COVID-19 lockdowns

A usually congested highway in Penang, Malaysia, deserted during the Movement Control Order.
Healthcare workers in Hong Kong prepare to conduct mass COVID-19 testing of Jordan residents during a localised lockdown.
A sign usually used for traffic management displays a public health warning in Belfast during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom.
At a community quarantine checkpoint in Bohol, Philippines, police officers check a passing jeepney.
Queue in front of a supermarket in Italy caused by social distancing measures and supply shortages during the lockdown.
Volunteers in Cape Town pack food parcels to distribute to the needy during the pandemic lockdown in South Africa.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions colloquially known as lockdowns (encompassing stay-at-home orders, curfews, quarantines, cordons sanitaires and similar societal restrictions) have been implemented in numerous countries and territories around the world. These restrictions were established to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.[1] By April 2020, about half of the world's population was under some form of lockdown, with more than 3.9 billion people in more than 90 countries or territories having been asked or ordered to stay at home by their governments.[2] Although similar disease control measures have been used for hundreds of years, the scale seen in the 2020s is thought to be unprecedented.[3]

Research and case studies have shown that lockdowns are effective at reducing the spread of COVID-19, therefore flattening the curve.[4] The World Health Organization's recommendation on curfews and lockdowns is that they should be short-term measures to reorganize, regroup, rebalance resources, and protect health workers who are exhausted. To achieve a balance between restrictions and normal life, the WHO recommends a response to the pandemic that consists of strict personal hygiene, effective contact tracing, and isolating when ill.[5]

Although public health experts and economists generally supported lockdown restrictions, citing greater long-term costs for allowing the disease to spread uncontrollably, pandemic restrictions have had health,[6] social, and economic impacts, and have been met with protests in some territories.

Efficacy

Several researchers, from modelling and demonstrated examples, have concluded that lockdowns are effective at reducing the spread of, and deaths caused by, COVID-19.[7][4][8][9][10][11][12] Lockdowns are thought to be most effective at containing or preventing COVID-19 community transmission, healthcare costs and deaths when implemented earlier, with greater stringency, and when not lifted too early.[13][14][15][16][17]

A study investigating the spread based on studies of the most common symptoms such as loss of taste and smell in France, Italy and the UK showed a marked decrease in new symptoms just a few days after the start of confinement on the countries (Italy and France) with the strongest lockdowns.[18] Modelling on the United States pandemic suggested "the pandemic would have been almost completely suppressed from significantly taking off if the lockdown measures were implemented two weeks earlier" and that the second wave would have been less severe had the lockdown lasted another two weeks.[13]

The stringent lockdown in Hubei in early 2020 proved effective at controlling the COVID-19 outbreak in China.[11][19] The relatively high number of cases and deaths in Sweden, which has kept much of its society open during the pandemic, when compared to its neighbours with comparable demographics Norway, Denmark and Finland that did enforce lockdowns, is thought to be at least partly attributable to this difference in policy.[20][21][22][23][24] Similarly, modelling on Australian data concluded that achieving zero community transmission through a strict lockdown lowers healthcare and economic costs compared to less stringent measures that allow transmission to continue, and warned that early relaxation of restrictions have greater costs.[15][16] This "zero community transmission" approach was adopted in Australia, and a strict four month lockdown in the state of Victoria during an outbreak in Melbourne, combined with other measures, averted a wider outbreak in the country in 2020.[25] New Zealand and Vietnam also adopted a "Zero-COVID" strategy throughout 2020 that included targeted lockdowns.[26][27]

The emergence of the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in 2021 has led some commentators to suggest that although lockdowns continue to reduce the spread of COVID-19, they have become less effective at containing it. Lockdowns in Australia and Vietnam in response to Delta outbreaks proved less effective at containment than previous lockdowns were against the spread of other variants.[28][29][30]

Voluntary versus mandatory restrictions

A member of the Peruvian Army with a police dog enforces curfew on 31 March 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru

One study led by an economist at the University of Chicago found that involuntary lockdowns had little impact, with voluntary distancing making up nearly 90% of the fall in consumer traffic as people feared the virus itself.[31] Similarly, a National Bureau of Economic Research study found stay-at-home orders increased staying at home by just 5–10%.[32] Another study from Yale University found that most social distancing was voluntary, driven primarily by "media coverage of morbidity and mortality."[33]

On the other hand, some studies have argued[10][34] that coercive measures probably decreased interactions, while accepting that most of the reduction may have been voluntary. One of those two studies, by Flaxman et al., has been criticized, among other things for having a country-specific adjustment factor, without which the model would predict a massive number of deaths for Sweden.[35] One widely cited economic simulation asserting that shelter-in-place orders reduced total cases three-fold, however, held voluntary distancing constant.[36] Another study found a 30% difference among border-counties where stay-at-home orders were imposed.[37]

