August 23

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August 23 in recent years
  2021 (Monday)
  2020 (Sunday)
  2019 (Friday)
  2018 (Thursday)
  2017 (Wednesday)
  2016 (Tuesday)
  2015 (Sunday)
  2014 (Saturday)
  2013 (Friday)
  2012 (Thursday)

August 23 is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 130 days remain until the end of the year.

In ancient astrology, it is a cusp day between Virgo and Leo.

Events

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

Births

Pre-1600

1601–1900

  • 1623Stanisław Lubieniecki, Polish astronomer, theologian, and historian (d. 1675)
  • 1724Abraham Yates, Jr., American lawyer and civil servant (d. 1796)
  • 1741Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, French admiral and explorer (d. 1788)
  • 1754Louis XVI of France (d. 1793)
  • 1769Georges Cuvier, French biologist and academic (d. 1832)
  • 1783William Tierney Clark, English engineer, designed the Hammersmith Bridge (d. 1852)
  • 1785Oliver Hazard Perry, American commander (d. 1819)
  • 1805Anton von Schmerling, Austrian judge and politician (d. 1893)
  • 1814James Roosevelt Bayley, American archbishop (d. 1877)
  • 1829Moritz Cantor, German mathematician and historian (d. 1920)
  • 1843William Southam, Canadian publisher (d. 1932)
  • 1846Alexander Milne Calder, Scottish-American sculptor (d. 1923)
  • 1847Sarah Frances Whiting, American physicist and astronomer (d. 1927)
  • 1849William Ernest Henley, English poet and critic (d. 1903)
  • 1850John Cockburn, Scottish-Australian politician, 18th Premier of South Australia (d. 1929)
  • 1852Radha Gobinda Kar, Indian physician and philanthropist (d. 1918)
  • 1852 – Clímaco Calderón, Colombian lawyer and politician, 15th President of Colombia (d. 1913)
  • 1852 – Arnold Toynbee, English economist and historian (d. 1883)[5]
  • 1854Moritz Moszkowski, Polish-German pianist and composer (d. 1925)
  • 1864Eleftherios Venizelos, Greek lawyer, jurist, and politician, 93rd Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1936)
  • 1867Edgar de Wahl, Ukrainian-Estonian linguist and academic (d. 1948)
  • 1868Edgar Lee Masters, American lawyer, author, poet, and playwright (d. 1950)
  • 1872Tanguturi Prakasam, Indian lawyer and politician, 1st Chief Minister of Andhra (d. 1957)
  • 1875William Eccles, English physicist and engineer (d. 1966)
  • 1875 – Eugene Lanceray, Russian painter and sculptor (d. 1946)
  • 1877István Medgyaszay, Hungarian architect and academic (d. 1959)
  • 1880Alexander Grin, Russian sailor and author (d. 1932)
  • 1883Jonathan M. Wainwright, American general, Medal of Honor recipient (d. 1953)
  • 1884Will Cuppy, American author and critic (d. 1949)
  • 1884 – Ogden L. Mills, American captain, lawyer, and politician, 50th United States Secretary of the Treasury (d. 1937)
  • 1890Harry Frank Guggenheim, American businessman and publisher, co-founded Newsday (d. 1971)
  • 1891Roy Agnew, Australian pianist and composer (d. 1944)
  • 1891 – Minna Craucher, Finnish socialite and spy (d. 1932)[6][7]
  • 1894John Auden, English solicitor, deputy coroner and a territorial soldier (d. 1959)
  • 1897Henry F. Pringle, American historian and journalist (d. 1958)
  • 1900Frances Adaskin, Canadian pianist (d. 2001)
  • 1900 – Ernst Krenek, Austrian-American composer and educator (d. 1991)
  • 1900 – Malvina Reynolds, American singer-songwriter and activist (d. 1978)

