COVAX

US Officials deliver COVID-19 vaccines to Ghana as part of the COVAX program in 2021. Ghana was the first recipient of vaccines through COVAX.

COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access, abbreviated as COVAX, is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines directed by the GAVI vaccine alliance, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and the World Health Organization (WHO). It is one of the three pillars of the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator, an initiative begun in April 2020 by the WHO, the European Commission, and the government of France as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. COVAX coordinates international resources to enable low-to-middle-income countries equitable access to COVID-19 tests, therapies, and vaccines.[1] UNICEF is the key delivery partner, leveraging its experience as the largest single vaccine buyer in the world and working on the procurement of COVID-19 vaccine doses, as well logistics, country readiness and in-country delivery.

By 19 October 2020, 184 countries had joined COVAX.[2]

COVAX began distributing vaccines in February 2021. Though COVAX promised 100 million doses by the end of March,[3][4] this goal was not reached until 6 July.[5] By mid-August of 2021, COVAX delivered 200 million vaccine doses to nearly 140 countries instead of the 600 million doses initially projected. The continued shortage of COVID-19 vaccines delivered through COVAX is blamed on "vaccine nationalism" by richer nations, and the diversion of 400 million Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine doses, produced under license by the Serum Institute of India (SII), for domestic use in India.[6]

Vaccine candidates

As of 23 December 2021, the WHO has approved Oxford–AstraZeneca, Pfizer–BioNTech, Moderna, Sinopharm BIBP, CoronaVac, Janssen, Covaxin, and Novavax vaccines for emergency use.[7][8][9] These vaccines can be distributed as part of COVAX.[10][11]

Many of the countries that will benefit from COVAX have "limited regulatory capacity" and depend on WHO's authorisations. By early 2021, WHO was reviewing 11 potential COVID-19 vaccines for its Emergency Use Listing (EUL).[12] The first vaccine WHO authorised for its EUL on 31 December 2020 was the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine—an RNA vaccine developed by the German company BioNTech in cooperation with the American company Pfizer sold under the brand name Comirnaty.[13][14][15]

The WHO stated in a press release on 24 August 2020 that COVAX had nine CEPI-supported vaccine candidates and nine candidates undergoing trials, giving it the largest selection of COVID-19 vaccinations in the world.[16] By December 2020, COVAX had finalized negotiations with other manufacturers that gave it access to two billion vaccine doses.[17]

Distribution (recipients)

Involvement by country
  •   AMC donor
  •   Member of the European Union (AMC donor)
  •   Self-financing participant
  •   Self-financing participant and AMC donor
  •   AMC recipient
  •   AMC recipient and donor
  •   Not involved
Donations of Moderna vaccines from the United States are unloaded in Bhutan in 2021

COVAX provides vaccines to the developing world.[18] A total of 92 low- and middle-income countries are eligible to receive COVID-19 vaccines through the COVAX mechanism[19] through the COVAX Vaccines Advance Market Commitment (AMC) financing instrument.[19][20] COVAX AMC is funded by donor contributions.[20] COVAX AMC funds the COVAX Facility, the vaccine procurement platform.[20]

On 3 February 2021, GAVI, the WHO, and UNICEF published the country-by-country distribution of the Pfizer–BioNTech and Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccines forecast for first half of 2021.[21] The early projection includes 336 million doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine as well as 1.2 million doses of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine to the 145 COVAX facility participants.[22][23] It is expected that health care workers and the most vulnerable will receive the first doses, which are anticipated to reach approximately 3.3% of the total population of each participating country by the end of the first half of 2021.[23]

In February 2021, the WHO and Chubb Limited announced the roll out of a no-fault compensation scheme for COVID-19 vaccinations for low and middle-income countries which would be financed initially through Gavi COVAX AMC donor funding.[24]

On 24 February 2021, Ghana became the first country in the world to receive vaccines through COVAX when 600,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine were delivered to Accra.[18][25] On 2 March, COVID-19 vaccines were being distributed in Ghana by Zipline drones.[26] This method allows reaching remote areas (which are underserved by traditional logistics).[27]