Another study that compared the impact of 'less restrictive interventions' on the spread of COVID-19 in Sweden and South Korea, with mandatory stay-at home orders in 8 other countries, such as France and Spain, did not find evidence for greater disease control in the countries with more restrictions.[38] However, the findings of the study have been questioned due to its numerous limitations, including the small sample size of countries.[39][40]

Some research has also found that an "advisory" approach is not adequate to control COVID-19 outbreaks. An analysis of an outbreak in northern Italy found that an effective reduction in community transmission occurred during a strict national lockdown, and that earlier less stringent measures were ineffective at reducing mobility to a level low enough to reduce the spread of COVID-19.[14]

Since the beginning of the pandemic, Google has consistently collected data on movements, showing rapid declines in public activity long before legal restrictions were imposed.[41] An April 2020 poll found that 93% of Americans voluntarily chose to only leave home when necessary, regardless of legal restrictions.[42]

Reception

A review of 348 articles concluded there was unanimous acknowledgement of the importance of non-pharmaceutical interventions in controlling the spread of COVID-19.[4] However, current research also acknowledges high societal costs, though less than the costs of allowing the pandemic to spread without mitigation.[43][4]

Related to epidemiology

The consensus of epidemiological evidence supports generalised non-pharmaceutical interventions to curb the spread of COVID-19.[4][44][45][46]

During the early stages of the pandemic in Europe and the United States, statistical modelling which advised that restrictions were needed to prevent a large number of deaths were used as the basis for lockdowns.[12] This includes an Imperial College projection, led by epidemiologist Neil Ferguson.[47] Despite some criticisms, academics defended the Imperial projection as fundamentally sound, while admitting the code was "a buggy mess."[48]

A notable opponent of lockdowns has included Sweden's state epidemiologist Anders Tegnell, who has frequently criticised the strategy.[49][50] The Swedish government's approach has included minimal restrictions and has been controversial in part due to the relatively high death toll due to widespread transmission.[51][52] However, the Swedish government began considering enacting a lockdown in early 2021.[53][54]

While arguing in August 2020 for the need for further lockdowns in the United States, physicians Ranu Dhillon and Abraar Karan argued for "smarter lockdowns" that impose restrictions on areas with high levels of transmission, and to increase support to vulnerable populations in these locations to offset the economic costs.[55]

A number of medical experts signed the Great Barrington Declaration in October 2020 which called for "Focused Protection" on high risk groups and minimal restrictions on the general population to achieve herd immunity through COVID-19 infection. However, the majority of medical experts and the WHO have strongly criticised this proposed strategy for its lack of scientific basis and for being unethical.[45][56][57] The declaration has also attracted controversy over its funding and the authenticity of its signatures.[44][58]

Related to social impacts

Some commentators have suggested that states' use of emergency powers to curb freedom of assembly and movement are authoritarian and may result in long-term democratic backsliding. Centralization of power by political leadership in Hungary, Poland, China and Cambodia in response to the pandemic have been cited as examples.[59][60][61]

Some researchers have noted that pandemic restrictions have come with mental health costs, compounded by those caused by the pandemic itself.[4][62][63][64][65]

Due to their closure, educational institutions worldwide transitioned to online learning. Teachers and faculty had to learn new ways to engage with students while in a pandemic. Examples of online teaching tools are podcasts, videos, and virtual classrooms.[66]

UN Women warned in a April 2020 report that pandemic restrictions exacerbate gender inequalities and have led to an increase in domestic violence.[67] Many women are being forced to ‘lockdown’ at home with their abusers at the same time that services to support survivors are being disrupted or made inaccessible.[68] For instance, in France there was a spike in cases of about 30% since the lockdown in March 2020.[67]

Related to economic impacts

Economists generally supported increased government funding for mitigation efforts, even at the cost of tolerating a very large economic contraction.[69] They agreed that lockdowns should continue until the threat of resurgence has declined, even when considering only the economic impact.[70] There was a general agreement, at least in some economic circles, that "severe lockdowns — including closing non-essential businesses and strict limitations on people's movement — are likely to be better for the economy in the medium term than less aggressive measures".[71]

Both the World Food Programme (WFP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have published statements noting the impact of the lockdowns on livelihoods and food security, and Dr David Nabarro, WHO Special Envoy on COVID-19 stated in October 2020 that "lockdowns just have one consequence that you must never ever belittle, and that is making poor people an awful lot poorer".[72][73][74]

