaths (green) vs confirmed COVID-19 deaths (red) as of 26 February 2022.
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationSouth Africa
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseHilton, KwaZulu-Natal
Arrival date5 March 2020
(2 years and 1 day ago)
Confirmed cases3,683,172[1] +1,147 as of 6 March 2022[2]
Active cases24,559[2]
Recovered3,560,217[2]
Deaths
99,543[1] +26 as of 6 March 2022[2]
Fatality rate2.7%
Test positivity rate6.1% as of 6 March 2022
Vaccinations
  • 20,396,606[1] (total vaccinated)
  • 17,301,807[1] (fully vaccinated)
  • 31,652,555[1] (doses administered)
Government website
https://sacoronavirus.co.za
https://vaccine.enroll.health.gov.za

The COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa is part of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

On 5 March 2020, Minister of Health Zweli Mkhize had confirmed the spread of the virus to South Africa, with the first known patient being a male citizen who tested positive upon his return from Italy.[3] On 15 March 2020, the President of South Africa, Cyril Ramaphosa, declared a national state of disaster,[4] and announced measures such as immediate travel restrictions and the closure of schools from 18 March.[5] On 17 March, the National Coronavirus Command Council was established,[6] "to lead the nation's plan to contain the spread and mitigate the negative impact of the coronavirus".[6][7] On 23 March, a national lockdown was announced, starting on 27 March 2020.[8] The first local death from the disease was reported on 27 March 2020.[9] On 21 April, a 500 billion rand stimulus was announced in response to the pandemic.[10] Ramaphosa announced that from 1 May 2020, a gradual and phased easing of the lockdown restrictions would begin, lowering the national alert level to 4.[11] From 1 June, the national restrictions were lowered to level 3.[12][13] The restrictions were lowered to alert level 2 on 17 August 2020.[14] From 21 September 2020, restrictions were lowered to alert level 1.[15]

In December 2020, the country experienced a second wave of COVID-19 infections.[16] The lockdown was tightened from an adjusted level 1 to an adjusted level 3 starting on 29 December 2020. The lockdown was lowered from an adjusted level 3 to an adjusted level 1 starting on 1 March 2021.[17] On 17 February 2021, the national COVID-19 vaccination program was officially rolled out.[18]

On 8 May 2021, local cases of variants of concern Delta (first detected in India, which has a higher transmissibility than the dominant strain, Beta) and Alpha were reported.[19] On 31 May 2021 the country was moved from adjusted level 1 to an adjusted alert level 2, due to a third wave of infections.[20] On 15 June 2021 the country was moved to alert level 3.[21] On 28 June 2021, the country was moved to adjusted level 4, with the Delta variant fast becoming the dominant strain in the country.[22] On 9 July 2021, sixteen months into the pandemic, doctors in Johannesburg described the system there as beyond its breaking point, with insufficient beds and barely enough oxygen.[23] On 25 July 2021 the country was lowered to adjusted level 3.[24] On 13 September 2021 an adjusted alert level 2 took effect,[25][26] and on 1 October 2021 more restrictions were eased by moving to adjusted alert level 1.[27]

On 26 November 2021 the World Health Organization (WHO) classified the Omicron variant, first identified in Botswana[28] but first reported to WHO by South Africa, as a variant of concern.[29] Several countries announced travel bans from South Africa and its neighboring countries. The country was entering its 4th wave by 1 December 2021.[30]

On 4 February 2022 it was announced that South African scientists had replicated the Moderna COVID-19 messenger RNA vaccine.[31]