On 1 March 2021, frontline workers and public officials from the Ivory Coast became the first persons to be inoculated with COVID-19 vaccines shipped from the COVAX Facility. More than 500,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by the Serum Institute of India were shipped to the city of Abidjan the week before. The vaccines were flown in by UNICEF from Mumbai.[28]

On 5 March 2021, Moldova received 14,400 Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine units through COVAX, becoming the first European country to do so. The country had already been donated 21,600 doses of the same vaccine by Romania some days earlier.[29]

On 25 March 2021, Bosnia and Herzegovina received 24,300 Pfizer–BioNTech and 26,400 Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine units through COVAX, becoming the second European country to do so.[30] The country had already been, in total, donated over 20,000 doses of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine by Serbia and Slovenia some weeks earlier.[31][32]

On 8 June 2021, Uruguay released health data from their vaccination efforts through the COVAX program. Almost 800,000 individuals or 52% of the adult population received two doses of the Coronavac or Pfizer vaccines. The government also studied the effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine among 162,047 health workers and people over 80 years old. Both vaccine types reduced hospitalisations and deaths by over 90%, and infection rates by more than 60%. Because of accessible healthcare and available COVAX vaccine supplies, the small Latin nation was able to ward off a serious COVID-19 spike in May 2021.[33]

On 1 August 2021, the Venezuelan government announced it will receive 6.2 million doses of coronavirus vaccines through the COVAX initiative. Part of the payment to the GAVI alliance was first blocked due to economic sanctions. Venezuela is a self-financing participant of COVAX. According to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), Venezuela will receive China's Sinopharm BIBP vaccine and CoronaVac. The country previously obtained the AstraZeneca vaccine through the program, but Venezuelan health officials did not approve the product for domestic use.[34]