Protests

There have also been a number of protests worldwide in opposition to lockdowns, including in the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada and New Zealand. The motivations for and sizes of these protests have varied. Some have been spurred by the economic and social impacts of lockdowns, but have also been associated with misinformation related to the pandemic, conspiracy theories and anti-vaccination.[75][76]

Table of pandemic lockdowns

Country / territoryPlaceFirst lockdownSecond lockdownThird lockdownFourth lockdownFifth lockdownSixth lockdownSeventh lockdownEighth lockdownTotal length (days)Level
Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)Start dateEnd dateLength (days)
Albania2020-03-13[77]2020-06-01[78]8080National
AlgeriaAlgiers2020-03-23[79]2020-05-14[80]5252City
Blida
ArgentinaGreater Buenos Aires2020-03-19[81]2020-11-08[82]2342021-05-22[83]2021-05-3092021-06-05[84]2021-06-062245Metropolitan area
Rest of the country2020-03-19[81]2020-05-10[85]522021-05-22[83]2021-05-3092021-06-05[84]2021-06-06263National
Armenia2020-03-24[86]2020-05-04[87]4141National
AustraliaMelbourne2020-03-31[88]2020-05-12[89][a]432020-07-09[b][90][91]2020-10-27[92]1112021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-28[94]2021-06-10[95]142021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-10-21[99]78263Metropolitan area
Greater Shepparton2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-15[101][102]252021-10-02[103]2021-10-09[104]7145Local government area
Ballarat2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]202021-09-16[105]2021-09-22[c][106][107]7140
Greater Geelong2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]202021-09-20[108]2021-09-26[109]7140
Surf Coast Shire2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]202021-09-20[108]2021-09-26[109]7140
Mitchell Shire2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-07-09[b][110]2020-09-16[91]702021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]202021-09-20[108]2021-10-13[d][111]24186
Mildura2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]202021-10-09[112]2021-10-22[113]14147
Latrobe Valley2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]202021-09-29[114]2021-10-06[115]7140Region
Rest of regional Victoria[e]2020-03-312020-05-12[89]432020-08-06[91]2020-09-16[91]412021-02-13[93]2021-02-17[93]52021-05-282021-06-0372021-07-16[96]2021-07-27[97]122021-08-05[98]2021-08-0952021-08-21[100]2021-09-09[101][102]20133State
South Australia2020-11-19[116]2020-11-22[117]32021-07-21[118]2021-07-27762
Southern Tasmania2021-10-16[119]2021-10-19355
Northern Beaches (NSW)2020-12-19[120]2021-01-10[121]222021-06-262021-10-11[f][122]107181Local government area
Brisbane2021-01-08[123]2021-01-11[123]32021-03-29[124]2021-04-01[125]32021-06-29[126]2021-07-0342021-07-31[127]2021-08-08[128]867Metropolitan area
Perth2021-01-31[129]2021-02-05[129]52021-04-23[130]2021-04-26[130]32021-06-28[131]2021-07-02[131]461Metropolitan area
Peel2021-01-31[129]2021-02-05[129]52021-04-23[130]2021-04-26[130]32021-06-282021-07-02461Region
South West2021-01-31[129]2021-02-05[129]557
Illawarra2021-06-26[132]2021-10-11[g][133][134][122]107159
Greater Sydney2021-06-26[132]2021-10-11[h][133][134][122]107159Metropolitan area
Darwin2021-06-27[135]2021-07-02[136]52021-08-162021-08-19357Metropolitan area
South East Queensland2021-06-29[126]2021-07-0232021-07-312021-08-08863Region
Townsville2021-06-29[126]2021-07-0232021-07-312021-08-08863Metropolitan area
Alice Springs2021-06-30 [137]2021-07-03355Metropolitan area
Central West2021-07-20[138]2021-07-27[138]72021-08-142021-10-11[i][139]58117Region
Hunter Region2021-08-05[140][141]2021-10-11[j][139]67119
Upper Hunter2021-08-05[140]2021-09-16[k][139][142]4294
Muswellbrook2021-08-05[140]2021-09-16[l][139][142]422021-09-28[143]2021-10-11[m]13107Local government area
Armidale2021-08-07[144]2021-09-10[145]3487
Cairns Region2021-08-08[146]2021-08-11[147]355Region
Yarrabah2021-08-08[146]2021-08-11[147]355Local government area
Richmond Valley2021-08-09[148]2021-09-10[139][149]3284
