Beagle Channel

Beagle Channel
090111-6 Above ビーグル水道.jpg Partial aerial view of Beagle Channel. The Chilean Navarino Island is seen in the top-right while the Argentine part of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is seen at the bottom-left.
Canalbeagle.png Beagle Channel, from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.
Location of the Beagle Channel.
Location of the Beagle Channel.
Beagle Channel
Location of the Beagle Channel.
Location of the Beagle Channel.
Beagle Channel
Location of the Beagle Channel.
Location of the Beagle Channel.
Beagle Channel
LocationPacific OceansAtlantic Ocean
Coordinates54°52′32″S 68°8′11″W / 54.87556°S 68.13639°W / -54.87556; -68.13639Coordinates:54°52′32″S 68°8′11″W / 54.87556°S 68.13639°W / -54.87556; -68.13639
TypeStrait
Basin countriesChile
Argentina
Max. length150 miles (240 km)
Min. width3 miles (4.8 km)
SettlementsUshuaia, Argentina
Puerto Williams, Chile

Beagle Channel (Spanish: Canal del Beagle; Yahgan: Onašaga[1]) is a strait in the Tierra del Fuego Archipelago, on the extreme southern tip of South America between Chile and Argentina.[2] The channel separates the larger main island of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego from various smaller islands including the islands of Picton, Lennox and Nueva; Navarino; Hoste; Londonderry; and Stewart. The channel's eastern area forms part of the border between Chile and Argentina and the western area is entirely within Chile.

The Beagle Channel, the Straits of Magellan to the north, and the open-ocean Drake Passage to the south are the three navigable passages around South America between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Most commercial shipping uses the open-ocean Drake Passage.

The Beagle Channel is about 240 kilometres (130 nmi; 150 mi) long and 5 kilometres (3 nmi; 3 mi) wide at its narrowest point. It extends from Nueva Island in the east to Darwin Sound and Cook Bay in the Pacific Ocean in the west. Some 50 kilometres (27 nmi; 31 mi) from its western end, it divides into two branches, north and south of Gordon Island. The southwest branch between Hoste Island and Gordon Island enters Cook Bay. The northwest branch between Gordon Island and Isla Grande enters Darwin Sound, which connects to the Pacific Ocean by the O'Brien and Ballenero channels. The biggest settlement on the channel is Ushuaia in Argentina followed by Puerto Williams in Chile. These are amongst the southernmost settlements in the world.

According to a Selk'nam myth the channel was created alongside the Strait of Magellan and Fagnano Lake in places where slingshots fell on earth during Taiyín's fight with a witch who was said to have "retained the waters and the foods".[3]

Navigation

Although it is navigable by large ships, there are safer waters to the south (Drake Passage) and to the north (Strait of Magellan).[4] Under the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina, ships of other nations navigate with a Chilean pilot between the Strait of Magellan and Ushuaia through the Magdalena Channel and the Cockburn Channel to the Pacific Ocean, then by the Ballenero Channel, the O'Brien Channel and the northwest branch of the Beagle Channel.[5]

Islands

The Beagle Channel is between islands covering a much larger area; to the north lies Argentine-Chilean Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, to the south Hoste, Navarino, and Picton and Nueva, which were claimed by Argentina until 1984. The latter two lie at the bi-national eastern entrance to the channel while the western entrance is wholly inside Chile. The western entrance of Beagle Channel is divided by Gordon Island into two channels. Some minor islands exist inside the channel among them Snipe Islet and Gable Island. Except for eastern Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego and Gable Island all islands mentioned here belong to Chile.

History

HMS Beagle at Ponsonby Sound in the Beagle Channel, by the ship's artist Conrad Martens.[6]


The Yaghan peoples settled the islands along the Murray Channel approximately 10,000 years before present. There are notable archaeological sites indicating such early Yaghan settlement at locations such as Bahia Wulaia on Isla Navarino, site of the Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens.[7]

Naming and Darwin visit

The channel was named after the ship HMS Beagle during its first hydrographic survey of the coasts of the southern part of South America which lasted from 1826 to 1830. During that expedition, under the overall command of Commander Phillip Parker King, the Beagle's captain Pringle Stokes committed suicide and was replaced by captain Robert FitzRoy. The ship continued the survey in the second voyage of Beagle under the command of captain FitzRoy, who took Charles Darwin along as a self-funding supernumerary, giving him opportunities as an amateur naturalist. Darwin had his first sight of glaciers when they reached the channel on 29 January 1833, and wrote in his field notebook "It is scarcely possible to imagine anything more beautiful than the beryl-like blue of these glaciers, and especially as contrasted with the dead white of the upper expanse of snow."[8][9]

Beagle conflict

Several small islands (Picton, Lennox and Nueva) up to the Cape Horn were the subject of the long-running Beagle conflict between Chile and Argentina; by the terms of a Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina they are now part of Chile.[4] From the 1950s to 1970s several incidents involving the Chilean and Argentine navies occurred in the waters of the Beagle Channel, for example the 1958 Snipe incident, the 1967 Cruz del Sur incident and the shelling of Quidora the same year. See List of incidents during the Beagle conflict.