Interim Distribution Forecast as of 3 February 2021 (doses)[23]
AMC: Advance Market Commitment; SFP: Self-Financing Participants
ParticipantSFP/AMCAstraZeneca
SII
AstraZeneca
SK Bioscience
Pfizer–BioNTechTotal
 IndiaAMC97,164,000--97,164,000
 PakistanAMC17,160,000--17,160,000
 NigeriaAMC16,008,000--16,008,000
 IndonesiaAMC-13,708,800-13,708,800
 BangladeshAMC12,792,000--12,792,000
 BrazilSFP-10,672,800-10,672,800
 EthiopiaAMC8,928,000--8,928,000
 Congo, Dem. Rep.AMC6,948,000--6,948,000
 MexicoSFP-6,472,800-6,472,800
 PhilippinesAMC-5,500,800117,0005,617,800
 EgyptAMC-5,138,400-5,138,400
 VietnamAMC-4,886,400-4,886,400
 MyanmarAMC4,224,000--4,224,000
 IranSFP-4,216,800-4,216,800
 KenyaAMC4,176,000--4,176,000
 UgandaAMC3,552,000--3,552,000
 SudanAMC3,396,000--3,396,000
 South AfricaSFP-2,976,000117,0003,093,000
 AfghanistanAMC3,024,000--3,024,000
 South KoreaSFP-2,596,800117,0002,713,800
 ColombiaSFP-2,553,600117,0002,670,600
 UzbekistanAMC2,640,000--2,640,000
 AngolaAMC2,544,000--2,544,000
 MozambiqueAMC2,424,000--2,424,000
 GhanaAMC2,412,000--2,412,000
 UkraineAMC-2,215,200117,0002,332,200
 YemenAMC2,316,000--2,316,000
 ArgentinaSFP-2,275,200-2,275,200
   NepalAMC2,256,000--2,256,000
 AlgeriaAMC-2,200,800-2,200,800
 CameroonAMC2,052,000--2,052,000
 Cote d'IvoireAMC2,040,000--2,040,000
 IraqSFP-2,018,400-2,018,400
 North KoreaAMC1,992,000--1,992,000
 CanadaSFP-1,903,200-1,903,200
 MoroccoAMC-1,881,600-1,881,600
 NigerAMC1,872,000--1,872,000
 PeruSFP-1,653,600117,0001,770,600
 Saudi ArabiaSFP-1,747,200-1,747,200
 Sri LankaAMC1,692,000--1,692,000
 MalaysiaSFP-1,624,800-1,624,800
 Burkina FasoAMC1,620,000--1,620,000
 MaliAMC1,572,000--1,572,000
 MalawiAMC1,476,000--1,476,000
 ZambiaAMC1,428,000--1,428,000
 VenezuelaSFP-1,425,600-1,425,600
Non-UN Member StatesN/A-1,303,200-1,303,200
 CambodiaAMC1,296,000--1,296,000
 SenegalAMC1,296,000--1,296,000
 ChadAMC1,272,000--1,272,000
 SomaliaAMC1,224,000--1,224,000
 ZimbabweAMC1,152,000--1,152,000
 GuineaAMC1,020,000--1,020,000
 Syrian Arab RepublicAMC1,020,000--1,020,000
 BoliviaAMC900,000-92,430992,430
 ChileSFP-957,600-957,600
 BeninAMC936,000--936,000
 RwandaAMC996,000-102,9601,098,960
 EcuadorSFP-885,600-885,600
 HaitiAMC876,000--876,000
 South SudanAMC864,000--864,000
 GuatemalaSFP-847,200-847,200
 TajikistanAMC732,000--732,000
 TunisiaAMC-592,80093,600686,400
 Papua New GuineaAMC684,000--684,000
 TogoAMC636,000--636,000
 Sierra LeoneAMC612,000--612,000
 LaosAMC564,000--564,000
 Dominican RepublicSFP-542,400-542,400
 JordanSFP-511,200-511,200
 AzerbaijanSFP-506,400-506,400
 Kyrgyz RepublicAMC504,000--504,000
 NicaraguaAMC504,000--504,000
 HondurasAMC-496,800-496,800
 Congo, Rep.AMC420,000--420,000
 LiberiaAMC384,000--384,000
 El SalvadorAMC-324,00051,480375,480
 Central African RepublicAMC372,000--372,000
 MauritaniaAMC360,000--360,000
 ParaguaySFP-357,600-357,600
 SerbiaSFP-345,600-345,600
 LibyaSFP-343,200-343,200
 LebanonSFP-340,800-340,800
 SingaporeSFP-288,000-288,000
 PalestineAMC-240,00037,440277,440
 Costa RicaSFP-254,400-254,400
 OmanSFP-254,400-254,400
 New ZealandSFP-249,600-249,600
 PanamaSFP-216,000-216,000
 GeorgiaSFP-184,80029,250214,050
 MongoliaAMC-163,20025,740188,940
 MoldovaAMC-156,00024,570180,570
 Gambia, TheAMC180,000--180,000
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaSFP-153,60023,400177,000
 UruguaySFP-172,800-172,800
 LesothoAMC156,000--156,000
 ArmeniaSFP-146,400-146,400
 JamaicaSFP-146,400-146,400
 Guinea-BissauAMC144,000--144,000
 QatarSFP-144,000-144,000
 AlbaniaSFP-141,600-141,600
 NamibiaSFP-127,200-127,200
 BotswanaSFP-117,600-117,600
 BhutanAMC108,000-5,850113,850
 Cabo VerdeAMC108,000-5,850113,850
 ComorosAMC108,000--108,000
 DjiboutiAMC108,000--108,000
 EswatiniAMC108,000--108,000
 Solomon IslandsAMC108,000--108,000
 North MacedoniaSFP-103,200-103,200
 MaldivesAMC108,000-5,850113,850
 BahamasSFP-100,800-100,800
 BahrainSFP-100,800-100,800
 BarbadosSFP-100,800-100,800
 BelizeSFP-100,800-100,800
 Brunei DarussalamSFP-100,800-100,800
 FijiAMC-100,800-100,800
 GuyanaAMC-100,800-100,800
 KosovoAMC-100,800-100,800
 MauritiusSFP-100,800-100,800
 Timor-LesteAMC-100,800-100,800
 Trinidad and TobagoSFP-100,800-100,800
 VanuatuAMC-100,800-100,800
 Sao Tome and PrincipeAMC96,000--96,000
 MontenegroSFP-84,000-84,000
 SamoaAMC-79,200-79,200
 SurinameSFP-79,200-79,200
 St. LuciaAMC-74,400-74,400
 KiribatiAMC-48,000-48,000
 Micronesia, Fed. Sts.AMC-48,000-48,000
 GrenadaAMC-45,600-45,600
 St. Vincent and the GrenadinesAMC-45,600-45,600
 TongaAMC-43,200-43,200
 Antigua and BarbudaSFP-40,800-40,800
 DominicaAMC-28,800-28,800
 AndorraSFP-26,400-26,400
 Marshall IslandsAMC-24,000-24,000
 St. Kitts and NevisSFP-21,600-21,600
 MonacoSFP-7,200-7,200
 NauruSFP-7,200-7,200
 TuvaluAMC-4,800-4,800
TOTAL-227,664,00091,200,0001,200,420320,064,420