Lismore2021-08-09[148]2021-09-10[139][145]322021-09-16[142]2021-09-2372021-10-03[150]2021-10-11899
Byron Shire2021-08-09[148]2021-09-10[139][149]322021-09-21[151]2021-09-28791
Ballina2021-08-09[148]2021-09-10[139][149]3284
Tamworth2021-08-09[152]2021-09-10[139][149][145]3284
Dubbo2021-08-11[153]2021-10-11[n][139][145]61113
Australian Capital Territory2021-08-12[154]2021-10-15[155]61114Territory
Regional NSW[o]2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]2881Region
Mid-Coast2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145][157]2881Local government area
South Coast[p]2021-08-14[156]2021-10-11[q][139][145]57109Region
Bega Valley2021-08-14[156]2021-09-16[r][139][145][158]3385Local government area
Goulburn–Mulwaree2021-08-14[156]2021-10-11[s][139][145]57109
Snowy–Monaro2021-08-14[156]2021-09-16[t][139][145][158]332021-09-30[159]2021-10-11[160]1196
Yass Valley2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[145]282021-09-14[161]2021-09-271494
Albury (NSW)2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-09-16[142]2021-09-23787
Cowra2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-09-20[162]2021-10-05[163]1494
Glen Innes Severn (NSW)2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-09-17[164]2021-09-24787
Hilltops (NSW)2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-09-17[164]2021-10-01[165]1494
Port Macquarie-Hastings2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-09-28[143]2021-10-05787
Oberon2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-09-29[166]2021-10-11[160]1292
Gunnedah2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-10-05[167]2021-10-11686
Casino2021-08-14[156]2021-09-10[139][145]282021-10-02[168]2021-10-11989Town
Rest of the country[u]2020-03-23[169]2020-05-15[170]5252National
Austria2020-03-16[171]2020-04-13[172]282020-11-03[173]2020-11-30[173]272020-12-26[174]2021-02-07[175]432021-11-15[176]2021-12-11[177]27125
Azerbaijan2020-03-31[178]2020-08-30[178]152152
Bangladesh2020-03-26[179]2020-05-16[180]512021-04-05[181]2021-07-14[182]1002021-07-23[183]2021-08-10[184]18169
Barbados2020-03-28[185]2020-05-03[185]3636
Belgium2020-03-18[186]2020-05-04 [187]472020-11-02[188]2020-12-14[188]422021-03-27[189]2021-04-26[190]30119
Bermuda2020-04-04[185]2020-05-02[191]2828
Bhutan2020-08-11[192]2020-09-01[193]2121
Bolivia2020-03-22[194]2020-07-31[195]131131
Botswana2020-04-02[196]2020-04-30[196]2828
BrazilSanta Catarina2020-03-17[197]2020-04-07[197]2121State
São Paulo2020-03-24[198]2020-05-10[199]4747
Bulgaria2020-03-13[v][203][204]2020-06-15[w][206][207]942020-11-28 (de facto)[x][209]2021-01-31[y][209][210]652021-03-22[z][212]2021-03-3110169National
CambodiaPhnom Penh2021-04-15[213]2021-05-05[214]2121Municipality
Ta Khmau
CanadaBritish Columbia2020-03-18[215]2020-05-18[216]612020-11-07[217]2021-01-08[217]62123Province
Ontario2020-03-17[218][219]2020-05-14582021-04-03[220]2021-05-012886
Ontario - South2020-12-26[221]2021-01-23[221]282021-04-08[222]2021-06-02[222]5583Region
Ontario - North2020-12-26[221]2021-01-09[221]1414
Quebec2020-03-182020-05-04472020-12-25[223]2021-01-11[223]18[223]65Province
Colombia2020-03-25[224]2020-06-30[225]9797National
Congo2020-03-31[226]2020-04-20[226]2020
Costa Rica2020-03-23[227]2020-05-01[228]3939
Croatia2020-03-18[229]2020-05-11322020-12-22[230]2020-12-29[231]739
Cyprus2020-03-24[232]2020-04-13[232]202021-01-10[233]2021-01-31[233]212021-04-26[234]2021-05-09[234]1354
Czech Republic2020-03-16[171]2020-04-12[235]272020-10-22[236]2021-03-28[236]174201
Denmark2020-03-12[237]2020-04-13[238]332020-12-25[239]2021-03-01[240]6699
Ecuador2020-03-16[241]2020-03-31[241]1515
El Salvador2020-03-12[242]2020-04-02[242]2121
Eritrea2020-04-02[243]2020-04-23[243]2121
Estonia2021-03-11[244]2021-04-11[244]3131National
FijiLautoka2020-03-20[245]2020-04-07[246]182021-04-1918City
Suva2020-04-03[247]2020-04-17[248]1414
FranceNationwide2020-03-17[249]2020-05-11[250]552020-10-30[251]2020-12-15[252]462021-04-04[253]2021-05-03[253]29130National
Paris2021-03-19[254]2021-04-1830131Region
Finland2021-03-08[255]2021-03-28[255]2020National