1901–present

  • 1901Guy Bush, American baseball player and manager (d. 1985)
  • 1901 – John Sherman Cooper, American captain, lawyer, and politician, 2nd United States Ambassador to East Germany (d. 1991)
  • 1904William Primrose, Scottish viola player and educator (d. 1982)
  • 1905Ernie Bushmiller, American cartoonist (d. 1982)
  • 1905 – Constant Lambert, English composer and conductor (d. 1951)
  • 1906Zoltan Sarosy, Hungarian-Canadian chess master (d. 2017)
  • 1908Hannah Frank, Scottish sculptor and illustrator (d. 2008)
  • 1909Syd Buller, English cricketer and umpire (d. 1970)
  • 1910Lonny Frey, American baseball player and soldier (d. 2009)
  • 1910 – Giuseppe Meazza, Italian footballer and manager (d. 1979)
  • 1911Betty Robinson, American sprinter (d. 1999)[8]
  • 1912Gene Kelly, American actor, singer, and dancer (d. 1996)[9]
  • 1912 – Igor Troubetzkoy, Russian aristocrat and race car driver (d. 2008)
  • 1913Bob Crosby, American swing singer and bandleader (d. 1993)
  • 1917Tex Williams, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1985)
  • 1919Vladimir Abramovich Rokhlin, Azerbaijani mathematician and theorist (d. 1984)
  • 1921Kenneth Arrow, American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2017)
  • 1921 – Sam Cook, English cricketer and umpire (d. 1996)
  • 1922Nazik Al-Malaika, Iraqi poet and academic (d. 2007)
  • 1922 – Jean Darling, American actress and singer (d. 2015)
  • 1922 – George Kell, American baseball player and sportscaster (d. 2009)
  • 1924Ephraim Kishon, Israeli author, screenwriter, and director (d. 2005)
  • 1924 – Robert Solow, American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1925Robert Mulligan, American director and producer (d. 2008)
  • 1926Clifford Geertz, American anthropologist and academic (d. 2006)
  • 1926 – Gyula Hernádi, Hungarian author and screenwriter (d. 2005)
  • 1927Dick Bruna, Dutch author and illustrator (d. 2017)
  • 1927 – Allan Kaprow, American painter and author (d. 2006)
  • 1927 – Martial Solal, Algerian-French pianist and composer
  • 1928Marian Seldes, American actress (d. 2014)
  • 1929Vladimir Beekman, Estonian poet and translator (d. 2009)
  • 1929 – Zoltán Czibor, Hungarian footballer (d. 1997)
  • 1929 – Vera Miles, American actress
  • 1929 – Peter Thomson, Australian golfer (d. 2018)
  • 1930Michel Rocard, French civil servant and politician, 160th Prime Minister of France (d. 2016)
  • 1931Barbara Eden, American actress and singer
  • 1931 – Hamilton O. Smith, American microbiologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1932Houari Boumediene, Algerian colonel and politician, 2nd President of Algeria (d. 1978)
  • 1932 – Enos Nkala, Zimbabwean soldier and politician, Zimbabwean Minister of Defence (d. 2013)
  • 1932 – Mark Russell, American comedian and pianist
  • 1933Robert Curl, American chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1933 – Don Talbot, Australian swim coach and administrator (d. 2020)
  • 1933 – Pete Wilson, American commander and politician, 36th Governor of California
  • 1934Sonny Jurgensen, American football player and sportscaster
  • 1935Roy Strong, English historian, curator, and author
  • 1936Rudy Lewis, American R&B singer (d. 1964)
  • 1936 – Henry Lee Lucas, American murderer (d. 2001)
  • 1938Giacomo Bini, Italian priest and missionary (d. 2014)
  • 1938 – Roger Greenaway, English singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1940Galen Rowell, American mountaineer and photographer (d. 2002)
  • 1940 – Richard Sanders, American actor and screenwriter
  • 1941Onora O'Neill, Baroness O'Neill of Bengarve, British philosopher, academic, and politician
  • 1942Nancy Richey, American tennis player