As of 26 February 2022 there have been 299980 excess deaths of persons older than 1 years from natural causes since 3 May 2020,[32] with 85%–95% of these excess deaths attributable to COVID-19, and the remaining 5%–15% probably mainly due to overwhelmed health services.[33]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in South Africa (Click for all data)  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
202020202021202120222022
MarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMarAprAprMayMayJunJunJulJulAugAugSepSepOctOctNovNovDecDec
JanJanFebFebMarMar
Last 15 daysLast 15 days
Date
# of cases
# of deaths
2020-03-051(n.a.)
2020-03-061(=)
2020-03-072(+1)
2020-03-083(+1)
2020-03-097(+4)
2020-03-107(=)
2020-03-1113(+6)
2020-03-1216(+3)
2020-03-1324(+8)
2020-03-1438(+14)
2020-03-1561(+23)
2020-03-1662(+1)
2020-03-17
85(+23)
2020-03-18
116(+31)
2020-03-19
150(+34)
2020-03-20
202(+52)
2020-03-21
240(+38)
2020-03-22
274(+34)
2020-03-23
402(+128)
2020-03-24
554(+152)
2020-03-25
709(+155)
2020-03-26
927(+218)
2020-03-27
1,170(+243)1(n.a.)
2020-03-28
1,187(+17)1(=)
2020-03-29
1,280(+93)2(+1)
2020-03-30
1,326(+46)3(+1)
2020-03-31
1,372(+46)5(+2)
2020-04-01
1,380(+8)5(=)
2020-04-02
1,462(+82)5(=)
2020-04-03
1,505(+43)7(+2)
2020-04-04
1,585(+80)9(+2)
2020-04-05
1,655(+70)11(+2)
2020-04-06
1,686(+31)12(+1)
2020-04-07
1,749(+63)13(+1)
2020-04-08
1,845(+96)18(+5)
2020-04-09
1,934(+89)18(=)
2020-04-10
2,003(+69)24(+6)
2020-04-11
2,028(+25)25(+1)
2020-04-12
2,173(+145)25(=)
2020-04-13
2,272(+99)27(+2)
2020-04-14
2,415(+143)27(=)
2020-04-15
2,506(+91)34(+7)
2020-04-16
2,605(+99)48(+14)
2020-04-17
2,783(+178)50(+2)
2020-04-18
3,034(+251)52(+2)
2020-04-19
3,158(+124)54(+2)
2020-04-20
3,300(+142)58(+4)
2020-04-21
3,465(+165)58(=)
2020-04-22
3,635(+170)65(+7)
2020-04-23
3,953(+318)75(+10)
2020-04-24
4,220(+267)79(+4)
2020-04-25
4,361(+141)86(+7)
2020-04-26
4,546(+185)87(+1)
2020-04-27
4,793(+247)90(+3)
2020-04-28
4,996(+203)93(+3)
2020-04-29
5,350(+354)103(+10)
2020-04-30
5,647(+297)103(=)
2020-05-01
5,951(+304)116(+13)
2020-05-02
6,336(+385)123(+7)
2020-05-03
6,783(+447)131(+8)
2020-05-04
7,220(+437)138(+7)
2020-05-05
7,572(+352)148(+10)
2020-05-06
7,808(+236)153(+5)
2020-05-07
8,232(+424)161(+8)
2020-05-08
8,895(+663)178(+17)
2020-05-09
9,420(+525)186(+8)
2020-05-10
10,015(+595)194(+8)
2020-05-11
10,652(+637)206(+12)
2020-05-12
11,350(+698)206(=)
2020-05-13
12,074(+724)219(+13)
2020-05-14
12,739(+665)238(+19)
2020-05-15
13,524(+785)247(+9)
2020-05-16
14,355(+831)261(+14)
2020-05-17
15,515(+1,160)264(+3)
2020-05-18
16,433(+918)286(+22)
2020-05-19
17,200(+767)312(+26)
2020-05-20
18,003(+803)339(+27)
2020-05-21
19,137(+1,134)369(+30)
2020-05-22
20,125(+988)397(+28)
2020-05-23
21,343(+1,218)407(+10)
2020-05-24
22,583(+1,240)429(+22)
2020-05-25
23,615(+1,032)481(+52)
2020-05-26
24,264(+649)524(+43)
2020-05-27
25,937(+1,673)552(+28)
2020-05-28
27,403(+1,466)577(+25)
2020-05-29
29,240(+1,837)611(+34)
2020-05-30
30,967(+1,727)643(+32)
2020-05-31
32,683(+1,716)683(+40)
2020-06-01
34,357(+1,674)705(+22)
2020-06-02
35,812(+1,455)755(+50)
2020-06-03
37,525(+1,713)792(+37)
2020-06-04
40,792(+3,267)848(+56)
2020-06-05
43,434(+2,642)908(+60)
2020-06-06
45,973(+2,539)952(+44)
2020-06-07
48,285(+2,312)998(+46)
2020-06-08
50,879(+2,594)1,080(+82)
2020-06-09
52,991(+2,112)1,162(+82)
2020-06-10
55,421(+2,430)1,210(+48)
2020-06-11
58,568(+3,147)1,284(+74)
2020-06-12
61,927(+3,359)1,354(+70)
2020-06-13
65,736(+3,809)1,423(+69)
2020-06-14
70,038(+4,302)1,480(+57)
2020-06-15
73,533(+3,495)1,568(+88)
2020-06-16
76,334(+2,801)1,625(+57)
2020-06-17
80,412(+4,078)1,674(+49)
2020-06-18
83,890(+3,478)1,737(+63)
2020-06-19
87,715(+3,825)1,831(+94)
2020-06-20
92,681(+4,966)1,877(+46)
2020-06-21
97,302(+4,621)1,930(+53)
2020-06-22
101,590(+4,288)1,991(+61)
2020-06-23
106,108(+4,518)2,102(+111)
2020-06-24
111,796(+5,688)2,205(+103)
2020-06-25
118,375(+6,579)2,292(+87)
2020-06-26
124,590(+6,215)2,340(+48)
2020-06-27
131,800(+7,210)2,413(+73)
2020-06-28
138,134(+6,334)2,456(+43)
2020-06-29
144,264(+6,130)2,529(+73)
2020-06-30
151,209(+6,945)2,657(+128)
2020-07-01
159,333(+8,124)2,749(+92)
2020-07-02
168,061(+8,728)2,844(+95)
2020-07-03
177,124(+9,063)2,952(+108)
2020-07-04
187,977(+10,853)3,026(+74)
2020-07-05
196,750(+8,773)3,199(+173)
2020-07-06
205,721(+8,971)3,310(+111)
2020-07-07
215,855(+10,134)3,502(+192)
2020-07-08
224,665(+8,810)3,600(+98)
2020-07-09
238,399(+13,734)3,720(+120)
2020-07-10
250,687(+12,288)3,860(+140)
2020-07-11
264,184(+13,497)3,971(+111)
2020-07-12
276,242(+12,058)4,079(+108)
2020-07-13
287,796(+11,554)4,172(+93)
2020-07-14
298,292(+10,496)4,346(+174)
2020-07-15
311,049(+12,757)4,453(+107)
2020-07-16
324,221(+13,172)4,669(+216)
2020-07-17
337,594(+13,373)4,804(+135)
2020-07-18
350,879(+13,285)4,948(+144)
2020-07-19
364,328(+13,449)5,033(+85)
2020-07-20
373,628(+9,300)5,173(+140)
2020-07-21
381,798(+8,170)5,368(+195)
2020-07-22
394,948(+13,150)5,940(+572)
2020-07-23
408,052(+13,104)6,093(+153)
2020-07-24
421,996(+13,944)6,343(+250)
2020-07-25
434,200(+12,204)6,655(+312)
2020-07-26
445,433(+11,233)6,769(+114)
2020-07-27
452,529(+7,096)7,067(+298)
2020-07-28
459,761(+7,232)7,257(+190)
2020-07-29
471,123(+11,362)7,497(+240)
2020-07-30
482,169(+11,046)7,812(+315)
2020-07-31
493,183(+11,014)8,005(+193)
2020-08-01
503,290(+10,107)8,153(+148)
2020-08-02
511,485(+8,195)8,366(+213)
2020-08-03
516,862(+5,377)8,539(+173)
2020-08-04
521,318(+4,456)8,884(+345)
2020-08-05
529,877(+8,559)9,298(+414)
2020-08-06
538,184(+8,307)9,604(+306)
2020-08-07
545,476(+7,292)9,909(+305)
2020-08-08
553,188(+7,712)10,210(+301)
2020-08-09
559,858(+6,670)10,408(+198)
2020-08-10
563,598(+3,740)10,621(+213)
2020-08-11
566,109(+2,511)10,751(+130)
2020-08-12
568,919(+2,810)11,010(+259)
2020-08-13
572,865(+3,946)11,270(+260)
2020-08-14
579,140(+6,275)11,556(+286)
2020-08-15
583,653(+4,513)11,677(+121)
2020-08-16
587,345(+3,692)11,839(+162)
2020-08-17
589,886(+2,541)11,982(+143)
2020-08-18
592,144(+2,258)12,264(+282)
2020-08-19
596,060(+3,916)12,423(+159)
2020-08-20
599,940(+3,880)12,618(+195)
2020-08-21
603,338(+3,398)12,843(+225)
2020-08-22
607,045(+3,707)12,987(+144)
2020-08-23
609,773(+2,728)13,059(+72)
2020-08-24
611,450(+1,677)13,159(+100)
2020-08-25
613,017(+1,567)13,308(+149)
2020-08-26
615,701(+2,684)13,502(+194)
2020-08-27
618,286(+2,585)13,628(+126)
2020-08-28
620,132(+1,846)13,743(+115)
2020-08-29
622,551(+2,419)13,981(+238)
2020-08-30
625,056(+2,505)14,028(+47)
2020-08-31
627,041(+1,985)14,149(+121)
2020-09-01
628,259(+1,218)14,263(+114)
2020-09-02
630,595(+2,336)14,389(+126)
2020-09-03
633,015(+2,420)14,563(+174)
2020-09-04
635,078(+2,063)14,678(+115)
2020-09-05
636,884(+1,806)14,779(+101)
2020-09-06
638,517(+1,633)14,889(+110)
2020-09-07
639,362(+845)15,004(+115)
2020-09-08
640,441(+1,079)15,086(+82)
2020-09-09
642,431(+1,990)15,168(+82)
2020-09-10
644,438(+2,007)15,265(+97)
2020-09-11
646,398(+1,960)15,378(+113)
2020-09-12
648,214(+1,816)15,427(+49)
2020-09-13
649,793(+1,579)15,447(+20)
2020-09-14
650,749(+956)15,499(+52)
2020-09-15
651,521(+772)15,641(+142)
2020-09-16
653,444(+1,923)15,705(+64)
2020-09-17
655,572(+2,128)15,772(+67)
2020-09-18
657,627(+2,055)15,857(+85)
2020-09-19
659,626(+1,999)15,940(+83)
2020-09-20
661,211(+1,585)15,953(+13)
2020-09-21
661,936(+725)15,992(+39)
2020-09-22
663,282(+1,346)16,118(+126)
2020-09-23
665,188(+1,906)16,206(+88)
2020-09-24
667,049(+1,861)16,283(+77)
2020-09-25
668,529(+1,480)16,312(+29)
2020-09-26
669,498(+969)16,376(+64)
2020-09-27
670,766(+1,268)16,398(+22)
2020-09-28
671,669(+903)16,586(+188)
2020-09-29
672,572(+903)16,667(+81)
2020-09-30
674,339(+1,767)16,734(+67)
2020-10-01
676,084(+1,745)16,866(+132)
2020-10-02
677,833(+1,749)16,909(+43)
2020-10-03
679,716(+1,883)16,938(+29)
2020-10-04
681,289(+1,573)16,976(+38)
2020-10-05
682,215(+926)17,016(+40)
2020-10-06
683,242(+1,027)17,103(+87)
2020-10-07
685,155(+1,913)17,248(+145)
2020-10-08
686,891(+1,736)17,408(+160)
2020-10-09
688,352(+1,461)17,547(+139)
2020-10-10
690,896(+2,544)17,673(+126)
2020-10-11
692,471(+1,575)17,780(+107)
2020-10-12
693,359(+888)17,863(+83)
2020-10-13
694,537(+1,178)18,028(+165)
2020-10-14
696,414(+1,877)18,151(+123)
2020-10-15
698,184(+1,770)18,309(+158)
2020-10-16
700,203(+2,019)18,370(+61)
2020-10-17
702,131(+1,928)18,408(+38)
2020-10-18
703,793(+1,662)18,471(+63)
2020-10-19
705,254(+1,461)18,492(+21)
2020-10-20
706,304(+1,050)18,656(+164)
2020-10-21
708,359(+2,055)18,741(+85)
2020-10-22
710,515(+2,156)18,843(+102)
2020-10-23
712,412(+1,897)18,891(+48)
2020-10-24
714,246(+1,834)18,944(+53)
2020-10-25
715,868(+1,622)18,968(+24)
2020-10-26
716,759(+891)19,008(+40)
2020-10-27
717,851(+1,092)19,053(+45)
2020-10-28
719,714(+1,863)19,111(+58)
2020-10-29
721,770(+2,056)19,164(+53)
2020-10-30
723,682(+1,912)19,230(+66)
2020-10-31
725,452(+1,770)19,276(+46)
2020-11-01
726,823(+1,371)19,411(+135)
2020-11-02
727,595(+772)19,465(+54)
2020-11-03
728,836(+1,241)19,539(+74)
2020-11-04
730,548(+1,712)19,585(+46)
2020-11-05
732,414(+1,866)19,677(+92)
2020-11-06
734,175(+1,761)19,749(+72)
2020-11-07
735,906(+1,731)19,789(+40)
2020-11-08
737,278(+1,372)19,809(+20)
2020-11-09
738,525(+1,247)19,845(+36)
2020-11-10
740,254(+1,729)19,951(+106)
2020-11-11
742,394(+2,140)20,011(+60)
2020-11-12
744,732(+2,338)20,076(+65)
2020-11-13
746,945(+2,213)20,153(+77)
2020-11-14
749,182(+2,237)20,206(+53)
2020-11-15
751,024(+1,842)20,241(+35)
2020-11-16
752,269(+1,245)20,314(+73)
2020-11-17
754,256(+1,987)20,432(+118)
2020-11-18
757,144(+2,888)20,556(+124)
2020-11-19
759,658(+2,514)20,671(+115)
2020-11-20
762,763(+3,105)20,759(+88)
2020-11-21
765,409(+2,646)20,845(+86)
2020-11-22
767,679(+2,270)20,903(+58)
2020-11-23
769,759(+2,080)20,968(+65)
2020-11-24
772,252(+2,493)21,083(+115)
2020-11-25
775,502(+3,250)21,201(+118)
2020-11-26
778,571(+3,069)21,289(+88)
2020-11-27
781,941(+3,370)21,378(+89)
2020-11-28
785,139(+3,198)21,439(+61)
2020-11-29
787,702(+2,563)21,477(+38)
2020-11-30
790,004(+2,302)21,535(+58)
2020-12-01
792,299(+2,295)21,644(+109)
2020-12-02
796,472(+4,173)21,709(+65)
2020-12-03
800,872(+4,400)21,803(+94)
2020-12-04
805,804(+4,932)21,963(+160)
2020-12-05
810,449(+4,645)22,067(+104)
2020-12-06
814,565(+4,116)22,206(+139)
2020-12-07
817,878(+3,313)22,249(+43)
2020-12-08
821,889(+4,011)22,432(+183)
2020-12-09
828,598(+6,709)22,574(+142)
2020-12-10
836,764(+8,166)22,747(+173)
2020-12-11
845,083(+8,319)22,952(+205)
2020-12-12
852,965(+7,882)23,106(+154)
2020-12-13
860,964(+7,999)23,276(+170)
2020-12-14
866,127(+5,163)23,451(+175)
2020-12-15
873,679(+7,552)23,661(+210)
2020-12-16
883,687(+10,008)23,827(+166)
2020-12-17
892,813(+9,126)24,011(+184)
2020-12-18
901,538(+8,725)24,285(+274)
2020-12-19
912,477(+10,939)24,539(+254)
2020-12-20
921,922(+9,445)24,691(+152)
2020-12-21
930,711(+8,789)24,907(+216)
2020-12-22
940,212(+9,501)25,246(+339)
2020-12-23
954,258(+14,046)25,657(+411)
2020-12-24
968,563(+14,305)25,983(+326)
2020-12-25
983,359(+14,796)26,276(+293)
2020-12-26
994,911(+11,552)26,521(+245)
2020-12-27
1,004,413(+9,502)26,735(+214)
2020-12-28
1,011,871(+7,458)27,071(+336)
2020-12-29
1,021,451(+9,580)27,568(+497)
2020-12-30
1,039,161(+17,710)28,033(+465)
2020-12-31
1,057,161(+18,000)28,469(+436)
2021-01-01
1,073,887(+16,726)28,887(+418)
2021-01-02
1,088,889(+15,002)29,175(+288)
2021-01-03
1,100,748(+11,859)29,577(+402)
2021-01-04
1,113,349(+12,601)30,011(+434)
2021-01-05
1,127,759(+14,410)30,524(+513)
2021-01-06
1,149,591(+21,832)31,368(+844)
2021-01-07
1,170,590(+20,999)31,809(+441)
2021-01-08
1,192,570(+21,980)32,425(+616)
2021-01-09
1,214,176(+21,606)32,824(+399)
2021-01-10
1,231,597(+17,421)33,163(+339)
2021-01-11
1,246,643(+15,046)33,579(+416)
2021-01-12
1,259,748(+13,105)34,334(+755)
2021-01-13
1,278,303(+18,555)35,140(+806)
2021-01-14
1,296,806(+18,503)35,852(+712)
2021-01-15
1,311,686(+14,880)36,467(+615)
2021-01-16
1,325,659(+13,973)36,851(+384)
2021-01-17
1,337,926(+12,267)37,105(+254)
2021-01-18
1,346,936(+9,010)37,499(+394)
2021-01-19
1,356,716(+9,780)38,288(+789)
2021-01-20
1,369,426(+12,710)38,854(+566)
2021-01-21
1,380,807(+11,381)39,501(+647)
2021-01-22
1,392,568(+11,761)40,076(+575)
2021-01-23
1,404,839(+12,271)40,574(+498)
2021-01-24
1,412,986(+8,147)40,874(+300)
2021-01-25
1,417,537(+4,551)41,117(+243)
2021-01-26
1,423,578(+6,041)41,797(+680)
2021-01-27
1,430,648(+7,070)42,550(+753)
2021-01-28
1,437,798(+7,150)43,105(+555)
2021-01-29
1,443,939(+6,141)43,633(+528)
2021-01-30
1,449,236(+5,297)43,951(+318)
2021-01-31
1,453,761(+4,525)44,164(+213)
2021-02-01
1,456,309(+2,548)44,399(+235)
2021-02-02
1,458,958(+2,649)44,946(+547)
2021-02-03
1,463,016(+4,058)45,344(+398)
2021-02-04
1,466,767(+3,751)45,605(+261)
2021-02-05
1,470,516(+3,749)45,902(+297)
2021-02-06
1,473,700(+3,184)46,180(+278)
2021-02-07
1,476,135(+2,435)46,290(+110)
2021-02-08
1,477,511(+1,376)46,473(+183)
2021-02-09
1,479,253(+1,742)46,869(+396)
2021-02-10
1,482,412(+3,159)47,145(+276)
2021-02-11
1,484,900(+2,488)47,382(+237)
2021-02-12
1,487,681(+2,781)47,670(+288)
2021-02-13
1,490,063(+2,382)47,821(+151)
2021-02-14
1,491,807(+1,744)47,899(+78)
2021-02-15
1,492,909(+1,102)48,094(+195)
2021-02-16
1,494,119(+1,210)48,313(+219)
2021-02-17
1,496,439(+2,320)48,478(+165)
2021-02-18
1,498,766(+2,327)48,708(+230)
2021-02-19
1,500,677(+1,911)48,859(+151)
2021-02-20
1,502,367(+1,690)48,940(+81)
2021-02-21
1,503,796(+1,429)49,053(+113)
2021-02-22
1,504,588(+792)49,150(+97)
2021-02-23
1,505,586(+998)49,413(+263)
2021-02-24
1,507,448(+1,862)49,523(+110)
2021-02-25
1,509,124(+1,676)49,667(+144)
2021-02-26
1,510,778(+1,654)49,784(+117)
2021-02-27
1,512,225(+1,447)49,941(+157)
2021-02-28
1,513,393(+1,168)49,993(+52)
2021-03-01
1,513,959(+566)50,077(+84)
2021-03-02
1,514,815(+856)50,271(+194)
2021-03-03
1,516,262(+1,447)50,366(+95)
2021-03-04
1,517,666(+1,404)50,462(+96)
2021-03-05
1,518,979(+1,313)50,566(+104)
2021-03-06
1,520,206(+1,227)50,647(+81)
2021-03-07
1,521,068(+862)50,678(+31)
2021-03-08
1,521,706(+638)50,803(+125)
2021-03-09
1,522,697(+991)50,906(+103)
2021-03-10
1,524,174(+1,477)51,015(+109)
2021-03-11
1,525,648(+1,474)51,110(+95)
2021-03-12
1,526,873(+1,225)51,179(+69)
2021-03-13
1,528,414(+1,541)51,261(+82)
2021-03-14
1,529,420(+1,006)51,326(+65)
2021-03-15
1,530,033(+613)51,421(+95)
2021-03-16
1,530,966(+933)51,560(+139)