Georgia2020-03-31[256]2020-04-21[256]2121
Germanydifferent regionally2020-03-16[aa][258]2020-05-30[259][260]
to 2020-05-11[261]
762020-11-02[262]2021-03-01 to 2021-06-11[263][264]119 to 222179 to 298
Berchtesgadener Land2020-10-20[265]2020-11-03[266]1443 to 64District
GhanaAccra2020-03-30[267]2020-04-12[268]1313Metropolitan area
Kumasi
GreeceNationwide2020-03-23[269]2020-05-04[270]422020-11-07[271]2021-03-22[272]135177National
Thessaloniki2020-11-03[273]139181Regional unit
Serres
Guernsey2020-03-25[274]2020-06-20[275]872021-01-23[276]2021-02-22[277]30117National
Honduras2020-03-20[278]2020-05-17[279]5858
Hungary2020-03-28[280]2020-04-10[280]1313
IndiaNationwide2020-03-25[281]2020-06-07[282]7474
Bengaluru2021-04-27[283]2021-05-091212Region
Delhi2021-04-19[284]2021-05-31[285]4242Region
Haryana2021-05-03[286]2021-05-1077State
Maharashtra2021-04-14[287]2021-06-15[288]6262State
Odisha2021-05-05[289]2021-05-191414State
Rajasthan2021-05-10[290]2021-06-08[291]2929State
Uttar Pradesh2021-04-30[292]2021-05-10[293]1010State
Iran2020-03-14[294]2020-04-20[295]372021-04-14[296]2021-04-241447National
Iraq2020-03-22[297]2020-04-11[298]2020
IrelandAll 26 counties2020-03-12[ab][299][300]2020-05-18[301]672020-10-21[302]2020-12-01[303]412020-12-24[ac][304]2021-04-12[305]119227
Kildare2020-08-07[306][307]2020-08-31[308]2424Regional
Laois2020-08-21[309]1414
Offaly
IsraelBnei Brak2020-04-02[310]2020-04-16[311]14304286City
Nationwide2020-09-18[312]2020-10-18[313]2020-12-27[314]2021-02-07[315]72National
ItalyNationwide2020-03-09[ad][316]2020-05-18[317]702020-12-24[318][ae]2021-01-06[318]132021-03-15[319]2021-04-3046129National
Lombardy2020-11-06[320]2020-12-03[321]272021-01-17 [322]2021-01-3013110Region
Piedmont2020-11-06[320]2020-12-03[321]97
Aosta Valley2020-11-06[320]2020-12-03[321]
Calabria2020-11-06[320]2020-12-03[321]
Sicily2021-01-17[322]2021-01-301383
Province of Bolzano2021-01-17 [322]2021-01-30Province
JamaicaSaint Catherine2020-04-15[323]2020-04-22[323]77Parish
Jordan2020-03-18[324]2020-04-30[325]432020-11-10[326]2020-11-15[326]548National
Kosovo2020-03-14[327]2020-05-04 [328]5151
Kuwait2020-05-10[329]2020-05-31[329]2121
Lebanon2020-03-15[330]2020-03-28[330]132020-11-14[331]2020-11-281427
Libya2020-03-22[332]2020-06-27[333]9797
Lithuania2020-03-16[334]2020-06-18[335]942020-11-07[336]2020-11-2821115
MadagascarAntananarivo2020-03-23[337]2020-04-20[338]2828City
Toamasina
Malaysia2020-03-18[339]2020-06-09[340]832021-01-132021-02-10282021-06-01[341]2021-08-16[342]76187National
MexicoNationwide2020-03-23[343]2020-06-01[343]7070
Chihuahua2020-10-23[344]2020-12-0644114State
Durango2020-11-03[345]2020-12-0633103
Baja California2020-12-0770
Mexico City2020-12-19[346]70
State of Mexico2020-12-19[346]70
Morelos2021-01-0470
Guanajuato2021-01-0470
Mongolia2020-03-10[347]2020-03-16[347]62020-11-17[348]2020-12-011521National
MontenegroTuzi2020-03-24[349]2020-05-05[350]4242Municipality
Morocco2020-03-19[351]2020-06-10[352]8383National
Flag of Myanmar.svg
Myanmar
Yangon2020-04-18[353]2020-07-01[354]742020-09-01[355]2021-04-10[356]2202021-07-08[357]2021-10-27[358]111405City
Namibia2020-03-27[af][359]2020-05-04[360]3838
Nepal NepalNationwide2020-03-24[361]2020-07-21[362]120120
Kathmandu2020-08-20[363]2020-09-09[363]21141City
Netherlands2020-03-15[364]2020-04-06[364]222020-12-15[365]2021-06-05[366]1722021-12-19[367]2022-01-14[368]26220National
New ZealandNationwide2020-03-23[369][370]2020-05-13[371]522021-08-18[369]2021-09-07[369]2173National
Auckland2020-08-12[372]2020-08-30[369]192021-02-14[373]2021-02-17[373]32021-02-28[369]2021-03-07[369]72021-08-18[369]2021-11-29(TBC)[374]104185Region
NigeriaAbuja2020-03-30[375]2020-04-12[375]1313City
Lagos
OgunState
Northern Cyprus2020-03-30[376]2020-05-04[377]3535National
North KoreaKaesong2020-07-25[378]2020-08-14[379]2020City
OmanMuscat2020-04-10[380]2020-05-29[381]4949Governorate
Jalan Bani Bu Ali2020-04-16[382]2020-05-29[383]4343Province
Pakistan2020-03-24[384]2020-05-09[385]462021-05-08[386]2021-05-181046National
Panama2020-03-25[387]2020-05-31
(downgraded to a night and weekend curfew)[388]
