Bronze

Various examples of bronze artworks throughout history

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminum, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as strength, ductility, or machinability.

The archaeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in India and western Eurasia is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BCE, and to the early 3rd millennium BCE in China;[1] elsewhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BCE and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BCE, although bronze continued to be much more widely used than it is in modern times.

Because historical pieces were often made of brasses (copper and zinc) and bronzes with different compositions, modern museum and scholarly descriptions of older objects increasingly use the generalized term "copper alloy" instead.

[2]

Etymology

Houmuwu ding (Chinese: 后母戊鼎; pinyin: Hòumǔwù dǐng), the heaviest Chinese ritual bronze ever found; 1300–1046 BCE; National Museum of China (Beijing). This ding's name is based on the inscription in the bronze interior wall, which reads Hòumǔwù, meaning 'Queen Mother Wu'

The word bronze (1730–40) is borrowed from Middle French bronze (1511), itself borrowed from Italian bronzo 'bell metal, brass' (13th century, transcribed in Medieval Latin as bronzium) from either:

  • bróntion, back-formation from Byzantine Greek brontēsíon (βροντησίον, 11th century), perhaps from Brentḗsion (Βρεντήσιον, 'Brindisi', reputed for its bronze;[3][4] or originally:
  • in its earliest form from Old Persian birinj, biranj (برنج, 'brass', modern berenj) and piring (پرنگ) 'copper',[5] from which also came Georgian brinǯi (ბრინჯი ), Turkish pirinç, and Armenian brinj (բրինձ), also meaning 'bronze'.

History

A hoard of bronze socketed axes from the Bronze Age found in modern Germany. This was the top tool of the period, and also seems to have been used as a store of value.
Roman bronze nails with magical signs and inscriptions, 3rd-4th century AD.

The discovery of bronze enabled people to create metal objects that were harder and more durable than previously possible. Bronze tools, weapons, armor, and building materials such as decorative tiles were harder and more durable than their stone and copper ("Chalcolithic") predecessors. Initially, bronze was made out of copper and arsenic, forming arsenic bronze, or from naturally or artificially mixed ores of copper and arsenic.[6]

The earliest artifacts so far known coming from the Iranian plateau, in the 5th millennium BCE, and are smelted from native arsenical copper and copper-arsenides, such as algodonite and domeykite.[7] The earliest tin-copper-alloy artifact has been dated to c. 4650 BCE, in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik (Serbia), and believed to have been smelted from a natural tin-copper ore, Stannite.[8] Other early examples date to the late 4th millennium BCE in Egypt, Susa (Iran) and some ancient sites in China, Luristan (Iran),[7] Tepe Sialk (Iran),[7] Mundigak (Afganistan),[7] and Mesopotamia (Iraq).

Tin bronze was superior to arsenic bronze in that the alloying process could be more easily controlled, and the resulting alloy was stronger and easier to cast. Also, unlike arsenic, metallic tin and fumes from tin refining are not toxic.

Tin became the major non-copper ingredient of bronze in the late 3rd millennium BCE.[9]

Ores of copper and the far rarer tin are not often found together (exceptions include Cornwall in Britain, one ancient site in Thailand and one in Iran), so serious bronze work has always involved trade. Tin sources and trade in ancient times had a major influence on the development of cultures. In Europe, a major source of tin was the British deposits of ore in Cornwall, which were traded as far as Phoenicia in the eastern Mediterranean.

In many parts of the world, large hoards of bronze artifacts are found, suggesting that bronze also represented a store of value and an indicator of social status. In Europe, large hoards of bronze tools, typically socketed axes (illustrated above), are found, which mostly show no signs of wear. With Chinese ritual bronzes, which are documented in the inscriptions they carry and from other sources, the case is clear. These were made in enormous quantities for elite burials, and also used by the living for ritual offerings.

Transition to iron

Though bronze is generally harder than wrought iron, with Vickers hardness of 60–258 vs. 30–80,[10] the Bronze Age gave way to the Iron Age after a serious disruption of the tin trade: the population migrations of around 1200–1100 BCE reduced the shipping of tin around the Mediterranean and from Britain, limiting supplies and raising prices.[11] As the art of working in iron improved, iron became cheaper and improved in quality. As cultures advanced from hand-wrought iron to machine-forged iron (typically made with trip hammers powered by water), blacksmiths learned how to make steel. Steel is stronger than bronze and holds a sharper edge longer.[12]

Bronze was still used during the Iron Age, and has continued in use for many purposes to the modern day.