2021-03-17
1,532,497(+1,531)51,634(+74)
2021-03-18
1,533,961(+1,464)51,724(+90)
2021-03-19
1,535,423(+1,462)52,035(+311)
2021-03-20
1,536,801(+1,378)52,082(+47)
2021-03-21
1,537,852(+1,051)52,111(+29)
2021-03-22
1,538,451(+599)52,196(+85)
2021-03-23
1,538,961(+510)52,251(+55)
2021-03-24
1,540,009(+1,048)52,372(+121)
2021-03-25
1,541,563(+1,554)52,535(+163)
2021-03-26
1,543,079(+1,516)52,602(+67)
2021-03-27
1,544,466(+1,387)52,648(+46)
2021-03-28
1,545,431(+965)52,663(+15)
2021-03-29
1,545,979(+548)52,710(+47)
2021-03-30
1,546,735(+756)52,788(+78)
2021-03-31
1,548,157(+1,422)52,846(+58)
2021-04-01
1,549,451(+1,294)52,897(+51)
2021-04-02
1,550,724(+1,273)52,946(+49)
2021-04-03
1,551,501(+777)52,954(+8)
2021-04-04
1,551,964(+463)52,987(+33)
2021-04-05
1,552,416(+452)52,995(+8)
2021-04-06
1,552,853(+437)53,032(+37)
2021-04-07
1,553,609(+756)53,111(+79)
2021-04-08
1,554,975(+1,366)53,173(+62)
2021-04-09
1,556,242(+1,267)53,226(+53)
2021-04-10
1,557,527(+1,285)53,256(+30)
2021-04-11
1,558,458(+931)53,322(+66)
2021-04-12
1,559,113(+655)53,356(+34)
2021-04-13
1,559,960(+847)53,423(+67)
2021-04-14
1,561,559(+1,599)53,498(+75)
2021-04-15
1,562,931(+1,372)53,571(+73)
2021-04-16
1,564,355(+1,424)53,663(+92)
2021-04-17
1,565,680(+1,325)53,711(+48)
2021-04-18
1,566,769(+1,089)53,736(+25)
2021-04-19
1,567,513(+744)53,757(+21)
2021-04-20
1,568,366(+853)53,887(+130)
2021-04-21
1,569,935(+1,569)53,940(+53)
2021-04-22
1,571,348(+1,413)53,995(+55)
2021-04-23
1,572,985(+1,637)54,066(+71)
2021-04-24
1,574,370(+1,385)54,125(+59)
2021-04-25
1,575,471(+1,101)54,148(+23)
2021-04-26
1,576,320(+849)54,186(+38)
2021-04-27
1,577,200(+880)54,237(+51)
2021-04-28
1,578,450(+1,250)54,285(+48)
2021-04-29
1,579,536(+1,086)54,331(+46)
2021-04-30
1,581,210(+1,674)54,350(+19)
2021-05-01
1,582,842(+1,632)54,406(+56)
2021-05-02
1,584,064(+1,222)54,417(+11)
2021-05-03
1,584,961(+897)54,452(+35)
2021-05-04
1,586,148(+1,187)54,511(+59)
2021-05-05
1,588,221(+2,073)54,557(+46)
2021-05-06
1,590,370(+2,149)54,620(+63)
2021-05-07
1,592,626(+2,256)54,687(+67)
2021-05-08
1,594,817(+2,191)54,724(+37)
2021-05-09
1,596,595(+1,778)54,735(+11)
2021-05-10
1,597,724(+1,129)54,825(+90)
2021-05-11
1,599,272(+1,548)54,896(+71)
2021-05-12
1,602,031(+2,759)54,968(+72)
2021-05-13
1,605,252(+3,221)55,012(+44)
2021-05-14
1,608,393(+3,141)55,124(+112)
2021-05-15
1,611,143(+2,750)55,183(+59)
2021-05-16
1,613,728(+2,585)55,210(+27)
2021-05-17
1,615,485(+1,757)55,260(+50)
2021-05-18
1,617,840(+2,355)55,340(+80)
2021-05-19
1,621,362(+3,522)55,507(+167)
2021-05-20
1,625,003(+3,641)55,568(+61)
2021-05-21
1,628,335(+3,332)55,719(+151)
2021-05-22
1,632,572(+4,237)55,772(+53)
2021-05-23
1,635,465(+2,893)55,802(+30)
2021-05-24
1,637,848(+2,383)55,874(+72)
2021-05-25
1,640,932(+3,084)55,976(+102)
2021-05-26
1,645,555(+4,623)56,077(+101)
2021-05-27
1,649,977(+4,422)56,170(+93)
2021-05-28
1,654,551(+4,574)56,293(+123)
2021-05-29
1,659,070(+4,519)56,363(+70)
2021-05-30
1,662,825(+3,755)56,363(=)
2021-05-31
1,665,617(+2,792)56,506(+143)
2021-06-01
1,669,231(+3,614)56,601(+95)
2021-06-02
1,675,013(+5,782)56,711(+110)
2021-06-03
1,680,373(+5,360)56,765(+54)
2021-06-04
1,686,041(+5,668)56,832(+67)
2021-06-05
1,691,491(+5,450)56,929(+97)
2021-06-06
1,696,564(+5,073)56,974(+45)
2021-06-07
1,699,849(+3,285)57,063(+89)
2021-06-08
1,704,058(+4,209)57,183(+120)
2021-06-09
1,712,939(+8,881)57,310(+127)
2021-06-10
1,722,086(+9,147)57,410(+100)
2021-06-11
1,730,106(+8,020)57,592(+182)
2021-06-12
1,739,425(+9,319)57,706(+114)
2021-06-13
1,747,082(+7,657)57,765(+59)
2021-06-14
1,752,630(+5,548)57,879(+114)
2021-06-15
1,761,066(+8,436)58,087(+208)
2021-06-16
1,774,312(+13,246)58,223(+136)
2021-06-17
1,786,079(+11,767)58,323(+100)
2021-06-18
1,796,589(+10,510)58,441(+118)
2021-06-19
1,810,164(+13,575)58,590(+149)
2021-06-20
1,823,319(+13,155)58,702(+112)
2021-06-21
1,832,479(+9,160)58,795(+93)
2021-06-22
1,843,572(+11,093)59,092(+297)
2021-06-23
1,861,065(+17,493)59,258(+166)
2021-06-24
1,877,143(+16,078)59,406(+148)
2021-06-25
1,895,905(+18,762)59,621(+215)
2021-06-26
1,913,861(+17,956)59,778(+157)
2021-06-27
1,928,897(+15,036)59,900(+122)
2021-06-28
1,941,119(+12,222)60,038(+138)
2021-06-29
1,954,466(+13,347)60,264(+226)
2021-06-30
1,973,972(+19,506)60,647(+383)
2021-07-01
1,995,556(+21,584)61,029(+382)
2021-07-02
2,019,826(+24,270)61,332(+303)
2021-07-03
2,046,311(+26,485)61,507(+175)
2021-07-04
2,062,896(+16,585)61,840(+333)
2021-07-05
2,075,409(+12,513)62,171(+331)
2021-07-06
2,090,909(+15,500)62,628(+457)
2021-07-07
2,112,336(+21,427)63,039(+411)
2021-07-08
2,135,246(+22,910)63,499(+460)
2021-07-09
2,157,687(+22,441)63,873(+374)
2021-07-10
2,179,297(+21,610)64,138(+265)
2021-07-11
2,195,599(+16,302)64,289(+151)
2021-07-12
2,206,781(+11,182)64,509(+220)
2021-07-13
2,219,316(+12,535)65,142(+633)
2021-07-14
2,236,805(+17,489)65,595(+453)
2021-07-15
2,253,240(+16,435)65,972(+377)
2021-07-16
2,269,179(+15,939)66,385(+413)
2021-07-17
2,283,880(+14,701)66,686(+301)
2021-07-18
2,295,095(+11,215)66,859(+173)
2021-07-19
2,302,304(+7,209)67,080(+221)
2021-07-20
2,311,232(+8,928)67,676(+596)
2021-07-21
2,327,472(+16,240)68,192(+516)
2021-07-22
2,342,330(+14,858)68,625(+433)
2021-07-23
2,356,049(+13,719)69,075(+450)
2021-07-24
2,368,105(+12,056)69,488(+413)
2021-07-25
2,377,823(+9,718)69,775(+287)
2021-07-26
2,383,490(+5,667)70,018(+243)
2021-07-27
2,391,223(+7,733)70,338(+320)
2021-07-28
2,408,525(+17,302)70,908(+570)
2021-07-29
2,422,151(+13,626)71,431(+523)
2021-07-30
2,435,036(+12,885)71,679(+248)
2021-07-31
2,447,454(+12,418)72,013(+334)
2021-08-01
2,456,184(+8,730)72,191(+178)
2021-08-02
2,461,758(+5,574)72,437(+246)
2021-08-03
2,470,746(+8,988)72,992(+555)
2021-08-04
2,484,009(+13,263)73,415(+423)
2021-08-05
2,497,655(+13,646)73,873(+458)
2021-08-06
2,511,178(+13,523)74,352(+479)
2021-08-07
2,523,488(+12,310)74,623(+271)
2021-08-08
2,533,466(+9,978)74,813(+190)
2021-08-09
2,540,222(+6,756)75,012(+199)
2021-08-10
2,546,762(+6,540)75,201(+189)
2021-08-11
2,554,240(+7,478)75,774(+573)
2021-08-12
2,568,511(+14,271)76,247(+473)
2021-08-13
2,582,427(+13,916)76,631(+384)
2021-08-14
2,595,447(+13,020)76,869(+238)
2021-08-15
2,605,586(+10,139)77,141(+272)
2021-08-16
2,613,569(+7,983)77,440(+299)
2021-08-17
2,624,254(+10,685)77,993(+553)
2021-08-18
2,638,981(+14,727)78,377(+384)
2021-08-19
2,652,652(+13,671)78,694(+317)
2021-08-20
2,666,964(+14,312)78,983(+289)
2021-08-21
2,680,225(+13,261)79,251(+268)
2021-08-22
2,690,973(+10,748)79,421(+170)
2021-08-23
2,698,605(+7,632)79,584(+163)
2021-08-24
2,708,951(+10,346)79,953(+369)
2021-08-25
2,722,202(+13,251)80,469(+516)
2021-08-26
2,734,973(+12,771)80,826(+357)
2021-08-27
2,747,018(+12,045)81,187(+361)
2021-08-28
2,757,191(+10,173)81,461(+274)
2021-08-29
2,764,931(+7,740)81,595(+134)
2021-08-30
2,770,575(+5,644)81,830(+235)
2021-08-31
2,777,569(+6,994)82,261(+431)
2021-09-01
2,787,203(+9,634)82,496(+235)
2021-09-02
2,796,405(+9,202)82,914(+418)
2021-09-03
2,805,604(+9,199)83,161(+247)
2021-09-04
2,814,014(+8,410)83,343(+182)
2021-09-05
2,819,945(+5,931)83,419(+76)
2021-09-06
2,824,063(+4,118)83,617(+198)
2021-09-07
2,829,435(+5,372)83,899(+282)
2021-09-08
2,836,773(+7,338)84,152(+253)
2021-09-09
2,843,042(+6,269)84,327(+175)
2021-09-10
2,848,925(+5,883)84,608(+281)
2021-09-11
2,854,234(+5,309)84,751(+143)
2021-09-12
2,858,195(+3,961)84,877(+126)
2021-09-13
2,860,835(+2,640)85,002(+125)
2021-09-14
2,864,534(+3,699)85,302(+300)
2021-09-15
2,869,201(+4,667)85,468(+166)
2021-09-16
2,873,415(+4,214)85,779(+311)
2021-09-17
2,877,063(+3,648)85,952(+173)
2021-09-18
2,880,349(+3,286)86,116(+164)
2021-09-19
2,882,630(+2,281)86,174(+58)
2021-09-20
2,884,134(+1,504)86,216(+42)
2021-09-21
2,886,331(+2,197)86,376(+160)
2021-09-22
2,889,298(+2,967)86,500(+124)
2021-09-23
2,892,081(+2,783)86,655(+155)
2021-09-24
2,894,342(+2,261)86,967(+312)
2021-09-25
2,895,976(+1,634)87,001(+34)
2021-09-26
2,896,943(+967)87,052(+51)
2021-09-27
2,897,521(+578)87,216(+164)
2021-09-28
2,898,888(+1,367)87,417(+201)
2021-09-29
2,900,994(+2,106)87,525(+108)
2021-09-30
2,902,672(+1,678)87,626(+101)
2021-10-01
2,904,307(+1,635)87,705(+79)
2021-10-02
2,905,613(+1,306)87,753(+48)
2021-10-03
2,906,422(+809)87,780(+27)
2021-10-04
2,906,851(+429)87,819(+39)
2021-10-05
2,907,619(+768)87,922(+103)
2021-10-06
2,908,768(+1,149)87,981(+59)
2021-10-07
2,909,757(+989)88,104(+123)
2021-10-08
2,910,681(+924)88,236(+132)
2021-10-09
2,911,497(+816)88,292(+56)
2021-10-10
2,912,145(+648)88,317(+25)
2021-10-11
2,912,346(+201)88,346(+29)
2021-10-12
2,912,938(+592)88,429(+83)
2021-10-13
2,913,880(+942)88,466(+37)
2021-10-14
2,914,827(+947)88,506(+40)
2021-10-15
2,915,560(+733)88,562(+56)
2021-10-16
2,916,179(+619)88,587(+25)
2021-10-17
2,916,593(+414)88,612(+25)
2021-10-18
2,916,803(+210)88,619(+7)
2021-10-19
2,917,255(+452)88,674(+55)
2021-10-20
2,917,846(+591)88,754(+80)
2021-10-21
2,918,366(+520)88,835(+81)
2021-10-22
2,918,883(+517)88,891(+56)
2021-10-23
2,919,332(+449)88,914(+23)
2021-10-24
2,919,632(+300)88,925(+11)
2021-10-25
2,919,778(+146)88,934(+9)
2021-10-26
2,920,109(+331)88,987(+53)
2021-10-27
2,920,581(+472)89,049(+62)
2021-10-28
2,921,114(+533)89,104(+55)
2021-10-29
2,921,589(+475)89,151(+47)
2021-10-30
2,921,886(+297)89,163(+12)
2021-10-31
2,922,116(+230)89,177(+14)
2021-11-01
2,922,222(+106)89,179(+2)
2021-11-02
2,922,391(+169)89,197(+18)
2021-11-03
2,922,735(+344)89,220(+23)
2021-11-04
2,923,054(+319)89,251(+31)
2021-11-05
2,923,393(+339)89,295(+44)
2021-11-06
2,923,751(+358)89,319(+24)
2021-11-07
2,923,956(+205)89,332(+13)
2021-11-08
2,924,072(+116)89,352(+20)
2021-11-09
2,924,317(+245)89,387(+35)
2021-11-10
2,924,622(+305)89,435(+48)
2021-11-11
2,924,978(+356)89,452(+17)
2021-11-12
2,925,371(+393)89,469(+17)
2021-11-13
2,925,677(+306)89,476(+7)
2021-11-14
2,925,939(+262)89,484(+8)
2021-11-15
2,926,075(+136)89,489(+5)
2021-11-16
2,926,348(+273)89,504(+15)
2021-11-17
2,926,914(+566)89,515(+11)
2021-11-18
2,927,499(+585)89,555(+40)
2021-11-19
2,928,288(+789)89,562(+7)
2021-11-20
2,929,175(+887)89,572(+10)
2021-11-21
2,929,862(+687)89,574(+2)
2021-11-22
2,930,174(+312)89,584(+10)
2021-11-23
2,948,760(+18,586)[i]89,635(+51)
2021-11-24
2,950,035(+1,275)89,657(+22)
2021-11-25
2,952,500(+2,465)89,771(+114)
2021-11-26
2,955,328(+2,828)89,783(+12)
2021-11-27
2,958,548(+3,220)89,791(+8)
2021-11-28
2,961,406(+2,858)89,797(+6)
2021-11-29
2,963,679(+2,273)89,822(+25)
2021-11-30
2,968,052(+4,373)89,843(+21)
2021-12-01
2,976,613(+8,561)89,871(+28)
2021-12-02
2,988,148(+11,535)89,915(+44)
2021-12-03
3,004,203(+16,055)89,944(+29)
2021-12-04
3,020,569(+16,366)89,965(+21)
2021-12-05
3,031,694(+11,125)89,966(+1)
2021-12-06
3,038,075(+6,381)89,975(+9)
2021-12-07
3,051,222(+13,147)90,002(+27)
2021-12-08
3,071,064(+19,842)90,038(+36)
2021-12-09
3,093,452(+22,388)90,060(+22)
2021-12-10
3,112,469(+19,017)90,080(+20)
2021-12-11
3,129,622(+17,153)90,116(+36)
2021-12-12
3,167,497(+37,875)[ii]90,137(+21)
2021-12-13
3,180,785(+13,288)90,148(+11)
2021-12-14
3,204,642(+23,857)90,172(+24)
2021-12-15
3,231,031(+26,389)90,226(+54)
2021-12-16
3,255,816(+24,785)90,262(+36)
2021-12-17
3,276,529(+20,713)90,297(+35)
2021-12-18
3,292,609(+16,080)90,345(+48)
2021-12-19
3,308,074(+15,465)90,348(+3)
2021-12-20
3,316,585(+8,511)90,453(+105)
2021-12-21
3,332,008(+15,423)90,488(+35)
2021-12-22
3,353,106(+21,098)90,587(+99)
2021-12-23
3,374,262(+21,156)90,662(+75)
2021-12-24
3,393,109(+18,847)90,743(+81)
2021-12-25
3,407,937(+14,828)90,773(+30)
2021-12-26
3,413,540(+5,603)90,814(+41)
2021-12-27
3,417,318(+3,778)90,829(+15)
2021-12-28
3,424,534(+7,216)90,854(+25)
2021-12-29
3,433,554(+9,020)90,935(+81)
2021-12-30
3,446,532(+12,978)91,061(+126)
2021-12-31
3,458,286(+11,754)91,145(+84)
2022-01-01
3,468,079(+9,793)91,198(+53)
2022-01-02
3,472,436(+4,357)91,228(+30)
2022-01-03
3,475,512(+3,076)91,312(+84)
2022-01-04
3,483,590(+8,078)91,451(+139)
2022-01-05
3,494,696(+11,106)91,561(+110)
2022-01-06
3,504,554(+9,858)92,112(+551)[iii]
2022-01-07
3,513,813(+9,259)92,252(+140)
2022-01-08
3,521,572(+7,759)92,371(+119)
2022-01-09
3,526,054(+4,482)92,453(+82)
2022-01-10
3,528,463(+2,409)92,530(+77)
2022-01-11
3,534,131(+5,668)92,649(+119)
2022-01-12
3,540,891(+6,760)92,830(+181)
2022-01-13
3,546,808(+5,917)92,989(+159)
2022-01-14
3,552,043(+5,235)93,117(+128)
2022-01-15
3,556,633(+4,590)93,278(+161)
2022-01-16
3,559,230(+2,597)93,364(+86)
2022-01-17
3,560,921(+1,691)93,451(+87)
2022-01-18
3,564,578(+3,657)93,551(+100)
2022-01-19
3,568,900(+4,322)93,707(+156)
2022-01-20
3,572,860(+3,960)93,846(+139)
2022-01-21
3,576,379(+3,519)93,949(+103)
2022-01-22
3,579,428(+3,049)94,063(+114)
2022-01-23
3,581,359(+1,931)94,177(+114)
2022-01-24
3,582,691(+1,332)94,265(+88)
2022-01-25
3,585,888(+3,197)94,397(+132)
2022-01-26
3,590,399(+4,511)94,491(+94)
2022-01-27
3,594,499(+4,100)94,651(+160)
2022-01-28
3,598,288(+3,789)94,784(+133)
2022-01-29
3,601,630(+3,342)94,905(+121)
2022-01-30
3,603,856(+2,226)95,022(+117)
2022-01-31
3,605,222(+1,366)95,093(+71)
2022-02-01
3,608,307(+3,085)95,288(+195)
2022-02-02
3,612,809(+4,502)95,463(+175)
2022-02-03
3,616,075(+3,266)95,545(+82)
2022-02-04
3,618,853(+2,778)95,766(+221)
2022-02-05
3,622,210(+3,357)95,817(+51)
2022-02-06
3,623,962(+1,752)95,835(+18)
2022-02-07
3,625,190(+1,228)96,021(+186)
2022-02-08
3,626,014(+824)96,289(+268)
2022-02-09
3,631,642(+5,628)96,502(+213)
2022-02-10
3,634,811(+3,169)96,705(+203)
2022-02-11
3,637,673(+2,862)96,851(+146)
2022-02-12
3,640,162(+2,489)96,985(+134)
2022-02-13
3,641,811(+1,649)96,993(+8)
2022-02-14
3,642,905(+1,094)97,250(+257)
2022-02-15
3,645,269(+2,364)97,431(+181)
2022-02-16
3,648,968(+3,699)97,520(+89)
2022-02-17
3,652,024(+3,056)97,955(+435)
2022-02-18
3,654,824(+2,800)98,298(+343)
2022-02-19
3,657,091(+2,267)98,617(+319)
2022-02-20
3,658,547(+1,456)98,667(+50)
2022-02-21
3,659,698(+1,151)98,804(+137)
2022-02-22
3,662,032(+2,334)98,868(+64)
2022-02-23
3,665,149(+3,117)98,978(+110)
2022-02-24
3,667,560(+2,411)99,018(+40)
2022-02-25
3,669,671(+2,111)99,145(+127)
2022-02-26
3,671,991(+2,320)99,191(+46)
2022-02-27
3,673,257(+1,266)99,229(+38)
2022-02-28
3,674,042(+785)99,412(+183)
2022-03-01
3,675,691(+1,649)99,430(+18)
2022-03-02
3,677,686(+1,995)99,458(+28)
2022-03-03
3,679,539(+1,853)99,499(+41)
Source: COVID-19 Online Resource & News Portal