6767
Papua New Guinea2020-03-24[389]2020-04-07[389]1414
Paraguay2020-03-20[390]2020-05-03[391]4444
Peru2020-03-16[392]2020-06-30[393]106106
PhilippinesCebu2020-03-27[394]2020-05-15[ag][395]
to 2020-05-31[ah][396]
49 to 6549 to 65Province
Davao Region2020-03-19[397]2020-05-15[395]5757Region
Luzon2020-03-15[ai][398]2020-04-30[aj][399]
to 2020-05-15[ak][400]
to 2020-05-31[ah][396]
46 to 61 to 772020-08-04[401][al]2020-08-18[401][al]1561 to 92Island group
Soccsksargen2020-03-23[397]2020-05-15[402]5353Region
Poland2020-03-13[403]2020-04-11[404]292020-12-28[405]2021-01-17[405]202021-03-20[406]2021-04-25[407]3685National
Portugal2020-03-19[408]2020-04-02[404]142021-01-15[409]2021-03-15[410]5973
QatarDoha Industrial Area2020-03-11[411]2020-06-15[412]9696Industrial park
Romania2020-03-25[413]2020-05-12[414]4848National
RussiaMoscow2020-03-30[415]2020-05-12[416][417]432021-10-28[418]2021-11-04750Metropolitan area
Rest of the country[am]2020-03-28[419]2020-04-30[419]3333National
Rwanda2020-03-21[420]2020-04-19[421]2929
Samoa2020-03-26[422]2020-04-08[423]1313
San Marino2020-03-14[424]2020-05-05[425]5252
Saudi ArabiaJeddah2020-03-29[426]2020-06-21[427]8484City
Mecca2020-03-26[426]8787
Medina
Qatif2020-03-09[428]104104Area
Riyadh2020-03-26[426]8787City
Serbia2020-03-15[404]2020-04-21[429]
to 2020-05-04[430]
37 to 5037 to 50National
Singapore2020-04-07[431]2020-06-01[432]552021-05-16[433]2021-06-13282021-07-222021-08-09182021-09-272021-10-2428129
South Africa2020-03-26[434]2020-04-30[435]352020-12-282021-01-15182021-06-282021-07-252780
Spain2020-03-14[436]2020-05-09[437]5656
Sri Lanka2020-03-18[438]2020-06-21[439]952021-08-20[440]2021-10-01[441]42137
Switzerland2020-03-17[442]2020-04-27[443]412021-01-18[444]2021-03-01[445]4283
Thailand2020-03-25[446]2020-05-31[447]6767
Trinidad and Tobago2020-03-17[448]2020-03-31[448]1414
Tunisia2020-03-22[449]2020-04-19[450]2828
Turkey2020-04-23[451]2020-04-27[451]44Only in 30 metropolitan cities and Zonguldak.
Nationwide2021-04-29[452]2021-05-17[452]1818National
Ukraine2020-03-17[404]2020-04-24[404]3838
United Arab Emirates2020-03-26[453]2020-04-17[454]2222
United KingdomEngland2020-03-23[455]2020-07-04[456]1032020-11-05[457]2020-12-02[457]272021-01-05[458]2021-03-28[459][an]83213
Scotland2020-06-29[460]982020-12-26[461]2021-04-02[462]97195
Northern Ireland2020-07-03[463]1022020-11-27[464]2020-12-11[464]142020-12-26[465]2021-04-12[466]107223Country
Wales2020-07-13[467]1122020-10-23[468]2020-11-09[468]172020-12-20[469]2021-03-13[470][471][ao]83212
North West2020-12-31[472]2021-03-298888Region
North East2020-12-31[472]2021-03-298888
East Midlands2020-12-31[472]2021-03-298888
West Midlands2020-12-31[472]2021-03-298888
Norfolk2020-12-26[473]2021-03-299393County
Suffolk2020-12-26[474]2021-03-299393
Cambridgeshire2020-12-26[475]2021-03-299393
Essex2020-12-26[476]2021-03-299393
London area2020-12-20[477]2021-03-299999City
Kent & South East2020-12-20[477]2021-03-299999Region
Leicester2020-06-30[478]2020-07-24[479]2424County
Glasgow2020-11-20[480]2020-12-11[480]2121
East Renfrewshire
Renfrewshire
East Dunbartonshire
West Dunbartonshire
North Lanarkshire
South Lanarkshire
East Ayrshire
South Ayrshire
West Lothian
Stirling
United StatesCalifornia2020-03-19[481]2021-06-15[482]453110State
Connecticut2020-03-23[483]2020-04-22[484]3030State
Illinois2020-03-21[485]2020-05-30[486]7070
Kansas City in Kansas2020-03-24[487]2020-04-19[488]2626City
Massachusetts2020-03-24[489]2020-05-04[489]4141State
Michigan2020-03-24[490]2020-04-13[484]2020
New York2020-03-22[491]2020-06-13[492]8383
Oregon2020-03-24[493]2020-05-15[494]5353
Wisconsin2020-03-24[495]2020-05-13[496]5050
Venezuela2020-03-17[497]2020-05-135757National
VietnamNationwide2020-04-01[498]2020-04-22[499]2121
Da Nang2020-07-28[500]2020-09-05[501]3960City
Hai Duong2021-02-16[502]2021-03-021435Province, Chi Linh city lockdown began from 28 January.
Bac Ninh2021-05-18[503][504]23234 districts and 1 city
Bac Giang2021-05-18[505][506]236 districts
Zimbabwe2020-03-30[507]2020-05-02[508]3333National
Outbreak ongoing: Lockdown data as of 2 March 2022