  • 1943Dale Campbell-Savours, Baron Campbell-Savours, English businessman and politician
  • 1943 – Nelson DeMille, American lieutenant and author
  • 1943 – Peter Lilley, English politician, Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills
  • 1943 – Pino Presti, Italian bass player, composer, conductor, and producer
  • 1944Antonia Novello, Puerto Rican-American physician and admiral, 14th Surgeon General of the United States
  • 1945Rayfield Wright, American football player and coach
  • 1946Keith Moon, English drummer, songwriter, and producer (d. 1978)
  • 1947Willy Russell, English playwright and composer
  • 1947 – Linda Thompson, English folk-rock singer-songwriter
  • 1948Atef Bseiso, Palestinian intelligence officer (d. 1992)
  • 1948 – Andrei Pleșu, Romanian journalist and politician, 95th Romanian Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • 1948 – Rudy Ruettiger, American football player
  • 1948 – Lev Zeleny, Russian physicist and academic
  • 1949Vicky Leandros, Greek singer and politician
  • 1949 – Shelley Long, American actress
  • 1949 – Rick Springfield, Australian-American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
  • 1950Luigi Delneri, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1951Jimi Jamison, American singer-songwriter and musician (d. 2014)
  • 1951 – Akhmad Kadyrov, Chechen cleric and politician, 1st President of the Chechen Republic (d. 2004)
  • 1951 – Queen Noor of Jordan[10]
  • 1952Santillana, Spanish footballer
  • 1952 – Georgios Paraschos, Greek footballer and manager
  • 1953Bobby G, English singer-songwriter
  • 1954Charles Busch, American actor and screenwriter
  • 1954 – Halimah Yacob, Singaporean unionist and politician, 9th Speaker and 8th President of Singapore
  • 1955David Learner, British actor
  • 1956Andreas Floer, German mathematician and academic (d. 1991)
  • 1956 – Valgerd Svarstad Haugland, Norwegian educator and politician, Norwegian Minister of Culture
  • 1957Tasos Mitropoulos, Greek footballer and politician
  • 1958Julio Franco, Dominican baseball player and manager
  • 1959Edwyn Collins, Scottish singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1959 – George Kalovelonis, Greek tennis player and coach
  • 1960Gary Hoey, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer
  • 1961Dean DeLeo, American guitarist and songwriter
  • 1961 – Alexandre Desplat, French composer and conductor
  • 1961 – Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf, Iranian commander and politician, 54th Mayor of Tehran
  • 1961 – Gary Mabbutt, English footballer
  • 1961 – Hitomi Takahashi, Japanese actress
  • 1962Martin Cauchon, Canadian lawyer and politician, 46th Canadian Minister of Justice
  • 1962 – Shaun Ryder, English singer-songwriter and actor
  • 1963Park Chan-wook, South Korean director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1963 – Glória Pires, Brazilian actress
  • 1963 – Richard Illingworth, English cricketer and umpire
  • 1963 – Kenny Wallace, American race car driver
  • 1964Kong Hee, Founder & former senior pastor of City Harvest Church
  • 1965Roger Avary, Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1966Rik Smits, Dutch-American basketball player
  • 1967Jim Murphy, Scottish lawyer and politician, Minister of State for Europe
  • 1967 – Richard Petrie, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1968Laura Claycomb, American soprano
  • 1968 – Chris DiMarco, American golfer
  • 1969Tinus Linee, South African rugby player and coach (d. 2014)
  • 1969 – Jack Lopresti, English soldier and politician
  • 1969 – Jeremy Schaap, American journalist and author
  • 1969 – Keith Tyson, English painter and illustrator
  • 1970Lawrence Frank, American basketball player and coach