Notes:

  1. ^ Positive antigen tests are included from 23 November 2021 including 17 718 retrospective cases.
  2. ^ Includes 19 840 retrospective cases.
  3. ^ Includes 506 retrospective deaths.

Since the first patient with COVID-19 was confirmed in South Africa on 1 March 2020[34] the country has experienced four waves of the pandemic.[35]

Preparations and response

After the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020, an emergency operation centre was immediately activated.[36]

Testing

A COVID-19 testing tent at the Paarl Provincial Hospital

The National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) started testing people in South Africa for SARS-CoV-2 on 28 January 2020,[37] and by 7 February had conducted 42 such tests.[38]

By mid-March, state hospitals were offering free COVID-19 testing.[39]

On 30 March 2020, the government announced its intentions of initiating an enhanced screening and testing programme.[40] On 3 April 2020, the NICD made alterations to its testing guidelines to further allow for anyone who presented with relevant COVID-19 symptoms to be tested (previously there were additional requirements such as history of foreign travel or recent contact with a confirmed case).[41] By the start of April, 67 mobile testing units had been established and 47000 people had been tested, some in drive-through facilities.[42]

On 8 April, the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) detailed its testing capacity through the country. The NHLS would be able to perform approximately 36000 tests per day.[43]

Many private clinical pathology laboratories were also conducting tests. The CEO of the NHLS, Dr Kamy Chetty, said that by 9 April 2020 the majority of tests had been done in the private sector as the initial cases had been linked to international travellers who were likely to be on private medical aids.[44]

By 9 April 2020, South Africa had conducted 68874 tests at 1.2 tests per thousand, considerably lower than for example Turkey (3.3), the United Kingdom (3.6), and South Korea (9.7).[45] However, the ratio of positive tests to total tests conducted was significantly lower than most countries. By 10 April, the number of tests had increased to 73028, making the average number of tests per day in the first 10 days of April roughly 3300. The chair of the board of the NHLS, Eric Buch, stated that it had a capacity of 15000 tests per day and would welcome doing more tests.[44]

On 14 April, Stavros Nicolaou, head of Business for South Africa's healthcare working group and Aspen Pharmacare executive, said that South Africa had the capacity and kits to do 25000 tests a day.[46]

By 23 April the total number of tests was 143570.[47] The number of daily tests increased: for the first 14 days of April the daily average number of tests was 3394; for the next 9 days the daily average was 6283. The rate of positive tests versus total tests remained less than 3%. The Minister of Health released figures that showed that of all the tests done up to 23 April 62% had been done in the private sector and 38% in the public sector. However, that ratio was changing as the public sector increased capacity. The public sector performed 63% of the new tests reported on 23 April 2020.[48]

By 27 April, 185497 tests had been performed on South African residents, with the public sector doing the majority of the tests. Provincial test coverage varied by over a factor of 8. The number of tests per 100000 residents (based on 2019 population estimates) was Northwest 66, Limpopo 69, Mpumalanga 101, Northern Cape 111, Eastern Cape 247, KwaZulu-Natal 270, Free State 284, Gauteng 439, and Western Cape 541 (national average 317). A surveillance programme was started to monitor community transmission (as opposed to tests done on people who displayed symptoms or who had been in contact with COVID-19 patients). In the three arms of the programme 812 tests had been done and two positive cases had been detected.[37]

By 28 June, the total number of tests was 1567084. The private sector had now overtaken the public sector, in terms of tests completed. The private sector had done 804248 test with the public sector only doing 762836.[49]

By 11 July, 2108570 had been done with the private sector still doing the most tests.[50]

Cumulative number of tests and ratio of positive to total tests (data missing on 25 March) Daily cases and tests (three rolling average) of COVID-19 cases in South Africa

Clinical trials, vaccines and treatment

On 17 March 2020, the South African Health Products Regulatory Authority announced that it would expedite review of treatments, vaccines and clinical trials.[51]

A team from 8 universities and 14 hospitals led by Helen Rees and Jeremy Nel from the University of the Witwatersrand participated in the World Health Organization Solidarity Clinical Trials that investigated medications.[52]

State of disaster

Shoppers practicing measures of social distancing whilst buying groceries in South Africa.

By mid-March, isolation measures gathered pace, and on 15 March 2020, President Cyril Ramaphosa declared a national state of disaster, prohibiting gatherings of more than 100 people.[5]

On 17 March, Ramaphosa, supported by Deputy President David Mabuza, convened the inaugural meeting of the National Command Council on COVID-19,[6] or as it was subsequently called, the National Coronavirus Command Council,[53] "to lead the nation’s plan to contain the spread and mitigate the negative impact of the coronavirus".[7]

On 18 March, Minister of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma signed a government gazette limiting the number of patrons at pubs, clubs, and restaurants to 50.[54]

Parliament suspended all activities as of 18 March.[55] and the African National Congress (ANC) and Democratic Alliance (DA) postponed their elective conferences.[56] The Commission for Conciliation Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA) cancelled all scheduled cases from 18 March 2020 and prohibited walk-in referrals of new cases – in lieu of electronic referrals.[57]

Schools were closed on 18 March 2020,[5] resuming in early June.[58] Most universities suspended classes around this time as well.[59][60][61][62][63][64] University of Pretoria, University of Cape Town, Stellenbosch University, Rhodes University, University of KwaZulu-Natal and Durban University of Technology graduation ceremonies were cancelled or postponed until further notice.[65][66][67][68]

After panic buying, some retailers put limitations on the number of certain items customers could buy.[69] On 19 March, Minister of Trade and Industry Ebrahim Patel signed a government gazette that enforces price controls on essential items and that could see price gougers punished with measures including a R10 million fine, a fine equivalent to 10% of a firm's turnover, or 12 months in prison.[70]

On 3 June, Minister Dlamini-Zuma extended the state of disaster, which was to lapse on 15 June, three months after its announcement, to 4 July citing "the need to continue augmenting the existing mitigation measures undertaken by organs of state to address the impact of the disaster."[71][72]