Notes

  1. ^ Restrictions were further eased on the 1st of June 2021, however during the time between then and the 12th of May 2021, "Stay at home orders" were not active and hence this period didn't constitute what is internationally considered a "lockdown".
  2. ^ a b Stage 3 lockdown imposed on 8 July; Stage 4 lockdown imposed on 2 August 2020
  3. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  4. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  5. ^ All of Victoria except Melbourne, Greater Shepparton, Ballarat, Greater Geelong, Surf Coast Shire and Mitchell Shire
  6. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  7. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  8. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  9. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  10. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  11. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  12. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  13. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  14. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  15. ^ Applies for all others Regional NSW outside Greater Sydney, Hunter Region, Dubbo, Central West, South Coast, Goulburn, Queanbeyan-Palerang and Snowy Monaro
  16. ^ Applies for all South Coast except Bega Valley after 16/09/2021
  17. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  18. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  19. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  20. ^ End-date of lockdown is subject to the vaccine rollout or 0 cases for 14 days. Restrictions are set to be eased when 70% of the eligible population has been vaccinated
  21. ^ Applies for further measures in each Australian state and territory
  22. ^ Initially to last until 13 April 2020, included closures of universities, schools, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on mass gatherings, suspension of sports competitions for more than two months, certain temporary restrictions on the free movement of citizens, but no strict "Stay at home order".[200] A number of lockdown measures were already eased or lifted in April[201] and May 2020.[202]
  23. ^ Depending on the strictness of the definition for a lockdown, some sources such as Politico Europe consider it to have ended by 9 May, with a total duration of 57 days.[205]
  24. ^ Closures of all educational institutions, restaurants and other establishments, a ban on most cultural events, all excursions and forms of group tourism, children forbidden to participate in organized sports events, no "Stay at home order", described as a "soft" or "partial" lockdown and officially entered into force at 23:30 on 27 November.[208]
  25. ^ The lockdown was initially to end on 21 December 2020, but was subsequently extended until 31 January 2021, though with a few of the restrictions relaxed, such as children in kindergartens and in grades 1-4 being able to attend in-person classes from January 2021.
  26. ^ Preceded by some measures on the regional level, no "Stay at home order".[211]
  27. ^ Lockdown was started in Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria on 20 March 2020. Two days later, it was expanded to the whole of Germany[257]
  28. ^ A national stay-at-home order was officially declared on 27 March
  29. ^ A full third lockdown was declared from 30 December and was repeatedly extended.
  30. ^ Lockdown was first started in Northern Italy on 8 March 2020, then expanded to the rest of Italy the following day
  31. ^ The lockdown was suspended on 28, 29, 30 December 2020 and 4 January 2021
  32. ^ Lockdown was started in the regions of Erongo and Khomas but effectively enforced countrywide. On 14 April the lockdown was extended to 4 May and to all of Namibia.
  33. ^ Except in Cebu City only where it was extended to 16 days
  34. ^ a b Lockdown was extended to areas under high risk COVID-19 zones
  35. ^ Lockdown was started in Metro Manila, but expanded to the rest of Luzon two days later, 17 March 2020
  36. ^ In most Luzon areas only, except Metro Manila and selected areas of Luzon are on high risk COVID-19 zones
  37. ^ Lockdown was extended to Metro Manila and remaining areas of Luzon
  38. ^ a b Metro Manila, Bulacan, Cavite and Rizal only.
  39. ^ Applies for mandatory holidays and further measures in each Russian region
  40. ^ England has followed an incremental easing of restrictions since 8 March 2021. Most lockdown restrictions were lifted between March and June, July 19 is the date set for the expiry of most legal restrictions in England. Although some sources describe this date as the "end" of lockdown, March 28 was the date in which the "stay at home orders" were ended. This fits the most internationally accepted definition of what constitutes a lockdown.
  41. ^ Most lockdown restrictions were lifted between March and June. March 13 was the date in which the "stay at home orders" were ended. This fits the most internationally accepted definition of what constitutes a lockdown.