Participants (donors)

COVAX is principally funded by Western countries.[18] As of 19 February 2021, 30 countries have signed commitment agreements to the COVAX Facility as well as the European Union (apart from the individual member states). Although more than $6 billion was pledged, not all of the funding has been delivered yet. In April, the initiative wrote that it had not yet received its target of $3.2 billion for 2021.[35]

Although mainly funded by governments ("Official Development Assistance"), the COVAX scheme is also funded by private-sector and philanthropic contributions, and recipient countries may share some costs for vaccines and delivery.[20]

In May 2021, UNICEF made an urgent appeal to industrialised nations to pool their excess COVID-19 vaccine capacity to make up for a 125-million-dose gap in the COVAX program. Only a limited amount of vaccines are distributed efficiently, and the shortfall of vaccines in South America and parts of Asia are due to a lack of expedient donations by richer nations. International organisations have pointed at Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Maldives as well as Argentina and Brazil, and some parts of the Caribbean as problem areas, where vaccines are in short supply. UNICEF has also been critical towards proposed donations of Moderna and Pfizer vaccines since these are not slated for delivery until the second half of 2021, or early 2022.[36]


COVAX-AMC donors as of 5 August 2021[37]

(million USD)
DonorContributions
 United States3,500
 Germany1,070
 Japan1,000
 United Kingdom733
European Union European Commission489
 Italy470
 Canada384
 Sweden295
 France242
 South Korea210
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation206
  Switzerland162
 Saudi Arabia150
 Norway141
 Spain122
 Australia100
 China100
 Netherlands83
 Kuwait50
Anonymous Swiss Foundation40

embed Mastercard

32
Reed Hastings and Patty Quillin30
KSRelief / Gamers Without Borders26
MTN Group25
Gates Philanthropy Partners18
 Denmark16
 Finland12
 New Zealand12
 Qatar10
Shell10
Twilio10
 Iceland6
 Austria6
WHO Foundation-Go Give One Campaign6
 Singapore5
 Belgium5
 Ireland5
Cisco5
Google.org5
Procter & Gamble5
TikTok5
TransferWise5
Visa Foundation5
Soccer Aid4
Thistledown Foundation4
Analog Devices Foundation3
 Greece2
 Luxembourg2
Anonymous Donor2
Asia Philanthropy Circle2
UBS Optimus Foundation2
Vaccine Forward Initiative2
Portuguese Private Sector1.8
 Philippines1.1
Basque Government1
 Colombia1
 Oman1
 Croatia1
 Poland1
 Portugal1
 Vietnam1

embed Coca-Cola Foundation

1
Salesforce1
Seadream Family Foundation1
Stanley Black & Decker1
Spotify1
Toyota Tsusho1
Total9,825

Canada

Canada pledged $220 million worth of vaccines on 25 September 2020 to join as a self-financing contributor to COVAX. On 14 June, Canada doubled its pledge to add an additional 13 million doses of AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, and NovaVax vaccines. This was in addition to the over 80 million available to purchase through financial contribution.