  • 1970 – Jason Hetherington, Australian rugby league player
  • 1970 – Jay Mohr, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1970 – River Phoenix, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1971Demetrio Albertini, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1971 – Tim Gutberlet, German footballer
  • 1971 – Gretchen Whitmer, 49th Governor of Michigan
  • 1972Mark Butcher, English cricketer and singer
  • 1972 – Raul Casanova, Puerto Rican-American baseball player
  • 1972 – Anthony Calvillo, Canadian football player
  • 1972 – Martin Grainger, English footballer and manager
  • 1972 – Manuel Vidrio, Mexican footballer, coach, and manager
  • 1973Casey Blake, American baseball player
  • 1973 – Kerry Walmsley, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1974Lexi Alexander, American film and television director
  • 1974 – Mark Bellhorn, American baseball player
  • 1974 – Benjamin Limo, Kenyan runner
  • 1974 – Konstantin Novoselov, Russian-English physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
  • 1974 – Ray Park, Scottish actor and stuntman
  • 1975Sean Marks, New Zealand basketball player and manager
  • 1975 – Eliza Carthy, English folk musician
  • 1976Pat Garrity, American basketball player
  • 1977Douglas Sequeira, Costa Rican footballer and manager
  • 1977 – Jared Fogle, former spokesperson for chain restaurant Subway
  • 1978Kobe Bryant, American basketball player and businessman (d. 2020)
  • 1978 – Julian Casablancas, American singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1978 – Randal Tye Thomas, American journalist and politician (d. 2014)
  • 1978 – Andrew Rannells, American actor and singer
  • 1979Jessica Bibby, Australian basketball player
  • 1979 – Saskia Clark, English sailor
  • 1979 – Edgar Sosa, Mexican boxer
  • 1979 – Zuzana Váleková, Slovak tennis player
  • 1980Denny Bautista, Dominican baseball player
  • 1980 – Nadine Jolie Courtney, American journalist, reality personality and author
  • 1980 – Rex Grossman, American football player
  • 1980 – Nenad Vučković, Serbian handball player
  • 1981Carlos Cuéllar, Spanish footballer
  • 1981 – Stephan Loboué, Ivorian footballer
  • 1982Natalie Coughlin, American swimmer
  • 1982 – Scott Palguta, American soccer player
  • 1982 – Cristian Tudor, Romanian footballer (d. 2012)
  • 1983James Collins, Welsh footballer
  • 1983 – Athena Farrokhzad, Iranian-Swedish poet, playwright, and critic
  • 1983 – Sun Mingming, Chinese basketball player
  • 1983 – Tony Moll, American football player
  • 1983 – Fiona Onasanya, British Labour Party politician and criminal[11]
  • 1983 – Bruno Spengler, Canadian race car driver
  • 1984Glen Johnson, English footballer
  • 1984 – Eric Tai, New Zealand rugby player and actor
  • 1985Valeria Lukyanova, Moldovan-Ukrainian model and singer
  • 1986Neil Cicierega, American comedian and musician
  • 1986 – Ayron Jones, American musician[12]
  • 1986 – Brett Morris, Australian rugby league player
  • 1986 – Josh Morris, Australian rugby league player
  • 1988Olga Govortsova, Belarusian tennis player
  • 1988 – Carl Hagelin, Swedish ice hockey player
  • 1988 – Jeremy Lin, American basketball player
  • 1989Lianne La Havas, British singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist
  • 1989 – Trixie Mattel, American drag queen, actor, and country singer[13]
  • 1989 – Heiko Schwarz, German footballer
  • 1989 – TeddyLoid, Japanese musician[14]
  • 1990Seth Curry, American basketball player
  • 1990 – Mike Yastrzemski, American baseball player[15]
  • 1992Nicola Docherty, Scottish footballer[16]
  • 1993Iván López, Spanish professional footballer
  • 1994August Ames, Canadian pornographic actress (d. 2017)
  • 1997Lil Yachty, American rapper and singer[17]