Composition

Bronze bell with a visible crystallite structure.

There are many different bronze alloys, but typically modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin.[13] Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4–5% tin are used to make coins, springs, turbines and blades. Historical "bronzes" are highly variable in composition, as most metalworkers probably used whatever scrap was on hand; the metal of the 12th-century English Gloucester Candlestick is bronze containing a mixture of copper, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, iron, antimony, arsenic with an unusually large amount of silver – between 22.5% in the base and 5.76% in the pan below the candle. The proportions of this mixture suggest that the candlestick was made from a hoard of old coins. The 13th-century Benin Bronzes are in fact brass, and the 12th-century Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass.

In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were commonly used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in casting; and "mild bronze", about 6% tin, was hammered from ingots to make sheets. Bladed weapons were mostly cast from classic bronze, while helmets and armor were hammered from mild bronze.

Commercial bronze (90% copper and 10% zinc) and architectural bronze (57% copper, 3% lead, 40% zinc) are more properly regarded as brass alloys because they contain zinc as the main alloying ingredient. They are commonly used in architectural applications.[14][15]

Plastic bronze contains a significant quantity of lead, which makes for improved plasticity[16] possibly used by the ancient Greeks in their ship construction.[17]

Silicon bronze has a composition of Si: 2.80–3.80%, Mn: 0.50–1.30%, Fe: 0.80% max., Zn: 1.50% max., Pb: 0.05% max., Cu: balance.[18]

Other bronze alloys include aluminum bronze, phosphor bronze, manganese bronze, bell metal, arsenical bronze, speculum metal and cymbal alloys.

Properties

Bronzes are typically ductile alloys, considerably less brittle than cast iron. Typically bronze oxidizes only superficially; once a copper oxide (eventually becoming copper carbonate) layer is formed, the underlying metal is protected from further corrosion. This can be seen on statues from the Hellenistic period. However, if copper chlorides are formed, a corrosion-mode called "bronze disease" will eventually completely destroy it.[19] Copper-based alloys have lower melting points than steel or iron and are more readily produced from their constituent metals. They are generally about 10 percent denser than steel, although alloys using aluminum or silicon may be slightly less dense. Bronze is a better conductor of heat and electricity than most steels. The cost of copper-base alloys is generally higher than that of steels but lower than that of nickel-base alloys.

Copper and its alloys have a huge variety of uses that reflect their versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. Some common examples are the high electrical conductivity of pure copper, low-friction properties of bearing bronze (bronze that has a high lead content— 6–8%), resonant qualities of bell bronze (20% tin, 80% copper), and resistance to corrosion by seawater of several bronze alloys.

The melting point of bronze varies depending on the ratio of the alloy components and is about 950 °C (1,742 °F). Bronze is usually nonmagnetic, but certain alloys containing iron or nickel may have magnetic properties.

Uses

Bronze weight with an inscribed imperial order, Qin dynasty
Industrial products of the Bunting Brass and Bronze Company, 1912

Bronze, or bronze-like alloys and mixtures, were used for coins over a longer period. Bronze was especially suitable for use in boat and ship fittings prior to the wide employment of stainless steel owing to its combination of toughness and resistance to salt water corrosion. Bronze is still commonly used in ship propellers and submerged bearings.

In the 20th century, silicon was introduced as the primary alloying element, creating an alloy with wide application in industry and the major form used in contemporary statuary. Sculptors may prefer silicon bronze because of the ready availability of silicon bronze brazing rod, which allows color-matched repair of defects in castings. Aluminum is also used for the structural metal aluminum bronze.

Bronze parts are tough and typically used for bearings, clips, electrical connectors and springs.

Bronze also has low friction against dissimilar metals, making it important for cannons prior to modern tolerancing, where iron cannonballs would otherwise stick in the barrel.[20] It is still widely used today for springs, bearings, bushings, automobile transmission pilot bearings, and similar fittings, and is particularly common in the bearings of small electric motors. Phosphor bronze is particularly suited to precision-grade bearings and springs. It is also used in guitar and piano strings.