Tobacco and alcohol

During the announcement on the lifting of level 5 lockdown measures on 23 April, Cyril Ramaphosa announced that the sale of tobacco would be permitted again, this statement was contradicted on 29 April by Minister Dlamini-Zuma. The resulting uncertainty over tobacco sales during level 4 lockdown caused British American Tobacco to file an urgent court appeal[73] which was dropped on 6 May[74] and reopened by 29 May.[75] The ban raised concerns by the Human Sciences Research Council and South African Revenue Service that it would encourage the growth of illicit tobacco sales[73] thereby growing the power and influence of organised crime.[76] The ANC Women's League defended Dlamini-Zuma's statement amid accusations that she was receiving financial support from illicit tobacco traders.[77] By 4 May, Ramaphosa confirmed the continuation of the ban during level 4.[78] The Democratic Alliance accused Dlamini-Zuma of lying to the public over the strength of support for the tobacco ban and called for her removal from office.[79][80] On 11 December The Western Cape High Court ruled that the tobacco sales ban was unconstitutional.[81]

During the level 5 lockdown period, the sale of alcohol was banned; so as to reduce pressure from alcohol-related incidents putting additional pressure on hospitals.[82] The ban was controversially reimposed on 12 July amid concerns that the ban was leading to the growth of illicit alcohol sales.[83]

Criticism

The uncertainties around the length of the lockdown, its intensity, and concerns over the erosion of civil liberties has drawn criticism from a number of notable individuals and political parties in South Africa. Former finance minister and senior ANC member Trevor Manuel questioned the rationality of the way in which government implemented the lockdown[84] whilst expressing concern that the lockdown endangered the South African Constitution.[85][86] The DA challenged the use of the military to enforce night curfews, criticised the ban on e-commerce and restrictions on exercise hours,[87] and filed a court challenge over the constitutionality of the lack of parliamentary oversight in the National Disaster Management Act.[88] The Freedom Front Plus filed an application to the Gauteng High Court challenging the constitutional validity of the National Disaster Management Act.[89] The Economic Freedom Fighters criticised the relaxation of some of the May 2020 lockdown regulations as an example of giving into industry pressure by allowing them to reopen.[90]

The number of passengers ferried per trip in minibus taxis was criticised during the lockdown restrictions, in July 2020. The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa stated that allowing minibus taxis to operate at 100 percent occupancy, for short journeys, was a possible danger to public health and contradicted some lockdown restrictions.[91] Initially in the first stage of the lockdown period minibus taxis were required to operate at 70 percent occupancy, provided passengers wore masks and windows were opened.[91] This 70% occupancy requirement was noted as being flouted by taxi operators.[92][93]

Repatriation

On 14 March 2020, 112[94][95] South Africans were repatriated from Wuhan, China, and placed under observation and in quarantine at The Ranch Resort near Polokwane.[96]

Medical screening was performed prior to departure, four South Africans who were showing signs of coronavirus were left behind to mitigate risk. Only South Africans who tested negative were repatriated.[97]

Test results cleared all the South Africans, including the flight crew, pilots, hotel staff, police and soldiers involved in the humanitarian mission who, as a precautionary measure, all remained under observation and in quarantine for a 14-day period[94][95] at The Ranch Resort.[98][97][99]

Cuban doctors

On 27 April 217 Cuban medical health specialists (mostly doctors) arrived in South Africa to assist with the pandemic response at the invitation of the South African government[100][101] and were deployed across the country.[102]

Their arrival and the reported R429 million cost paid to the Cuban government was controversial.[100] The South African Medical Association stated that their deployment was premature as many South African doctors and nurses had not yet been deployed as part of the pandemic response.[101] The South African Internationally Trained Health Professionals Association criticised the government for not instead using unemployed South African medical graduates.[100] The Democratic Alliance stated that government should first prioritise using local healthcare professionals.[103] The Daily Maverick questioned the high cost paid for the doctors.[100] The United States government criticised their deployment and payments made for their services as a form of human trafficking[104] whilst the Cuban embassy rejected allegations of profiting from the deployment of its doctors[105] and stated that criticism was part of a "smear campaign".[100]

Donations

South Africa received donation of personal protective equipment like medical masks from China and ventilators from the United States.[106][107][108]

On 5 August 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) deployed a "surge team" made up of 43 experts including David Heymann, who headed the international response to the 2003 SARS epidemic, to help the national and provincial responses to minimize the spread and impact of COVID-19.[109]

COVID AlertSA

On 8 August 2020, the department of health released a COVID-19 contact tracing app. The app aims to reduce infections in the second and third waves of Covid. the app is available on Google Play, the App Store and The Huawei App Galley.

Lockdown

Greenmarket Square as it normally appears with many market stalls, seven days before the lockdown.
On the first day of the lockdown only people exempt from the lockdown (security personnel and sanitation workers) can be seen.
Greenmarket Square in Cape Town seven days before (left) and on the first day (right) of the COVID-19 national lockdown. After the lockdown the market stall traders that normally setup on the square everyday are not present and only people exempt from the lockdown (security personnel and municipal employees) can be seen.

On 23 March 2020, President Cyril Ramaphosa addressed the nation and announced a 21-day national lockdown effective from midnight 26 March through to 16 April,[8] with the deployment of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) to support the government.[8] On 9 April the President announced a two-week lockdown extension, until the end of April.[110] Exempt from the lockdown are people deemed necessary to the effective response to the pandemic such as:

  • health workers, pharmacy and laboratory personnel, emergency personnel;[111][112]
  • security services (police officers, military personnel, and private security[113]);[111][112]
  • people regarded as necessary to the basic functioning of the economy (supermarkets, transportation and logistical services, petrol stations, banks, essential financial and payment services); and[111][112]
  • those working in industries that can not be economically shut down (such as mines and steel mills).[113]

During the lockdown, all gatherings except for funerals were prohibited.[114] Restaurants, taverns, bottle stores and all other stores not selling essential goods were to close during the lockdown period.[113] Schools, already closed a week before the lockdown period, will not reopen until after the lockdown. Non-exempt people are only allowed to leave their homes during this period to access health services, collect social grants, attend small funerals (no more than 50 people) and shop for essential goods.[115] See the South African Government Gazette 25 March 2020 for a complete list of exemptions and non-exemptions during the lockdown period. South Africans were ordered not to take their dogs for a walk during the lockdown, though they may walk them around their house or apartment building.[116]

A billboard at the end of Long Street, Cape Town encourages people to stay at home during the lockdown period.

People may not be evicted from their place of residence during the lockdown.[117]

Movement between provinces, and between metropolitan and district areas are prohibited except for

  • essential workers, to and from work;
  • transportation of sanitised and disinfected cargo from ports of entry;
  • the transportation of mortal remains; and
  • the attendance of funerals (restricted).[114]

All borders of the country are closed during the lockdown, except for designated ports of entry for the transportation of fuel, cargo, and goods.[114]

International and domestic passenger flights are prohibited, except for flights authorised by the Ministry of Transport, for the evacuation of South African nationals in foreign countries, and for certain repatriations.[118]

Fewer deaths

The lockdown resulted in fewer deaths from road accidents and homicides. During Easter, from 9 April 2020 to 13 April, there were 28 fatalities from road accidents during the lockdown, compared to 162 in 2019.[119] During the lockdown, 432 murder cases were reported, compared to 1542 during the same period the previous year: 29 March 2019 to 22 April 2019.[120] Overall deaths for the year up to 21 April 2020 were "generally within the bounds of expectation" according to the Medical Research Council. Nonetheless, for the 5 weeks before 21 April 2020, non-natural deaths including those from homicide and road traffic accidents were lower for both females and males.[121]

Enforcement

Minister of Police Bheki Cele announced, on 5 April, a reduction in cash-in-transit thefts thanks to increased road blocks and more visible policing. He also announced a reduced murder rate.[122] Trauma related hospital admission decreased by two-thirds.[123] By the end of the first seven days of the lockdown a total of 2,289 people had been arrested for violating lockdown orders.[124] Minister Cele announced, on 13 November, that from July to September, compared to 2019, many different crimes ranging from contact and property crimes to sexual offences all declined because of national lock-down.[125]

Minister of Communications and Digital Technologies Stella Ndabeni-Abrahams, on 8 April, was put on special leave for two months, one without pay, for violating lockdown regulations. A picture of her appeared on social media while having lunch at ANC NEC member Mduduzi Manana's home.[126]

Enforcement was done across the country with varying degrees of success. In the Eastern Cape it was reported in early April that little to no enforcement of the lockdown was implemented in at least some of the province's rural areas.[127]

The use of force by police and SANDF personnel was controversial with multiple reports of excessive force in enforcing the lockdown.[128][129][130][42] This included incidents of beatings and preventing people from filming police abuses leading the public advocacy group Right2Know to release a statement that the police had no right to prevent the public "from exercising their constitutional right to film and record incidents".[131]

By 3 April, the eighth day of the lockdown, the Independent Police Investigative Directorate (IPID) reported that they were investigating eight deaths involving the police since the start of the lockdown.[132][133] At the time, this exceeded the number of deaths in the country due to the pandemic. This was in-spite of President Ramaphosa's public call for police restraint.[131] By 12 April a total of nine people had died due to police and army action following the beating to death of a man in Alexandra by the army.[134]

The South African National Editors' Forum issued a statement expressing concern over police action denying the media access to sites when covering COVID-19 related stories.[135] On 27 April the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights expressed concerns about the heavy handed and highly militarised enforcement of COVID-19 related lockdown measures in a number of countries including South Africa.[136][137] By 30 April the government confirmed that a total of five people were alleged to have been killed by police within the first three weeks of the lock down along with 152 incidents of assault by police.[138]

The Pretoria High Court ordered the South African government to take steps to prevent police abuse during the lockdown, following the death of Collins Khosa, who died of injuries after being beaten by the police.[139]

Impact

Economic

Volunteers in Philippi, Western Cape packing food parcels to be given out to the needy during the COVID 19 pandemic lockdown. The lockdown had a seriously negative impact on South Africa's economy that hit the poor and unemployed especially hard.

At the beginning of the national shutdown on 27 March South African economists predicted that the pandemic could cause a 2.5% to 10% contraction of South Africa's total GDP in 2020.[140] The national lockdown and resulting economic slowdown reduced demand for electricity by more than 7500 MW thereby temporarily reducing the impact of the long running South African energy crisis.[141] It is estimated that the government would experience a revenue shortfall for 2020 of between R70 and 100 billion.[142] This resulted in the South African government announcing a R500 billion stimulus package thereby accelerating deficit spending from 6.8% to over 10% of GDP for the 2020 financial year.[142] In late July it was announced that South Africa would be taking out a R70 billion IMF loan[143] increasing the country's total debt to GDP ratio to 83%.[144] Trade unions and the EFF were critical of using the IMF to take out the loan whilst the DA and other opposition political parties voiced concern over corruption when using the borrowed funds.[144]

The Johannesburg Stock Exchange lost 15% of its value in the week ending 13 March 2020, its worst week in 21 years.[145] On 19 March, the South African Reserve Bank governor, Lesetja Kganyago announced a reduction of the country's repo rate by 100 basis points or 1 percentage point to 5.25%.[146] On 14 April, a further reduction to 4.25% per year was made.[147] On 22 March, Standard Bank announced a 90-day payment holiday for small and medium-sized business and students to try and shield them from the economic impact of the outbreak, starting from 1 April.[148] In May it was estimated that the state will lose R285-billion in tax revenue for the financial year 2020–21 due to the pandemic and resulting lockdown.[149]

Within the first month of the lockdown three million South Africans had lost their jobs contributing to an increase in food insecurity and poverty.[150] By mid-July wide spread food shortages were reported across the country and in rural Eastern Cape in particular.[151] In December 2020 it was reported by Finfind and the Department of Small Business Development that 42.7% of small businesses in South Africa had closed due to the economic impact of the lockdown.[152][153]

Financial services company Transaction Capital predicted that the protracted years-long lockdown that the ANC government implemented in response to the pandemic would cause 34% of households in South Africa to fall out of the middle class.[154]

Corruption and profit gouging

Corruption has had a significant negative impact on efforts to fight the pandemic by inflating the costs of government procurement whilst eroding public confidence in government institutions.[155][156][157] Years of corruption prior to the pandemic has reduced the capacity of the country's health service.[158] Incidents of police corruption also increased during the lockdown period as security officials used their expanded positions of power to extort bribes from members of the public.[159] Concerns were raised that funds from a COVID-19-related R70 billion IMF loan[143] to South Africa would be lost through corruption.[160][161] On 7 August President Ramaphosa announced that ministerial committee would be set up to investigate COVID-19 corruption in state tenders.[157][162]

In late July President Ramaphosa announced that measures would be implemented to combat corruption in the delivery of food parcels and the procurement of exorbitantly priced goods.[158] The Special Investigation Unit (SIU) stated that it was investigating a number of suspicious transactions and alleged acts of corruption from the R500 billion COVID-19 Relief Fund.[163] A number of government officials implicated in allegations of COVID-19-related corruption include Ace Magashule,[164] the wife of Bandile Masuku,[165] and the husband of presidential spokesperson Khusela Diko.[166][156] Magashule,[164] Diko[167] and Masuku[168] have denied any involvement in COVID-19 related procurement corruption allegations.