Deaths

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1924Heinrich Berté, Slovak-Austrian composer (b. 1856)
  • 1926Rudolph Valentino, Italian actor (b. 1895)
  • 1927Nicola Sacco, Italian anarchist convicted of murder (b. 1891)
  • 1927 – Bartolomeo Vanzetti, Italian anarchist convicted of murder (b. 1888)
  • 1933Adolf Loos, Austrian architect and theoretician, designed Villa Müller (b. 1870)
  • 1937Albert Roussel, French composer and educator (b. 1869)
  • 1944Abdülmecid II, Ottoman sultan (b. 1868)
  • 1944 – Stefan Filipkiewicz, Polish painter and illustrator (b. 1879)
  • 1949Helen Churchill Candee, American geographer, journalist, and author (b. 1858)
  • 1954Jaan Sarv, Estonian mathematician and scholar (b. 1877)
  • 1960Oscar Hammerstein II, American director, producer, and composer (b. 1895)[19]
  • 1962Walter Anderson, Russian-German ethnologist and academic (b. 1885)
  • 1962 – Hoot Gibson, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1892)
  • 1964Edmond Hogan, Australian politician, 30th Premier of Victoria (b. 1883)
  • 1966Francis X. Bushman, American actor, director, and screenwriter (b. 1883)[20]
  • 1967Georges Berger, Belgian race car driver (b. 1918)
  • 1967 – Nathaniel Cartmell, American runner and coach (b. 1883)
  • 1974Roberto Assagioli, Italian psychiatrist and author (b. 1888)
  • 1975Faruk Gürler, Turkish general (b. 1913)
  • 1977Naum Gabo, Russian sculptor and academic (b. 1890)
  • 1982Stanford Moore, American biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1987Didier Pironi, French race car and boat driver (b. 1952)[21]
  • 1989Mohammed Abed Elhai, Sudanese poet and academic (b. 1944)
  • 1989 – R. D. Laing, Scottish psychiatrist and author (b. 1927)[22]
  • 1990David Rose, American pianist and composer (b. 1910)
  • 1994Zoltán Fábri, Hungarian director and screenwriter (b. 1917)
  • 1995Alfred Eisenstaedt, German-American photographer and journalist (b. 1898)
  • 1996Margaret Tucker, Australian author and activist (b. 1904)
  • 1997Eric Gairy, Grenadian educator and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Grenada (b. 1922)[23]
  • 1997 – John Kendrew, English biochemist and crystallographer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1917)
  • 1999Norman Wexler, American screenwriter (b. 1926)
  • 2000John Anthony Kaiser, American priest and missionary (b. 1932)
  • 2001Kathleen Freeman, American actress (b. 1919)
  • 2001 – Peter Maas, American journalist and author (b. 1929)
  • 2002Hoyt Wilhelm, American baseball player and coach (b. 1922)
  • 2003Bobby Bonds, American baseball player and manager (b. 1946)
  • 2003 – Jack Dyer, Australian footballer and coach (b. 1913)
  • 2003 – Jan Sedivka, Czech-Australian violinist and educator (b. 1917)
  • 2003 – Michael Kijana Wamalwa, Kenyan lawyer and politician, 8th Vice President of Kenya (b. 1944)
  • 2005Brock Peters, American actor (b. 1927)[24]
  • 2006Maynard Ferguson, Canadian trumpet player and bandleader (b. 1928)
  • 2008John Russell, English-American author and critic (b. 1919)
  • 2012Jerry Nelson, American puppeteer and voice actor (b. 1934)
  • 2012 – Josepha Sherman, American anthologist and author (b. 1946)
  • 2013Richard J. Corman, American businessman, founded the R.J. Corman Railroad Group (b. 1955)
  • 2013 – William Glasser, American psychiatrist and author (b. 1925)
  • 2013 – Charles Lisanby, American production designer and set director (b. 1924)
  • 2013 – Konstanty Miodowicz, Polish ethnographer and politician (b. 1951)
  • 2013 – Vesna Rožič, Slovenian chess player (b. 1987)
  • 2013 – Tatyana Zaslavskaya, Russian sociologist and economist (b. 1927)
  • 2014Albert Ebossé Bodjongo, Cameroonian footballer (b. 1989)
  • 2014 – Annefleur Kalvenhaar, Dutch cyclist (b. 1994)
  • 2014 – Birgitta Stenberg, Swedish author and illustrator (b. 1932)
  • 2014 – Jaume Vallcorba Plana, Spanish philologist and publisher (b. 1949)
  • 2015Augusta Chiwy, Congolese-Belgian nurse (b. 1921)
  • 2015 – Guy Ligier, French rugby player and race car driver (b. 1930)
  • 2015 – Enrique Reneau, Honduran footballer (b. 1971)[25]
  • 2015 – Paul Royle, Australian lieutenant and pilot (b. 1914)
  • 2021Elizabeth Blackadder, Scottish painter and printmaker (b. 1931)[26]