In the table pandemic lockdowns are defined as the shutdown of parts of the economy,[509] due to non-pharmaceutical anti-pandemic measures and are enforceable by law like:

  • Closing of schools and kindergartens
  • Closing of non-essential shops (shops and stores apart from food, doctors and drug stores)
  • Closing of non-essential production
  • Cancellation of recreational venues and closing of public places
  • Curfews
  • Stay-at-home orders and total movement control

These measures are considered to have caused the COVID-19 recession in 2020.[510] The table does not contain:

The pandemic has resulted in the largest number of shutdowns/lockdowns worldwide at the same time in history.. By 26 March, 1.7 billion people worldwide were under some form of lockdown,[511] which increased to 3.9 billion people by the first week of April – more than half of the world's population.[512][513]

Restrictions first began in China,[514] with other countries in East Asia like Vietnam soon following it in implementing widespread containment measures. Much of Europe, North America and Africa took much longer to bring in tough measures. Lockdowns between and within nations are of varying stringency.[515]

By mid April, nearly 300 million people, or about 90 per cent of the population, were under some form of lockdown in the United States,[516] with around 100 million in the Philippines[517] and about 59 million in South Africa,[518] while around 1.3 billion were under lockdown in India, which was the largest of all lockdowns.[519][520]

By the end of April, around 300 million people were under lockdown in various countries of Europe, including but not limited to Italy, Spain, France, and the United Kingdom; while around 200 million people were under lockdown in Latin America.[517]

Variation by countries and territories

A drive through COVID-19 testing site in South Korea in February 2020. South Korea did not implement any lockdown measures; its K-Quarantine strategy included rapidly developing mass testing capacity and infrastructure.

Countries and territories around the world have enforced lockdowns of varying stringency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Some include total movement control while others have enforced restrictions based on time. In many cases, only essential businesses are allowed to remain open. Schools, universities and colleges have closed either on a nationwide or local basis in 63 countries, affecting approximately 47 percent of the world's student population.[521][522]

Beginning with the first lockdown in China's Hubei province[523] and nationwide in Italy in March, lockdowns continued to be implemented in many countries throughout 2020 and 2021. On 24 March 2020, the entire 1.3 billion population of India was ordered to stay at home during its lockdown, making it the largest of the pandemic.[524] The world's longest continuous lockdown lasting 234 days took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2020, although as of October 2021, the city of Melbourne, Australia has spent the most cumulative days in lockdown at 267 days over separate periods.[525]

A few countries and territories did not use the strategy, including Japan, Belarus, Sweden, South Korea, Tanzania, two states in Brazil and certain United States states.

See also

Notes

References

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Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain (genetic variant) of the coronavirus that caused Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first identified in Wuhan, China, during December 2019

Each separate locus (amorphous blob) is an atom of:

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