China

China joined COVAX on 9 October 2020.[38] The Sinopharm BIBP vaccine and CoronaVac (by Sinovac Biotech) are Chinese-developed vaccines approved by the WHO for distribution through COVAX.[39] By July 2021, GAVI had signed advanced purchase agreements for 170 million doses of the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine, 350 million doses of CoronaVac, and 414 million doses of SCB-2019, another vaccine in Phase III trials.[40][41] On Aug. 8, 2021, China pledges US$ 100 million towards equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines for lower-income countries, brings the total raised for the Covax to nearly US$ 10 billion [42] Further, China's Leader Xi Jinping pledges 2 billion vaccines globally through year’s end. According to AP News, China has already delivered 770 million doses to foreign countries since September 2020 (as of Aug 6, 2021) [43]

India

India joined COVAX through a membership with the GAVI alliance.[44] The Serum Institute of India is the main producer for the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine, up to 700 million doses were expected for 2021. After initial deliveries to North Africa, West Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East in March and April 2021, India began to limit vaccine exports until the end of 2021, due to high domestic demand.[45][46][47] Based on the high infection rates in India, COVAX was projected to deliver only 145 million doses instead of 240 million by May 2021. Vaccine production was also negatively affected because of a ban by the U.S. on the export of key raw materials.[48] In September 2021, the Government of India announced the resumption of vaccines exports from October 2021 onwards since it had quadrupled its production and only excess supplies would be exported.[49]

European Union

As of November 2020, the European Union (EU) and EU members have pledged €870 million to COVAX.[50] The European Commission (EC) brought the EU into COVAX on 31 August 2020 and pledged €400 million in guarantees,[51] but did not state how this money would be paid out or its conditions.[52] The EC pledged a further €100 million from the 11th European Development Fund to COVAX via a grant to GAVI on 12 November. Individual EU member states have also made additional pledges; France donated an additional €100 million, Spain an additional €50 million, and Finland an additional €2 million.[50]

According to the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, Germany has joined COVAX through the European Union and has pledged €300 million for the treatment of COVID-19 in developing nations bringing the total EU contribution to over €2.2 billion.[53]

On the consilium site, Team Europe reported a €2.47 billion donation.[54]

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has provided £548 million to Covax.[55] The United Kingdom was the biggest single donor to COVAX-AMC until being overtaken by the European Union and the United States.[56]

United States

Vaccines donated by the United States are transported in Ecuador in 2021

As part of its America First policy,[57] the Trump administration stated that it would not join COVAX because of its association with the WHO,[58][59] from which it had begun a year-long withdrawal process on 6 July 2020.[60]

After Joe Biden was elected president in the 2020 election, he announced that the United States would remain in the WHO and would join COVAX on 20 January 2021. This reversal of American policy (announced by Anthony Fauci, Chief Medical Advisor to the President) was welcomed globally.[61][62] On 19 February, the US pledged $4 billion, making it the single largest contributor to the fund.[63]

On 16 July 2021, the African Union (AU)/African Vaccine Acquisition Trust (AVAT), COVAX and the United States government announced the donation of 25 million Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines to 49 African countries. Afreximbank put in place a US$2 billion Advance Procurement Commitment (APC) Guarantee to obtain 400 million more doses of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, providing a total of 620 million doses to Africa by the end of 2021. The vaccines will be in part sourced from licensed production in South Africa,[64] and distributed by COVAX with the goal to vaccinate 60% of the population.[65]