Beagle Channel in the Fine Arts

Beagle Channel seen from above Puerto Williams

Fauna

Beagle Channel is a prominent area to watch rare, endemic dolphins.[12] Wildlife seen in the channel include the South American sea lion, South American fur seal, Peale's dolphin, dusky dolphin, Commerson's dolphin, Risso's dolphin, Burmeister's porpoise, spectacled porpoise, Magellanic penguin, southern rockhopper penguin, upland goose, kelp goose, crested duck, great grebe, flying steamerduck, flightless steamerduck, black-faced ibis, black-crowned night-heron, imperial shag, rock shag, Neotropic cormorant, black-chested buzzard-eagle, turkey vulture, Andean condor, crested caracara, chimango caracara, white-throated caracara, striated caracara, Magellanic oystercatcher, blackish oystercatcher, southern lapwing, rufous-chested plover, Baird's sandpiper, white-rumped sandpiper, brown-hooded gull, dolphin gull, South American tern, kelp gull, Chilean skua, Magellanic diving-petrel, and the common diving-petrel.[13]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Piepke, Joachim G.; Striegel, Angelika (2017). "The Last Yagan: Reminiscences of Cristina Calderón from Tierra del Fuego". Anthropos. 112 (2): 562–568. doi:10.5771/0257-9774-2017-2-562. ISSN 0257-9774. JSTOR 44791391. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  2. ^ Sergio Zagier, 2006
  3. ^ Montecino Aguirre, Sonia (2015). "Canal de Beagle". Mitos de Chile: Enciclopedia de seres, apariciones y encantos (in Spanish). Catalonia. p. 125. ISBN 978-956-324-375-8.
  4. ^ a b Laudy, Mark (2000). "The Vatican Mediation of the Beagle Channel Dispute: Crisis Intervention and Forum Building". In Greenberg, Melanie C.; Barton, John H.; McGuinness, Margaret E. (eds.). Words Over War:Mediations and Arbitration to Prevent Deadly Conflict. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8476-9893-6.
  5. ^ Peace and Friendship Treaty of 1984
  6. ^ Keynes 2001, p. 227
  7. ^ C. Michael Hogan, 2008
  8. ^ Charles Darwin, Voyage of the Beagle (New York: Collier, 1909), chapter 10, p. 240.
  9. ^ Herbert, Sandra (1999). "An 1830s View from Outside Switzerland: Charles Darwin on the "Beryl Blue" Glaciers of Tierra del Fuego". Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. pp. 92, 339–46. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
  10. ^ Richard Keynes: The Beagle Record: Selections from the Original Pictorial Records and Written Accounts of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, 1979, CUP ArchivesISBN 0-521-21822-5
  11. ^ "A Voyage of Sketches: The Art of Conrad Martens". Cambridge Digital Library. 2014. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11 – via www.youtube.com.
  12. ^ "Scotia Sea: Part 5. The Great Marine Mammals".
  13. ^ Lowen, James (2011). Antarctic Wildlife: A Visitor's Guide. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 41–43, 78–110. ISBN 9780691150338.

Further reading

Media files used on this page

Beagle-canal-panorama.jpg
Author/Creator: Maelcum, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Beagle-Kanal von oberhalb Puerto Williams (rechts, unten) gesehen. Beagle Channel seen from above Puerto Williams (right, down). Canal Beagle visto desde encima de Puerto Williams (a la derecha, abajo)
Farofindelmundo2.JPG
Author/Creator: Calyponte, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Faro Les Éclaireurs -- erroneously called "Lighthouse at the End of the World". Located at the Les Éclaireurs islet on Beagle Channel, Argentina
Beagle Channel - La Isla de Los Lobos.jpg
Author/Creator: IlyaHaykinson, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Some sea lions on an islet in the middle of the Beagle Channel between Argentina and Chile
090111-6 Above ビーグル水道.jpg
Author/Creator: Ted Wakabayashi, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Beagle channel (East) above Ushuaia
South America laea relief location map.jpg
Author/Creator: Uwe Dedering, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Relief location map of SouthAmerica.
  • Projection: Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection.
  • Area of interest:
  • N: 25.0°
  • S: -60.0°
  • W: -90.0°
  • E: -30.0°
  • Projection center:
  • NS: -17.5°
  • WE: -60.0°
  • GMT projection: -JA-60/-17.5/20.0c
  • GMT region: -R-111.71735564517205/-55.20793284837989/-29.863824948966922/25.8980715779886r
  • GMT region for grdcut: -R-112.0/-63.0/-8.0/26.0r
  • Relief: SRTM30plus.
  • Made with Natural Earth. Free vector and raster map data @ naturalearthdata.com.
Beagle-Kanal Ushuaia.JPG
Author/Creator: Zuarin, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Aerial photography of the Beagle Channel, in the Background Ushuaia (Province Tierra del Fuego), Argentina. (from an airplane)
HMS Beagle by Conrad Martens.jpg
HMS Beagle at Tierra del Fuego (painted by Conrad Martens). HMS Beagle in the seaways of Tierra del Fuego, painting by Conrad Martens during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), from The Illustrated Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, abridged and illustrated by Richard Leakey ISBN 0-571-14586-8.
Canalbeagle.png
Author/Creator: Createaccount, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Map of the Beagle Channel
Relief Map of Chile.jpg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Location map of Chile