An investigation into COVID related fraud at the City of Johannesburg found that over 1,500 employees of the City improperly received COVID-19 related social relief and grants.[169]

Notable COVID-19 corruption or profit gouging scandals included:

  • Digital Vibes scandal valued at R150 million[170]
  • Gauteng Education Department school sanitisation scandal valued at R431-million[170]
  • Red Roses Africa disinfectant supply scandal valued at R515-million[170]
  • Sicuro Safety and Hennox Supplies profit gouging scandals[155]
  • Kwazulu-Natal government PPE procurement scandal[155]
  • The improper procurement and illegal importation of Heberon Alfa R 2b from Cuba by the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).[171][172]

Social impact

Events cancelled or postponed

Major sporting codes suspended their activities, including Super Rugby,[173] 2019-20 Pro14 season,[174] Varsity Rugby,[175] Craven Week,[176] Premier Soccer League,[177] Athletics South Africa,[178] Sunshine Tour golf,[179] Wimpy Lifesaving South Africa national championships[180] and Parkrun.[181] The Cape Epic cycle tour,[182] the 2020 Two Oceans Marathon[183][184] and the 2020 Comrades Marathon[185] were cancelled. The 2020 Cape Town Rugby Sevens, 4–6 December 2020, were cancelled.[186][187]

Live events cancelled or postponed included the Mangaung African Cultural Festival (MACUFE),[188] Bloem Show,[189] AfrikaBurn,[190] Cape Town International Jazz Festival,[191][192] Klein Karoo Nasionale Kunstefees,[193] Splashy Fen Festival,[194] Rand Show,[195] National Arts Festival (changing to virtual),[196] SciFest Africa (postponed to 9–15 September),[197] WWE Live South Africa (postponed until September),[198] Comic Con Cape Town,[199] and Matric Rage festivals in Johannesburg, Jeffreys Bay and Plettenberg Bay.[200] South African tours were postponed by the Lighthouse Family,[201] Boyz II Men[202] and BeBe Winans.[203]

Trade and agricultural shows postponed or cancelled included HuntEx,[204] DecorEx Cape Town & Durban,[205] Tyrexpo (postponed to 4–6 August 2020),[206] Power & Electricity World expo (postponed until 20–21 August),[207] the Pietermaritzburg Royal Show, SA Cheese Festival, Qualité Awards Dinner, and Agri-Expo Western Cape Youth Show.[208]

The Zion Christian Church cancelled its annual Easter pilgrimage.[209] The Muslim Judicial Council (MJC) suspended Friday prayers, then closed mosques altogether on Sunday 22 March, but the call to prayer will still be given.[210] Chief Rabbi Warren Goldstein suspended Synagogues.[211] Traditional circumcision schools in the Eastern Cape were suspended.[212]

The City of Johannesburg closed all public facilities indefinitely including public swimming pools, recreational and civic centres, stadiums, libraries, sporting facilities, and the Johannesburg Zoo.[213] The Ethekhwini Metropolitan Municipality closed all of Durban's public facilities including swimming pools, beaches, libraries, community halls, and museums while restrictions have been put in place for the Durban Art Gallery and cemeteries to only allow 50 people at a time.[214] The City of Cape Town closed all public facilities indefinitely including public swimming pools, recreational and civic centres, stadiums, sporting facilities, and the nature reserves.[215]

The 2021 Women's FIH Hockey Junior World Cup because of a new COVID-19 variant, the tournament was put on hold on 26 November 2021 and a decision will be made by the FIH in the near future.[216] Ballito Rage 2021 cancelled after 36 test positive for Covid-19,[217][218] Plett Rage festival cancelled.[219]

Protests

On 5 August, members of the entertainment, restaurant, fitness, and events industries staged a socially distanced national protest by lighting buildings red. The #LightSAred campaign was staged so as to highlight the negative economic impact of the COVID-19 lockdown measures on these industries.[220][221][222]

Looting

In April 2020, a number of liquor stores and food stores were targeted by looters in the Cape Town suburbs of Elsies River, Delft South, Samora Machel,[223] Manenberg, Sherwood Park, Nyanga Junction, and Gatesville.[224][225] On 21 July 2020, a truck carrying COVID-19 specimens was hijacked at a clinic in Motherwell, Eastern Cape and found abandoned 500 metres away.[226][227]

Migration

In a trend dubbed "semigration" the South African media has reported that the pandemic catalyzed significant movement of wealthier South Africans from cities in Gauteng province (notably Johannesburg) to urban areas of the Western Cape province (notably Cape Town). A trend that, although accelerated by the pandemic, was reportedly driven by an increased desire for access to natural amenities, the ability to work remotely, and better municipal management.[228][229][230]

Spread

Model-based simulations indicate that the 95% confidence interval for the time-varying reproduction number R t was higher than 1.0 until mid-July,[231] exceeding 1.0 again from late October to December 2020.[232]

Confirmed cases

By province

Cases in South Africa by province (total and per capita).
Number of active COVID-19 cases in South African provinces
Gauteng
Chart of cases in Gauteng metros with Johannesburg detail.
Cases in Gauteng Province metros with Johannesburg detail.


Hospitalizations

CoVid-19 hospitalizations in South Africa as of 27 February 2022[update].
CoVid-19 hospitalizations in South Africa as of 27 February 2022.

Confirmed deaths

Notable deaths

Confirmed recoveries


Cumulative cases, recoveries, and deaths

Misinformation

The arrival of the COVID-19 virus in South Africa saw an increase in the dissemination of misinformation about the virus on social media and other platforms. These range from messages minimising the virus's harm in the country[233] to the propagation of conspiracy theories about government actions to control the virus.[234]

Deliberately spreading fake news and other misinformation in South Africa about the virus was declared an offence punishable by a fine, six months' imprisonment, or both.[233]

One individual was arrested for posting a video showing himself drinking in public with friends following the national lock-down whilst stating that there was "nothing called corona here".[233] In another incident a man claimed that 10000 government officials would be going door-to-door using contaminated test kits to test people for the virus.[234] A conspiracy theory that Bill Gates wished to test a COVID-19 "vaccine" in Africa or South Africa first caused significant controversy on social media[235] following the publication of a now retracted story in News24.[236]

Fake news that 5G cellular technology was the true cause of COVID-19 symptoms also spread in the country during this period as it also did in other countries around the world.[237] In the course of it, three telecommunication towers belonging to Vodacom and MTN were burnt by protesters.[238]

Vaccination

On 17 February 2021, South Africa started its national vaccination program against Covid-19. The program will go through in phases, prioritizing healthcare and frontline workers and then those over the age of 60. According to health officials, South Africa has administered 24 082 686 vaccine doses across the country as of 15 November 2021.[239][240] South Africa has accepted delivery of 3 different vaccines, Johnson and Johnson, Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca, administering both Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) and Pfizer-BioNTech, with the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine suspended, due to its relative lack of protection against the Beta variant (501.V2).