Unlike steel, bronze struck against a hard surface will not generate sparks, so it (along with beryllium copper) is used to make hammers, mallets, wrenches and other durable tools to be used in explosive atmospheres or in the presence of flammable vapors. Bronze is used to make bronze wool for woodworking applications where steel wool would discolor oak.

Phosphor bronze is used for ships' propellers, musical instruments, and electrical contacts.[21] Bearings are often made of bronze for its friction properties. It can be impregnated with oil to make the proprietary Oilite and similar material for bearings. Aluminum bronze is hard and wear-resistant, and is used for bearings and machine tool ways.[22]

Sculptures

Bronze is widely used for casting bronze sculptures. Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mould. Then, as the bronze cools, it shrinks a little, making it easier to separate from the mould.[23]

The Assyrian king Sennacherib (704–681 BCE) claims to have been the first to cast monumental bronze statues (of up to 30 tonnes) using two-part moulds instead of the lost-wax method.[24]

Bronze statues were regarded as the highest form of sculpture in Ancient Greek art, though survivals are few, as bronze was a valuable material in short supply in the Late Antique and medieval periods. Many of the most famous Greek bronze sculptures are known through Roman copies in marble, which were more likely to survive.

In India, bronze sculptures from the Kushana (Chausa hoard) and Gupta periods (Brahma from Mirpur-Khas, Akota Hoard, Sultanganj Buddha) and later periods (Hansi Hoard) have been found.[25] Indian Hindu artisans from the period of the Chola empire in Tamil Nadu used bronze to create intricate statues via the lost-wax casting method with ornate detailing depicting the deities of Hinduism. The art form survives to this day, with many silpis, craftsmen, working in the areas of Swamimalai and Chennai.

In antiquity other cultures also produced works of high art using bronze. For example: in Africa, the bronze heads of the Kingdom of Benin; in Europe, Grecian bronzes typically of figures from Greek mythology; in east Asia, Chinese ritual bronzes of the Shang and Zhou dynasty—more often ceremonial vessels but including some figurine examples. Bronze sculptures, although known for their longevity, still undergo microbial degradation; such as from certain species of yeasts.[26]

Bronze continues into modern times as one of the materials of choice for monumental statuary.

Mirrors

Before it became possible to produce glass with acceptably flat surfaces, bronze was a standard material for mirrors. The reflecting surface was typically made slightly convex so that the whole face could be seen in a small mirror. Bronze was used for this purpose in many parts of the world, probably based on independent discoveries.

Bronze mirrors survive from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (2040–1750 BCE). In Europe, the Etruscans were making bronze mirrors in the sixth century BCE, and Greek and Roman mirrors followed the same pattern. Although other materials such as speculum metal had come into use, bronze mirrors were still being made in Japan in the eighteenth century AD.

Musical instruments

Chinese bells:Bianzhong of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Spring and Autumn period (476–221 BCE)
Singing bowls from the 16th to 18th centuries. Annealed bronze continues to be made in the Himalayas

Bronze is the preferred metal for bells in the form of a high tin bronze alloy known colloquially as bell metal, which is about 23% tin.

Nearly all professional cymbals are made from bronze, which gives a desirable balance of durability and timbre. Several types of bronze are used, commonly B20 bronze, which is roughly 20% tin, 80% copper, with traces of silver, or the tougher B8 bronze made from 8% tin and 92% copper. As the tin content in a bell or cymbal rises, the timbre drops.[27]

Bronze is also used for the windings of steel and nylon strings of various stringed instruments such as the double bass, piano, harpsichord, and guitar. Bronze strings are commonly reserved on pianoforte for the lower pitch tones, as they possess a superior sustain quality to that of high-tensile steel.[28]

Bronzes of various metallurgical properties are widely used in struck idiophones around the world, notably bells, singing bowls, gongs, cymbals, and other idiophones from Asia. Examples include Tibetan singing bowls, temple bells of many sizes and shapes, gongs, Javanese gamelan, and other bronze musical instruments. The earliest bronze archeological finds in Indonesia date from 1–2 BCE, including flat plates probably suspended and struck by a wooden or bone mallet.[28][29] Ancient bronze drums from Thailand and Vietnam date back 2,000 years. Bronze bells from Thailand and Cambodia date back to 3,600 BCE.