United Arab Emirates

Since the UAE started producing Hayat-Vax in late March 2021, a rebranded version of the Chinese Sinopharm BIBP vaccine through a joint venture between Sinopharm and Group 42, the country has donated vaccine doses to several African countries.[66][67][68]

Private donors

It is possible for private donors to donate to COVAX through the "Go Give One" campaign. The WHO estimates the campaign's cost-effectiveness at one vaccine dose per US$7 donated.[69]

See also

References

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Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
The national flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Created according to the 2006 constitution : Son emblème est le drapeau bleu ciel, orné d’une étoile jaune dans le coin supérieur gauche et traversé en biais d’une bande rouge finement encadrée de jaune. (Its symbol is a sky blue flag, decorated with a yellow star in the upper left corner and crossed in the diagonal by a red strip with thin yellow borders) It seems to be identical, except for a lighter field hue, to the 1966–1971 flag.
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg
Flag of the Ivory Coast, written by Jon Harald Søby, modified by Zscout370. The colors match to what is reported at http://fotw.vexillum.com/flags/ci.html.
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Flag of Canada introduced in 1965, using Pantone colors. This design replaced the Canadian Red Ensign design.
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Flag of Malaysia – Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory)
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Flag of Rwanda. The flag ratio is 2:3 with the stripes being 2:1:1. Colors are the following officially: Pantone 299 C 2X (blue), RAL 6029 (green), RAL 1023 (yellow) and RAL 1003 (golden yellow). (As of 03/08/2010, the only color used is the Pantone 299 C, which is from here. The rest of the colors are RAL shades from here.)
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Made by author of Xramp, first uploaded by Denelson83 as Flag of Ecuador.svg, modifications by Husunqu.
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The national and official state flag of Haiti; arms obtained from http://www.webchantier.com/. The civil flag can be found at here.
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Flag of Papua New Guinea
Colours: Pantone 186 C for red and 116 C for yellow
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Flag of Laos
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
The flag of the Dominican Republic has a centered white cross that extends to the edges. This emblem is similar to the flag design and shows a bible, a cross of gold and 6 Dominican flags. There are branches of olive and palm around the shield and above on the ribbon is the motto "Dios,Patria!, Libertad" ("God, Country, Freedom") and to amiable freedom. The blue is said to stand for liberty, red for the fire and blood of the independence struggle and the white cross symbolized that God has not forgotten his people. "Republica Dominicana". The Dominican flag was designed by Juan Pablo Duarte, father of the national Independence of Dominican Republic. The first dominican flag was sewn by a young lady named Concepción Bona, who lived across the street of El Baluarte, monument where the patriots gathered to fight for the independence, the night of February 27th, 1844. Concepción Bona was helped by her first cousin María de Jesús Pina.
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The proportions of this flag are 3:2; however, there is no official definition for the correct proportions and also 5:3 is widely used.
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Flag of Mauritania, adopted in 2017. The National Assembly added red stripes to the top and bottom edges to represent “the blood shed by the martyrs of independence”.
Flag of New Zealand.svg
Flag of New Zealand. Specification: http://www.mch.govt.nz/nzflag/description.html , quoting New Zealand Gazette, 27 June 1902.
Flag of Jamaica.svg
Flag of Jamaica. “The sunshine, the land is green, and the people are strong and bold” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag. GOLD represents the natural wealth and beauty of sunlight; GREEN represents hope and agricultural resources; BLACK represents the strength and creativity of the people. The original symbolism, however, was "Hardships there are, but the land is green, and the sun shineth", where BLACK represented the hardships being faced.
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Flag of Albania
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Flag of Maldives. The colours used are Pantone 186 C for red and Pantone 348 C for green.
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Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe
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Flag of the Republic of Montenegro (adopted on 13 July 2004) - RGB colours, official 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag (Government of Montenegro) and Coat of arms (Government of Montenegro).
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The Flag of Dominica.
Flag of Nauru.svg
The national flag of Nauru. Official Pantone colours are: PMS 280 blue, PMS 123 yellow.
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Zscout370 (most recent), Licence: CC0
Flag of Tuvalu.