On 4 March 2022, South African health officials said that almost 100,000 doses of Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine (PFE.N) are at risk of being destroyed by the end of the month due to low adoption by citizens.[241]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Ritchie, Hannah; Mathieu, Edouard; Rodés-Guirao, Lucas; Appel, Cameron; Giattino, Charlie; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban; Hasell, Joe; Macdonald, Bobbie; Beltekian, Diana; Dattani, Saloni; Roser, Max (2020–2021). "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d "Update on Covid-19". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. 5 June 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Minister Zweli Mkhize reports first case of Covid-19 Coronavirus". South African Ministry of Health. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Disaster Management Act 57 of 2002 | South African Government". gov.za. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b c Ramaphosa, Cyril (15 March 2020). "Statement by President Cyril Ramaphosa on measures to combat COVID-19 epidemic". The Presidency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b c "President Cyril Ramaphosa meets with political parties to combat Coronavirus COVID-19, 18 Mar". South African Government. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  7. ^ a b "South Africa to begin easing of lockdown". The Advertiser (Adelaide). 24 April 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b c "Ramaphosa announces 21 day coronavirus lockdown for South Africa". businesstech.co.za. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Minister Zweli Mkhize confirms total of 1170 cases of Coronavirus COVID-19". Government of South Africa. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  10. ^ "Ramaphosa announces South Africa's biggest spending plan ever to fight coronavirus". Fin24. 21 April 2020. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  11. ^ "Statement by president Cyril Ramaphosa on South Africa's response to the coronavirus pandemic, Union buildings, Tshwane". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. 23 April 2020. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  12. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: Developments in South Africa's risk-adjusted strategy to manage the spread of Coronavirus COVID-19". Department of Health. 24 May 2020. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  13. ^ "Minister Zweli Mkhize confirms total of 22 583 cases of Coronavirus COVID-19". Department of Health. 24 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  14. ^ "South Africa moves to level 2 lockdown on Monday – here are the new rules". Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  15. ^ "South Africa moves to lockdown level 1 – here are the changes". Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  16. ^ Evans, Jenni. "Covid-19: SA enters second wave as Mkhize warns of surge in infections among teens". News24. Retrieved 10 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Statement by president Cyril Ramaphosa on progress in the national effort to contain the COVID-19 pandemic". COVID-19 South African Online Portal. 28 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  18. ^ "'Can I close my eyes?' Ramaphosa has Covid-19 jab with Khayelitsha hospital staff". TimesLIVE. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  19. ^ Mkhize, Zwelini (8 May 2021). "Update on Covid-19 (08th May 2021)". COVID-19 South African Online Portal. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  20. ^ "Ramaphosa urges diligence as he tightens Covid-19 restrictions". BusinessLIVE. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  21. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: South Africa's response to Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic". Government of South Africa. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  22. ^ "Level 4 lockdown for 2 weeks: Alcohol sales and public gatherings banned". The Citizen. 27 June 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  23. ^ McKenzie, David (9 July 2021). "Southern Africa hoped it was through the worst of Covid-19. Then the Delta variant arrived". CNN. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  24. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: South Africa's response to Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic". Government of South Africa. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  25. ^ Ramaphosa, Cyril (12 September 2021). "PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: South Africa moves to Alert Level 2 after Covid-19 infections decline". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  26. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: South Africa's response to Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic". Government of South Africa. 12 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  27. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: South Africa's response to Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic". Government of South Africa. 30 September 2021. Retrieved 1 October 2021.
  28. ^ "What do we know about the Omicron variant and should we be worried?". ITV News. 27 November 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  29. ^ "Classification of Omicron (B.1.1.529): SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern". World Health Organization (WHO). 26 November 2021. Retrieved 27 November 2021.
  30. ^ Ebrahim, Zakiyah; Lakay, Bevan. "SA is clearly entering into 4th wave, says top NICD expert - urges those hesitant to get vaccinated". Health24. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
  31. ^ "Covid: South Africa makes its own version of Moderna vaccine". BBC News. 4 February 2022. Retrieved 10 February 2022.
  32. ^ "Report on Weekly Deaths in South Africa". South African Medical Research Council. 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  33. ^ Moultrie, Tom; Dorrington, Rob; Laubscher, Ria; Groenewald, Pam; Bradshaw, Debbie (23 February 2021). "Correlation of excess natural deaths with other measures of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa" (PDF). Burden of Disease Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council. p. 1. Retrieved 26 March 2021. We estimate that nationally 85–95% of the excess natural deaths are attributable to COVID-19. The remaining 5–15% of the excess deaths are considered to be attributable to collateral causes, probably mainly due to overwhelming of the health services during surges in the pandemic.
  34. ^ "Health updates on Coronavirus on 9 March 2020". South African Ministry of Health. 9 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  35. ^ Lakay, Zakiyah Ebrahim and Bevan. "SA is clearly entering into 4th wave, says top NICD expert - urges those hesitant to get vaccinated". Health24. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  36. ^ "Minister Zweli Mkhize: Evacuation of citizens from Wuhan". Department of Health. 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  37. ^ a b "COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiology Brief: Week 18, 2020" (PDF). NICD. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  38. ^ "COVID-19 update". NICD. 7 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  39. ^ Ferial Haffajee; Maverick Citizen; Maverick Insider Team (19 March 2020). "Coronavirus Explainer: Maverick Insider Covid-19 Questions, Answered". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  40. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa: Update on Coronavirus COVID-19 lockdown". South African Government. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  41. ^ Davis", Rebecca (9 April 2020). "Top health adviser says SA's coronavirus testing approach was initially too limited". Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  42. ^ a b Harding, Andrew (3 April 2020). "South Africa's ruthlessly efficient fight against coronavirus". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020.
  43. ^ "Implementation of the Preparedness and Upscaling Plan as of 7 April, 2020" (PDF). NHLS. 8 April 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  44. ^ a b Low, Marcus (9 April 2020). "NHLS claims it can do 15,000 Covid-19 tests a day". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  45. ^ "owid/covid-19-data". Our World in Data. 10 April 2020. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  46. ^ Kahn, Tamar (14 April 2020). "SA can conduct 25,000 Covid-19 tests a day, Business for SA says". Business Day. South Africa. Archived from the original on 19 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  47. ^ National Institute for Communicable Disease [@nicd_sa] (13 April 2020). "UPDATE: The total number of confirmed #COVID19 cases in South Africa is 3 953. Today we regrettably report 10 new #COVID19 related deaths. We convey our condolences to the families and friends" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  48. ^ National Institute for Communicable Disease (23 April 2020). "COVID-19 Update". Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  49. ^ "Update on Covid-19 (28th June 2020)". sacoronavirus.co.za. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  50. ^ "Update on Covid-19 (11th July 2020)". sacoronavirus.co.za. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  51. ^ "SAHPRA responds to coronavirus (COVID-19): Medicines/medical devices supply challenges" (PDF). South African Health Products Regulatory Authority. 17 March 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  52. ^ Baleta, Adele (1 April 2020). "COVID-19: SA to start enrolling patients in landmark WHO trial". Spotlight. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  53. ^ "President Cyril Ramaphosa Established a National Command Council on Coronavirus on 17 March 2020". 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020 – via YouTube.
  54. ^ "Coronavirus: Govt clamps down on pubs and clubs, limits patrons to 50 and declares 6pm as closing time". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  55. ^ COVID-19: Parliament closes until further notice Archived 18 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine – EWN
  56. ^ "ANC, DA postpone conferences amid coronavirus fears – IOL". Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  57. ^ "The Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration | CCMA". Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  58. ^ "South African schools reopen after March lockdown eased". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
  59. ^ Ellis, Estelle. "Wits and UCT suspend all contact classes". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  60. ^ "Covid-19: Wits and University of Johannesburg cancel all contact classes". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  61. ^ May, Zizonke. "NMU academic activities to continue in wake of coronavirus". Herald Live. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  62. ^ Kupe, Tawana. "UPDATE: Postponement of contact classes and rescheduling of academic calendar". University of Pretoria. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  63. ^ de Villiers, Wil. "COVID-19 Update: SU suspends lectures from 17 March". Stellenbosch University. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  64. ^ Ntsane, Marvin. "#CoronaOutbreak: UFS fourth SA university to close". ofm.co.za. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  65. ^ Kassen, Jarita. "STELLENBOSCH, UCT CANCEL UPCOMING GRADUATIONS DUE TO CORONAVIRUS". EWN. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  66. ^ McCain, Nicole (14 March 2020). "Coronavirus in SA: UCT graduations suspended amid Covid-19 concerns". News24. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  67. ^ "Universities cancelling in-person classes due to coronavirus". The Sowetan. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  68. ^ "UPDATE: Postponement of contact classes and rescheduling of academic calendar". Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  69. ^ Caboz, Jay (19 March 2020). "Woolworths stops food demonstrations, limits items per customer – here's what other retailers are doing". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  70. ^ "New regulations bring coronavirus price controls for certain high-demand products – here's what is on the list". BusinessTech. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  71. ^ "Disaster Management Act: Extension of National State of Disaster (Drought) under Coronavirus COVID-19 lockdown" (PDF). Government of South Africa. 3 June 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 June 2020.
  72. ^ Merten, Marianne (4 June 2020). "NEWSFLASH: Cabinet extends State of Disaster – and appeals judgment against Covid-19 lockdown rules". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  73. ^ a b "Batsa questions indefinite tobacco ban". Moneyweb. 2 May 2020. Archived from the original on 23 July 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  74. ^ Khumalo, Juniour (6 May 2020). "British American Tobacco drops legal action against government". City Press. South Africa. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  75. ^ Haffajee, Ferial (29 May 2020). "Analysis: Dlamini Zuma's tobacco ban and the political divisions it is causing". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  76. ^ Pauw, Jacques (31 May 2020). "Tobacco trade bred industry with 'criminality, political links embedded in DNA'". News24. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  77. ^ "ANCWL fuming over treatment of Dlamini-Zuma on cigarette about-turn". News24. 3 May 2020. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  78. ^ "Ramaphosa backs Dlamini-Zuma in cigarette ban war". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  79. ^ "Fire Dlamini Zuma if she lied about support for tobacco ban, says DA's Steenhuisen". Independent Online. South Africa. 29 May 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  80. ^ Tandwa, Lizeka (29 May 2020). "Cigarette sales ban: DA labels Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma a 'liar', says Ramaphosa should 'fire' her". News24. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  81. ^ Buthelezi, Londiwe (11 December 2020). "Tobacco sales ban was unconstitutional and unnecessary, court finds". Fin24. Retrieved 6 January 2021.
  82. ^ "Return of alcohol ban stirs debate in South Africa". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 16 August 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  83. ^ "South Africa bans alcohol sales". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  84. ^ "'You aren't allowed to sell T-shirts, flip-flops?' Trevor Manuel slams 'irrationality' of lockdown regulations". News24. 13 May 2020. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  85. ^ Davis, Rebecca. "NEWSFLASH: Trevor Manuel: SA's lockdown rules do not pass test of rationality". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  86. ^ Manuel, Trevor (10 May 2020). "Trevor Manuel: Let's not forsake our Constitution because of the lockdown". City Press. South Africa. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  87. ^ "From cigarettes to curfews: Who is suing government and why". News24. 18 May 2020. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  88. ^ "DA asks Constitutional Court to declare Disaster Management Act unconstitutional". BusinessLIVE. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  89. ^ "FF Plus also heading to court to end lockdown". News24. 15 May 2020. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  90. ^ "EFF slams relaxation of lockdown regulations on mines, ports and call centres". News24. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 26 April 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  91. ^ a b Simelane, Bheki C. (15 July 2020). "TAXI CONTROVERSY: 'Review 100% taxi capacity' – public health specialists plead with Ramaphosa". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  92. ^ Bloomberg (25 July 2020). "Full taxis are a South African reality even the coronavirus can't change". Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  93. ^ Fobosi, Siyabulela Christopher (14 July 2020). "South Africa's minibus taxi industry has been marginalised for too long. This must change". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  94. ^ a b "President Ramaphosa declares Ranch Resort COVID-19 free". sanews.gov.za. 29 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  95. ^ a b "Repatriated citizens to be reunited with families". SANews.gov.zanews24.com. 29 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Coronavirus: SAA Airbus carrying 114 SA citizens repatriated from Wuhan lands in Polokwane". News24. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  97. ^ a b "Sick South Africans left behind in Wuhan, confirms Mkhize". thesouthafrican.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  98. ^ "Repatriated South Africans arrive home". sanews.gov.za. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  99. ^ "This is why a Limpopo resort was chosen". news24.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  100. ^ a b c d e Davis, Rebecca (29 April 2020). "Coronavirus Analysis: Is the deployment of Cuban doctors to SA justified?". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  101. ^ a b "Cuban doctors came at our request – Minister of Health". News24. 29 April 2020. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  102. ^ "Here's where the Cuban doctors will be deployed to fight Covid-19". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  103. ^ "COVID-19: DA wants govt to prioritise SA health workers". eNCA. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  104. ^ "US criticises South Africa's use of Cuban doctors in fight against Covid-19". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  105. ^ Mabena, Charles Cilliers and Sipho (29 April 2020). "Cuba rejects report that its doctors will get R440m from SA as a 'smear' from the USA". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  106. ^ "US gives 'up to 1,000' ventilators to South Africa for virus". ABC News. Archived from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  107. ^ "South Africa receives medical supplies from China". People's Daily. Archived from the original on 7 May 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  108. ^ "Health Minister Dr Zweli Mkhize receives PPE donations from Ithuba Holdings". COVID-19 Corona Virus South African Resource Portal. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  109. ^ "South Africa: UN health agency sends experts to help battle against COVID-19". UN News. 5 August 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  110. ^ "South African lockdown extended – 2 more weeks". MyBroadband. 9 April 2020. Archived from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  111. ^ a b c "Essential services to remain in place as SA enters lockdown". SAnews. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  112. ^ a b c "This is who is exempt from national lockdown – and what will be closed". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  113. ^ a b c "Your 21 day national house imprisonment order – NDZ – DOCUMENTS". politicsweb.co.za. GOVERNMENT GAZETTE 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020 – via Politicsweb.
  114. ^ a b c "Disaster Management Act: Regulations to address, prevent and combat the spread of Coronavirus COVID-19: Amendment". Government of South Africa. 2 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  115. ^ Voigt, Elri (26 March 2020). "Covid-19: What you may and may not do during 21-day lockdown in SA". City Press. South Africa. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  116. ^ Schrader, Adam (25 March 2020). "South Africa bans walking dogs during coronavirus crisis". New York Post. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  117. ^ "Minister Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma on Coronavirus COVID-19 amended regulations". Department of Cooperative Governance. 16 April 2020. Archived from the original on 16 April 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  118. ^ "Lockdown: These are the only flights you can take in – or out of – SA". Blue Sky Publications. 31 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  119. ^ "Statement issued by the minister of transport, Fikile Mbalula, on the occasion of the release of Easter fatalities statistics on 17 April 2020". Department of Transport. 17 April 2020. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  120. ^ "Murder down by 1 110 cases – Cele attributes drop to alcohol ban, increased patrols and lockdown". 24.com. 22 April 2020. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  121. ^ Bradshaw, Debbie; Laubscher, Ria; Dorrington, Rob; Groenewald, Pam; Moultrie, Tom (28 April 2020). "Report on weekly deaths in South Africa, 1 January – 21 April 2020" (PDF). South African Medical Research Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  122. ^ Masuabi, Queenin (5 April 2020). "Bheki Cele: 'I wish alcohol ban could be extended beyond lockdown'". City Press. South Africa. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  123. ^ Dyk, Joan van (17 April 2020). "Will Ramaphosa announce an end to South Africa's national alcohol ban today?". Bhekisisa. Archived from the original on 30 July 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  124. ^ "'Don't give us a reason to arrest you' – Cele, as lockdown arrests rise to 2 289". News24. 3 April 2020. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  125. ^ "South Africa's latest crime stats – everything you need to know". Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  126. ^ "Ramaphosa places Stella Ndabeni-Abrahams on partly unpaid special leave". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  127. ^ "Lockdown? Life continues as normal in some parts of the Eastern Cape". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  128. ^ Bhengu, Cebelihle (31 March 2020). "Mzansi reacts to police & army 'brutality' during lockdown – 'they must respect the law'". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  129. ^ Reddy, Micah; Allison, Simon (30 March 2020). "Police use sjamboks and rubber bullets to enforce Hillbrow lockdown". The Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  130. ^ "Where Cele went wrong with lockdown regulations". Cape Times. South Africa. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  131. ^ a b Knoetze, Daneel (1 April 2020). "Police kill three people in three days of lockdown. This is normal for South Africa". GroundUp News. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  132. ^ Nyathi, Ayanda (3 April 2020). "Ipid investigates after 8 deaths recorded since lockdown". Eye Witness News. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  133. ^ Mokgatlhe, Kenneth; Ngoepe, Karabo (5 April 2020). "Police brutality on the rise during lockdown". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  134. ^ "SANDF issues stern warning after soldiers accused of beating Alexandra man to death". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  135. ^ "Sanef sounds alarm over the treatment of the media in Cape Town". News24. 8 April 2020. Archived from the original on 15 April 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  136. ^ "Covid-19: UN Human Rights Office concerned by excessive force, death reports during SA lockdown". News24. 28 April 2020. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  137. ^ "UN raises alarm about police brutality in COVID-19 lockdowns". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  138. ^ Knoetze, Daneel (30 April 2020). "Details of two additional alleged lockdown killings by police revealed". GroundUp News. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  139. ^ Swart, Mia (17 May 2020). "S Africa court issues orders to end police abuse during lockdown". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  140. ^ "SA economy could crater up to 10% this year". Moneyweb. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 June 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  141. ^ "Eskom will keep the lights on during 21-day lockdown". 28 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  142. ^ a b "SA's "big bazooka" stimulus package explained". Investec. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  143. ^ a b "IMF approves $4.3bn loan for SA to address Covid-19 challenges". Moneyweb. 27 July 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  144. ^ a b Maeko, Thando (29 July 2020). "South Africa gets $4.3bn IMF loan. In return, the country must reform". The Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  145. ^ Mjo, Odwa (13 March 2020). "MARKET WRAP: JSE has worst week since 1998 as pandemic plagues investors". BusinessLIVE. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  146. ^ Mar 2020, Suren Naidoo / 19 (19 March 2020). "Repo rate slashed by 1%". Moneyweb. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  147. ^ "Reserve Bank announces surprise rate cut of another 100 basis points". BusinessTech. 14 April 2020. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  148. ^ "Coronavirus: Standard Bank gives businesses, students a debt holiday". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  149. ^ Davis, Tania Ajam and Dennis (14 May 2020). "Op-Ed: Unprecedented tax collapse endangers post-Covid recovery". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  150. ^ Haffajee, Ferial (15 July 2020). "Covid-19's Impact: The day the bottom fell out of South Africa – a triple pandemic has hit us". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  151. ^ Brown, Justin (16 July 2020). "Covid-19: Children eat wild plants to survive as hunger explodes". GroundUp News. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2020.
  152. ^ "Lockdown destroyed 42.7% of small business in South Africa – study". CapeTalk. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  153. ^ "Lockdown forced nearly half of small businesses in South Africa to close: study". Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  154. ^ Staff Writer. "A third of South Africa's middle-class set to be wiped out: lender". Retrieved 31 July 2021.
  155. ^ a b c Magome, Mogomotsi (26 July 2020). "South Africa warns COVID-19 corruption puts 'lives at risk'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  156. ^ a b Muvunyi, Fred (3 August 2020). "South Africa's double blow: Corruption and the coronavirus". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  157. ^ a b "South Africa sets up body to probe coronavirus corruption". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  158. ^ a b Nortier, Christi (23 July 2020). "CORONAVIRUS DAILY DIGEST #105: Ramaphosa takes tough stance on corruption, schools reclose for a month, and pandemic's official death toll is cast into doubt". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  159. ^ Knoetze, Daneel (14 April 2020). "Covid-19: Lockdown creates ripe pickings for corrupt police". GroundUp News. GroundUp. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  160. ^ Comins, Lyse (29 July 2020). "Will IMF loan end up in wrong pockets?". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  161. ^ "South Africa: Covid-19 Roundup | Corruption and an IMF Loan". allAfrica.com. 31 July 2020. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  162. ^ Plessis, Carien Du (6 August 2020). "GRAFT PANDEMIC: SA Government to establish 'fusion centre' to deal with corruption". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  163. ^ Mandela, Nomalizo (6 July 2020). "SIU to investigate transactions from Relief Fund, finalising COVID-19 proclamation". SABC News – Breaking news, special reports, world, business, sport coverage of all South African current events. Africa's news leader. Archived from the original on 27 July 2020. Retrieved 27 July 2020.
  164. ^ a b Myburgh, Pieter-Louis (31 July 2020). "SCORPIO: Ace Magashule's sons each bag a Free State Covid-19 contract". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  165. ^ Schatz, Riaan Grobler and Chanté. "PODCAST | THE STORY: Dodgy PPE tender procurements land government officials in hot water". News24. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  166. ^ Felix, Jason. "Gauteng govt tight-lipped on latest PPE tender corruption claims". News24. Archived from the original on 14 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  167. ^ "Dikos release statement denying tender corruption". eNCA. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  168. ^ News24 (27 July 2020). "COVID-19: Gauteng Health MEC denies involvement in PPE procurement corruption". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  169. ^ Mahlakoana, Theto. "Over 1,500 CoJ employees fraudulently received COVID relief, social grant funds". EWN. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  170. ^ a b c Heywood, Mark (16 January 2022). "PROCUREMENT PROFLIGACY: No consequence: The accumulated irregular expenditure reaches R488-billion". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  171. ^ Gibson, Erika (26 January 2022). "HASTA LA VISTA SOCIAL CLUB: Back to Cuba: SANDF returns irregularly procured Covid drug worth R228m". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  172. ^ "Millions of rand lost as SANDF returns unauthorised Cuban Covid-19 drug". The Mail & Guardian. 26 January 2022. Retrieved 27 January 2022.
  173. ^ Pitjeng, Refilwe. "Super Rugby suspended over coronavirus concerns". EWN. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  174. ^ "Coronavirus: Guinness PRO14 season suspended until further notice". skysports.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  175. ^ "Statement by FNB Varsity Cup". varsitycup.co.za. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  176. ^ "Cravenweek cancelled, while rugby tournaments in the balance – SA Rugby". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  177. ^ "SAFA hits back with FINAL call on PSL matches". Sport. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  178. ^ "ASA postpone all athletics events in South Africa because of coronavirus". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  179. ^ "Sunshine Tour suspend all golf events in South Africa". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  180. ^ "Wimpy Lifesaving South Africa National Championships cancelled". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  181. ^ "We will get through this together". blog.parkrun.com. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  182. ^ "The Official Statement regarding the cancellation of the 2020 Absa Cape Epic". cape-epic.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  183. ^ "Two Oceans Marathon cancelled amid coronavirus pandemic". News24. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 May 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  184. ^ "Africa's Two Oceans Marathon cancelled amid coronavirus pandemic". iBusiness. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  185. ^ "Comrades Marathon cancelled due to Covid-19". News24. Sport24. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  186. ^ "Plans revised for HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series 2021". World Rugby HSBC Sevens Series. Archived from the original on 1 August 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  187. ^ "Cape Town Sevens cancelled due to Covid-19". News24. Sport24. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  188. ^ "CORONAVIRUS: LOCAL AND INTERNATIONAL EVENTS CANCELLED". EWN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  189. ^ "Bloem Show on hold for now". News24. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  190. ^ Alex, Alex. "AfrikaBurn 2020 cancelled". News24. Archived from the original on 11 April 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  191. ^ "Coronavirus Fears Prompt Postponement of CT International Jazz Festival". EWN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  192. ^ "[UPDATE] CT Jazz Fest will definitely happen at later stage, says Billy Domingo". CapeTalk. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  193. ^ "KKNK not going ahead as planned • KKNK". KKNK. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  194. ^ "New dates for 2020 Splashy Fen Music Festival". South Coast Sun. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  195. ^ Isaacs, Alex (17 March 2020). "Rand Show postponed following coronavirus pandemic reaching SA". Channel. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  196. ^ "Stand by for the first-ever virtual NAF". 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  197. ^ "Scifest Africa 2020 Postponed". 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  198. ^ "WWE Reschedules Upcoming South Africa Tour Due To Coronavirus". ProWrestling.com. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  199. ^ "Comic Con Cape Town postponed to 2021". Independent Online. South Africa. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  200. ^ "Rage labelled a Covid 'super-spreader' event — Joburg and Jeffreys Bay events cancelled". Daily Maverick. 7 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  201. ^ Isaacs, Alex (16 March 2020). "Lighthouse Family SA tour postponed due to coronavirus pandemic". Channel. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  202. ^ Isaacs, Alex (16 March 2020). "Boyz II Men South African tour and the Scorpion Kings Live concerts postponed due to coronavirus pandemic". Channel. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  203. ^ Mvelashe, Phakamani (16 March 2020). "Bebe Winans' SA tour postponed". Channel. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  204. ^ "HuntEx2020 | Ten Years Inspiring Adventure". huntex.net. Archived from the original on 22 July 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  205. ^ "HOME". Decorex Africa. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  206. ^ "Tyrexpo Africa 2020". tyrexpoafrica.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  207. ^ "Event Postponement | Power & Electricity". Power & Electricity World Africa 2020. 23 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  208. ^ Ngcakani, Noluthando (16 March 2020). "COVID-19: Farmers urged to protect themselves, workers". Food For Mzansi. Archived from the original on 17 August 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  209. ^ "Trips to Moria on hold until further notice over coronavirus pandemic, ZCC tells congregants". news24.com. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  210. ^ "Coronavirus: MJC suspends Jumuah prayers, but no call to close mosques". News24. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  211. ^ "South Africa's shuls close to stop spread of coronavirus". South Africa Jewish Report. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  212. ^ Sizani, Mkhuseli. "Coronavirus: Traditional circumcision schools in Eastern Cape suspended". News24. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020.
  213. ^ "City of Joburg closes all public facilities, including pools, theatres and the zoo". The Citizen. News24 Wire. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  214. ^ "Durban bans swimming at the beach". businesstech.co.za. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  215. ^ Chothia, Andrea. "City of Cape Town will shut down these facilities due to coronavirus". Blue Sky Publications. The South African. Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  216. ^ "FIH Hockey Women's Junior World Cup South Africa 2021 put on hold". fih.ch. International Hockey Federation. 26 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  217. ^ Rall, Se-Anne. "Ballito Rage 2021 cancelled after 36 test positive for Covid-19". IOL. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  218. ^ Govender, Suthentira (1 December 2021). "Ballito Rage cancelled after 32 guests and four staff test positive". The Time Live.
  219. ^ Modise, Kgomotso (2 December 2021). "PLETT RAGE FESTIVAL CANCELLED DUE TO SPIKING COVID CASES". Eyewitness News. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  220. ^ Jordaan, Nomahlubi (5 August 2020). "IN PICTURES | Live entertainment, events and gym industries protest lockdown laws". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 16 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  221. ^ Mokhoali, Veronica (5 August 2020). "South Africans urged to 'Light SA Red' to highlight eventing sector's plight". EWN. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  222. ^ "Local stars join 'Light SA Red' campaign in support of struggling artists". Independent Online. South Africa. 6 August 2020. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 7 August 2020.
  223. ^ "More lockdown looting in the Western Cape as police race to protect shops". News24. 22 April 2020. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  224. ^ TimesLIVE and Kgaugelo Masweneng (14 April 2020). "Police help Cape bottle stores move stock as looting spreads to food shops". Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  225. ^ Siviwe Breakfast (14 April 2020). "Watch: More lockdown looting in Cape Town [video]". Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  226. ^ "Covid-19: Bio-Hazard Warning As Truck Carrying Samples Hijacked In Port Elizabeth". howsouthafrica.com. 21 July 2020. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  227. ^ Dayimani, Malibongwe. "Bio-hazard warning after truck carrying Covid-19 samples hijacked in Port Elizabeth". news24. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  228. ^ Writer, Staff. "More Gauteng residents are semigrating to the Western Cape – here's where they are moving to". Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  229. ^ "'Joburg is in decline, and its professionals are moving – many to Cape Town'". CapeTalk. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  230. ^ Buthelezi, Londiwe. "'City of Gold' sparkles no more - Joburg has become property sector's weakest link". Fin24. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  231. ^ Future scenarios of the healthcare burden of COVID-19 in low- or middle-income countries, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis at Imperial College London.
  232. ^ "Situation Report for COVID-19: South Africa, 2021-02-10". Imperial College London. MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis. 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  233. ^ a b c Davis, Rebecca. "Coronavirus Fact Check#1: Viral outbreak: Fake news spreads in SA in tandem with Covid-19". Daily Maverick. Archived from the original on 16 August 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  234. ^ a b "FAKE NEWS: No, Covid-19 testing kits are not contaminated". News24. 6 April 2020. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  235. ^ "Bill Gates, Trevor Noah, death threats & that vaccine: how it all went wrong". TimesLIVE. Archived from the original on 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  236. ^ "Apology to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for 'Africa vaccine' story". News24. 5 April 2020. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  237. ^ Cilliers, Charles. "Zweli Mkhize says '5G causing Covid-19 deaths' is just fake news". The Citizen. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  238. ^ "Vodacom and MTN telecommunications towers burnt in S.Africa by 5G protesters". Reuters. 8 January 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  239. ^ "SA's COVID-19 Vaccination Rollout Kicks Off In Khayelitsha – SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  240. ^ "Latest Vaccine Statistics – SA Corona Virus Online Portal". SA Corona Virus Online Portal. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  241. ^ Chege, James Macharia; Obulutsa, George (4 March 2022). "S.Africa risks destroying 100,000 vaccine doses by end-March due to slow uptake". Reuters. Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 5 March 2022.