Some companies are now making saxophones from phosphor bronze (3.5 to 10% tin and up to 1% phosphorus content).[30] Bell bronze/B20 is used to make the tone rings of many professional model banjos.[31] The tone ring is a heavy (usually 3 lbs.) folded or arched metal ring attached to a thick wood rim, over which a skin, or most often, a plastic membrane (or head) is stretched – it is the bell bronze that gives the banjo a crisp powerful lower register and clear bell-like treble register.

Biblical references

There are over 125 references to bronze in the Bible. In the King James Version, there is no use of the word 'bronze' and 'brass' is used instead. Modern translations, however, use 'bronze'. Bronze was used widely in the Tabernacle for items such as the bronze altar (Exodus Ch.27), bronze laver (Exodus Ch.30), utensils, and mirror (Exodus Ch.38). It was mentioned in the account of Moses holding up a bronze snake on a pole in Numbers Ch.21. In First Kings, it is mentioned that Hiram was very skilled in working with bronze, and he made many furnishings for Solomon's Temple including pillars, capitals, stands, wheels, bowls, and plates, some of which were highly decorative (see I King 7:13-47). Bronze was also widely used as battle armor and helmet, as in the battle of David and Goliath in I Samuel 17:5-6;38 (also see II Chron. 12:10).

Coins and medals

Bronze has also been used in coins; most "copper" coins are actually bronze, with about 4 percent tin and 1 percent zinc.[32]

As with coins, bronze has been used in the manufacture of various types of medals for centuries, and are known in contemporary times for being awarded for third place in sporting competitions and other events. The later usage was in part attributed to the choices of gold, silver and bronze to represent the first three Ages of Man in Greek mythology: the Golden Age, when men lived among the gods; the Silver age, where youth lasted a hundred years; and the Bronze Age, the era of heroes, and was first adopted at the 1904 Summer Olympics. At the 1896 event, silver was awarded to winners and bronze to runners-up, while at 1900 other prizes were given rather than medals.

See also

  • Art object
  • Bell founding
  • Bronze and brass ornamental work
  • Bronzing
  • Chinese bronze inscriptions
  • Dezincification resistant brass
  • French Empire mantel clock
  • List of copper alloys
  • Ormolu
  • Seagram Building
  • UNS C69100
  • Yoruba art