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Flag of the United Kingdom, Union Jack or Union Flag in a 1:2 ratio (typical on British warships and also the rank flag of an admiral of the fleet).
Flag of Europe.svg
The Flag of Europe is the flag and emblem of the European Union (EU) and Council of Europe (CoE). It consists of a circle of 12 golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. It was created in 1955 by the CoE and adopted by the EU, then the European Communities, in the 1980s.

The CoE and EU are distinct in membership and nature. The CoE is a 47-member international organisation dealing with human rights and rule of law, while the EU is a quasi-federal union of 27 states focused on economic integration and political cooperation. Today, the flag is mostly associated with the latter.

It was the intention of the CoE that the flag should come to represent Europe as a whole, and since its adoption the membership of the CoE covers nearly the entire continent. This is why the EU adopted the same flag. The flag has been used to represent Europe in sporting events and as a pro-democracy banner outside the Union.
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Flag of Norway. The colors approximately correspond to Pantone 200 C (deep red) and 281 C (dark blue).
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Flag of Australia, when congruence with this colour chart is required (i.e. when a "less bright" version is needed).

See Flag of Australia.svg for main file information.
Flag of Iceland.svg
The Flag of Iceland.
  • Horizontal aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:14;
  • Vertical aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:7.
Flag of Austria.svg
Flag of Austria with the red in the Austrian national colours which was official ordered within the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) in the characteristic “Pantone 032 C” (since May 2018 the Red is ordered in the characteristic “Pantone 186 C”.)
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The civil ensign and flag of Belgium. It is identical to Image:Flag of Belgium.svg except that it has a 2:3 ratio, instead of 13:15.
Flag of Ireland.svg
Note that the green portion of the flag was designed to represent the majority Catholic residents of the island, the orange side the minority Protestant and the white middle part peace and harmony between them.
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Flag of Greece (since 1978) and Naval Ensign of Greece (since 1828)
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It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Portugal.svg
Flag of Portugal, created by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), officially adopted by Portuguese government in June 30th 1911 (in use since about November 1910). Color shades matching the RGB values officially reccomended here. (PMS values should be used for direct ink or textile; CMYK for 4-color offset printing on paper; this is an image for screen display, RGB should be used.)
The United States Delivers COVID-19 Vaccine Doses to Ghana (51704049970).jpg
The United States delivers over 1.7 million COVID-19 vaccine doses to Ghana on November 23, 2021. [U.S. government photo/ Public Domain]
Mastercard 2019 logo.svg
Mastercard logo used since January 7, 2019.
The United States Delivers COVID-19 Vaccine Doses to Bhutan (51307679170).png
The United States delivers 500,000 Moderna COVID-19 vaccine doses to Bhutan on July 12, 2021. [Photo courtesy of Kuensel]
The United States Delivers COVID-19 Vaccine Doses to Ecuador (51296988809).jpg
The United States delivers two million Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine doses to Ecuador on July 1, 2021. [U.S. government photo/ Public Domain]
Coca-Cola logo.svg
Wordmark of Coca-Cola, trademarked by The Coca-Cola Company, but because the logo is simply "Coca-Cola", there is no proof as to who originally wrote it. Master Penman Louis Madarasz (1859-1910) was said to have told one of his students that the work was his own. When the work was created, Madarasz had a mail order business, could have illustrated the logo, and the writing style is similar to his. In the book "An Elegant Hand" by William E Henning, it states that Frank Mason Robinson, who was the bookkeeper of the firm, originated the name Coca-Cola and specified that it be written in Spencerian Script. In a 1914 court case, Robinson testified that he was "practically the originator" and that "some engraver here by the name of Frank Ridge was brought into it". Thus the logo itself has no currently copyrightable authorship and its exact creator is unknown. In any case, the trademarked Coca-Cola logo was published numerous times in the United States (its country of origin) before 1923, and so is now ineligible for copyright.