External links

Media files used on this page

SARS-CoV-2 (Wikimedia colors).svg
Author/Creator: Geraki, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
SARS-CoV-2 logo in Wikimedia colors
WHO Rod.svg
The rod of Asclepius as depicted in the WHO logo.
Sida-aids.png
Author/Creator: User:FoeNyx © 2004 (artistic illustration), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
VIH - HIV / SIDA - AIDS viruses.
CoViD-19-deaths-and-excess-deaths-South-Africa-weekly.svg
Author/Creator: Jeandré du Toit, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
CoViD-19 deaths (officially confirmed) vs excess deaths in South Africa, weekly.

Sources:

For older versions of the graph, see File:South_Africa,_deaths,_CoViD-19_and_excess.png.
RSA-Social distancing-May-2020.png
Author/Creator: Thuvack, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
People practicing social distancing during a shopping outing in South Africa, during level 4 national lock down. This was one of the recommendation to curb the spread of Corona virus in May 2020.
COVID-19 testing tent at the Paarl Provincial Hospital in Paarl, Western Cape, SA.jpg
Author/Creator: Lefcentreright, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
In response to the COVID-19 outbreak in South Africa, the Paarl Provincial Hospital erected a COVID-19 testing tent on its facilities to provide a safe space for testing to be conducted
Philippi 20200407 112336.jpg
Author/Creator: Discott, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Volunteers in Philippi, Cape Town packing food parcels to be given out to the needy during the COVID 19 pandemic lockdown. The lockdown had a seriously negative impact on South Africa's economy that hit the poor and unemployed especially hard.
Kloof & Long street billboard 20200401 140037.jpg
Author/Creator: Discott, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A billboard on the building at the corner of Long Street and Orange Street in Cape Town, South Africa calls on South Africans to "Stay at Home" during the lockdown period to help government's efforts to contain the pandemic.
Greenmarket square 20200320.jpg
Author/Creator: Discott, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Greenmarket Square, Cape Town, South Africa 7 days before the 27 March 2020 national COVID 19 lockdown.
South africa covid19 testing chart.svg
Author/Creator: Shaze, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Graph shows number of tests for SARS-CoV-2 in South Africa from March 2020, as well as the proportion of those tests that were positive for the virus.
Za-covid-actives.svg
Author/Creator: Shaze, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Data computed from figures at https://github.com/dsfsi/covid19za. This is an estimate based on new cases over the last 14 days (3-day rolling average). Daily number of cases is noisy and the number of recoveries is particularly so.
Gauteng-covid19.svg
Author/Creator: Shaze, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Shows cumulative number of COVID-19 cases in the Gauteng metropolitan areas and Johannesburg district details. Data from GDoH twitter feeds collated at https://github.com/dsfsi/covid19za/blob/master/data/district_data/provincial_gp_cumulative.csv and https://github.com/dsfsi/covid19za/blob/master/data/district_data/gp_johannesburg.csv
Greenmarket Square 20200327.jpg
Author/Creator: Discott, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Greenmarket Square, Cape Town, South Africa on first day of the 27 March 2020 national COVID 19 lockdown. Only people exempt from the lock down such as municipal cleaners and security officials can be seen on the square.
Za-provinces-covid-19.svg
Author/Creator: Shaze, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The figure show the total number of cases, the number of cases per 1000, number of active cases per promise. The population size is based on Stats SA 2019 estimates https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0302/P03022019.pdf, figures from NICD/GDoH daily twitter collated at https://github.com/dsfsi/covid19za/blob/master/data/district_data/provincial_gp_cumulative.csv
Za daily tests.svg
Author/Creator: Shaze, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Daily cases and tests (three rolling average) of COVID-19 cases in South Africa