References

  1. ^ Robert L. Thorp, China in the Early Bronze Age: Shang Civilization, University of Pennsylvania Press (2013).
  2. ^ "British Museum, "Scope Note" for "copper alloy"". British Museum. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  3. ^ Henry and Renée Kahane, "Byzantium's Impact on the West: The Linguistic Evidence", Illinois Classical Studies 06 (2) 1981, p. 395.
  4. ^ Originally M.P.E. Berthelot, "Sur le nom du bronze chez les alchimistes grecs", in Revue archéologique, 1888, pp. 294–98.
  5. ^ Originally Karl Lokotsch, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der europäischen Wörter orientalischen Ursprungs. (Heidelberg: Carl Winter's Universitätsbuchhandlung, 1927), p. 1657.
  6. ^ Tylecote, R.F. (1992). A History of Metallurgy, Second Edition. London: Maney Publishing, for the Institute of Materials. ISBN 978-1-902653-79-2. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  7. ^ a b c d Thornton, C.; Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C.; Liezers, M.; Young, S.M.M. (2002). "On pins and needles: tracing the evolution of copper-based alloying at Tepe Yahya, Iran, via ICP-MS analysis of Common-place items". Journal of Archaeological Science. 29 (12): 1451–60. doi:10.1006/jasc.2002.0809.
  8. ^ Radivojević, Miljana; Rehren, Thilo (December 2013). "Tainted ores and the rise of tin bronzes in Eurasia, c. 6500 years ago". Antiquity Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 2014-02-05.
  9. ^ Kaufman, Brett. "Metallurgy and Ecological Change in the Ancient Near East". Backdirt: Annual Review. 2011: 86.
  10. ^ Smithells Metals Reference Book, 8th Edition, ch. 22
  11. ^ Clayton E. Cramer. What Caused The Iron Age? Archived 2010-12-28 at the Wayback Machine claytoncramer.com. December 10, 1995
  12. ^ Oleg D. Sherby and Jeffrey Wadsworth. Ancient Blacksmiths, the Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy Archived 2007-06-26 at the Wayback Machine. Tbermec 2000, Las Vegas, Nevada December 4–8, 2000. Retrieved on 2012-06-09.
  13. ^ Knapp, Brian. (1996) Copper, Silver and Gold. Reed Library, Australia.
  14. ^ "Copper alloys". Archived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  15. ^ "CDA UNS Standard Designations for Wrought and Cast Copper and Copper Alloys: Introduction". Archived from the original on 24 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  16. ^ plastic bronze definition of plastic bronze in the Free Online Encyclopedia
  17. ^ Adams, Jonathan R. (2012). "The Belgammel Ram, a Hellenistic-Roman BronzeProembolionFound off the Coast of Libya: test analysis of function, date and metallurgy, with a digital reference archive" (PDF). International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 42 (1): 60–75. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.738.4024. doi:10.1111/1095-9270.12001. S2CID 39339094. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-28.
  18. ^ ASTM B124 / B124M – 15. ASTM International. 2015.
  19. ^ "Bronze Disease, Archaeologies of the Greek Past". Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  20. ^ A. Alavudeen; N. Venkateshwaran; J. T. Winowlin Jappes (1 January 2006). A Textbook of Engineering Materials and Metallurgy. Firewall Media. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-81-7008-957-5. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  21. ^ Resources: Standards & Properties – Copper & Copper Alloy Microstructures: Phosphor Bronze Archived 2015-12-08 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Resources: Standards & Properties – Copper & Copper Alloy Microstructures: Aluminum Bronzes Archived 2013-12-05 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Savage, George, A Concise History of Bronzes, Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. Publishers, New York, 1968 p. 17
  24. ^ for a translation of his inscription see the appendix in Stephanie Dalley, (2013) The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an elusive World Wonder traced, OUP.ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5
  25. ^ Indian bronze masterpieces: the great tradition: specially published for the Festival of India, Asharani Mathur, Sonya Singh, Festival of India, Brijbasi Printers, Dec 1, 1988
  26. ^ Francesca Cappitelli; Claudia Sorlini (2008). "Microorganisms Attack Synthetic Polymers in Items Representing Our Cultural Heritage". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 564–69. Bibcode:2008ApEnM..74..564C. doi:10.1128/AEM.01768-07. PMC 2227722. PMID 18065627.
  27. ^ Von Falkenhausen, Lothar (1993). Suspended Music: Chime-Bells in the Culture of Bronze Age China. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-520-07378-4. Archived from the original on 2016-05-26.
  28. ^ a b McCreight, Tim. Metals technic: a collection of techniques for metalsmiths. Brynmorgen Press, 1992.ISBN 0-9615984-3-3
  29. ^ LaPlantz, David. Jewelry – Metalwork 1991 Survey: Visions – Concepts – Communication: S. LaPlantz: 1991.ISBN 0-942002-05-9
  30. ^ "www.sax.co.uk". Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
  31. ^ Roger H. Siminoff, Siminoff's Luthiers Glossary (NY: Hal Leonard, 2008), 13.ISBN 9781423442929
  32. ^ "bronze | alloy". Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2016-07-21.

External links

Media files used on this page

Picsingingbowls.jpg
Author/Creator: en:User:Jfinsf, Licence: GFDL
Antique Himalayan bowls (text taken from accompanying text at en:Singing bowl)
Kushite Pharaoh MET DT8840.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Statuette, kneeling king
Mantel clock (pendule de chiminée) MET DT6546.jpg
Author/Creator: Joseph Baumhauer , Licence: CC0
French, Paris; Mantel clock; Horology
商青銅鼎-Ritual Tripod Cauldron (Ding) MET DP164965.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
China; Cauldron; Metalwork
Bull's head ornament for a lyre MET DP260070.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Sumerian; Lyre ornament; Metalwork-Ornaments
Bronze tripod base for a thymiaterion (incense burner) MET DP21045.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Etruscan, Vulci; Thymiaterion feet; Bronzes
Bronze statue of Eros sleeping MET DP123903.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Greek; Statue of Eros sleeping; Bronzes
Pair of firedogs (chenets) MET DP170900.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
French; Firedogs; Metalwork-Gilt Bronze
Liu Ding.jpg
Author/Creator: Mountain, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
A ding, Late Shang Dynasty, Shanghai Museum
Magical Roman Nails.jpg
Author/Creator: Insertcleverphrasehere, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Bronze nails with magical signs and inscriptions

Roman, 3rd-4th century AD Magical nails 'fixed' permanently with the power of magic. Some were used in shrines, others were probably driven into doors of houses to protect the household. The largest nail here has an incantation to the goddess Aremis, the others have words and signs borrowed from Paganism, Judaism and Christianity. GR 1856.12-26.886 GR 1873.8-20.147 GR 1975.9-2.8 GR 1873.8-20.146 BM Cat Bronzes 3191, 3193, 3192, 3194

(Above information from the info card at the British Museum, London. Items also held at the British Museum)
Buddha Offering Protection MET DP-15581-036.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
HouMuWuDingFullView.jpg
Author/Creator: Mlogic, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Houmuwu Ding, also known as Simuwu Ding (wine vessel) is the heaviest piece of bronze work found in China so far. It was made in the late Shang Dynasty at Anyang (c. 1300 – 1046 BC). Height 133 cm, width 112 cm, depth 79.2 cm, weight 875 kg. This picture shows the genuine piece when it was on display at the National Museum of China.
秦铜诏铁权04975.jpg
Author/Creator: Augoustoshai, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Iron Weight with Bronze Inscribed Board. Qin Dynasty. Unearthed from Qincheng District, Tianshui, Gansu Province in 1983.
ALB - Hortfund Groß Gaglow.jpg
Author/Creator: Wolfgang Sauber, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Brandenburg an der Havel ( Germany ). Archaeological Museum of the state of Brandenburg - Bronze Age Gallery: Bronze Age hoard of axes, from Groß Gaglow.
Bramble's views Toledo, Ohio - diamond anniversary 1837-1912 - DPLA - a4b983d79cfcfaaf7368d108fe048f73 (page 91) (cropped).jpg
A book showcasing the virtues, progress, values and opportunities of Toledo, Ohio in 1912. Monograph contains photographs of Toledo's streets, businesses, schools, parks, government buildings and other scenes.
Dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro.jpg
Author/Creator: Gary Todd, Licence: CC0
The Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-daro; 2300-1750 BC; bronze; height: 10.8 cm (4​1⁄4 in.); National Museum (New Delhi, India)
God of Cape Artemision 01.JPG
(c) I, Sailko, CC BY 2.5
God of Cape Artemision
Mantel clock ("Pendule Uranie") MET DP346441.jpg
Author/Creator: Jean-André Lepaute , Licence: CC0
French, Paris; Mantel clock; Horology
Winter MET DP162240.jpg
Author/Creator: Jean-Antoine Houdon , Licence: CC0
French, Paris; Statue; Sculpture-Bronze
Bianzhong.jpg
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Zzjgbc at Chinese Wikipedia., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Bianzhong - traditional chinese percussion instrument
Bronze bell with visible material structure.jpg
Author/Creator: Anonimski, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Bronze bell from an old clockwork, with clearly visible crystallite structure on the inside.
Pair of vases MET DP170824.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Chinese with French mounts; Vases; Metalwork-Gilt Bronze
Pair of mounted vases (vase à monter) MET DP102639.jpg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC0
French, Sèvres; Vase; Ceramics-Porcelain
Pair of firedogs MET DT8904.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
French; Firedogs; Metalwork-Gilt Bronze
Caldron MET cdi49-69-6s3.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
French or South Netherlandish; Cauldron; Metalwork-Bronze
Lamp MET DT10743.jpg
Author/Creator: Tiffany Studios , Licence: CC0
American; Lamp; Glass