Holidays and observances

  • Battle of Kursk Day (Russia)
  • Christian feast day:
    • Ascelina
    • Asterius, Claudius, and Neon
    • Éogan of Ardstraw
    • Lupus (Luppus) of Novae
    • Philip Benitius
    • Quiriacus and companions, of Ostia
    • Rose of Lima
    • Tydfil
    • Zacchaeus of Jerusalem
    • August 23 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
  • Day of the National Flag (Ukraine)
  • European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism or Black Ribbon Day (European Union and other countries), and related observances:
    • Liberation from Fascist Occupation Day (Romania)
  • International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition[27]
  • National Day for Physicians (Iran)
  • Umhlanga Day (Swaziland)

References

  1. ^ Ethelbert Stauffer (1 June 2008). Christ and the Caesars. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-55635-818-0.
  2. ^ Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi (1987). Akbar: The Architect of the Mughul Empire. Idarah-i-Adabiyat-i-Delli. p. 120.
  3. ^ Dawson, Frank Griffith (November 1983). "William Pitt's Settlement at Black River on the Mosquito Shore: A Challenge to Spain in Central America, 1732–87". The Hispanic American Historical Review. Duke University Press. 63 (4): 677–706. doi:10.2307/2514901. JSTOR 2514901.
  4. ^ Lawford, Elliana; Zillman, Stephanie (18 August 2016). "Timeline: From Wave Hill protest to land handbacks". ABC News. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  5. ^ Arnold Toynbee; Director of Studies Arnold J Toynbee (1967). Acquaintances. Oxford U.P. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-19-500189-1.
  6. ^ Venla Sainio: Craucher, Minna (1891-1932) - Kansallisbiografia (in Finnish)
  7. ^ "Minna Craucher". Time Magazine. 1932-03-21. Archived from the original on October 27, 2010. Retrieved 2008-08-09.
  8. ^ "Elizabeth Robinson". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  9. ^ "Gene Kelly | Biography, Movies, Songs, Singin' in the Rain, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 17 May 2021.
  10. ^ "Queen Noor of Jordan Biography". biography.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
  11. ^ "MP convicted of perverting the course of justice - The Crown Prosecution Service". www.cps.gov.uk.
  12. ^ Rigg, Paul. "Ayron Jones". Guitars Exchange. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  13. ^ Monger, James Christopher (August 2017). "Trixie Mattel: Biography". AllMusic.com (All Media Network). Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  14. ^ "TeddyLoid". Tower Records Japan (in Japanese). 7 July 2014. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  15. ^ "Mike Yastrzemski Stats". Baseball Reference. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
  16. ^ "Nicola Docherty". Rangers Football Club, Official Website. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  17. ^ Madden, Sidney (August 23, 2016). "Happy Birthday, Lil Yachty!". XXL. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  18. ^ Karl Uhlirz (1896), "Volkold", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), vol. 40, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 245–246
  19. ^ Reuben Musiker; Naomi Musiker (1998). Conductors and Composers of Popular Orchestral Music: A Biographical and Discographical Sourcebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-313-30260-2.
  20. ^ John A. Willis (1967). Screen World. Crown Publishers. p. 232.
  21. ^ The Autocar: A Journal Published in the Interests of the Mechanically Propelled Road Carriage. Iliffe, sons & Sturmey Limited. 1987. pp. 14–18.
  22. ^ Zbigniew Kotowicz (25 July 2005). R.D. Laing and the Paths of Anti-Psychiatry. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 1-134-81953-6.
  23. ^ Caribbean Community. Secretariat (1997). Caricomview: A Monthly Newsletter of the Caricom Secretariat. Communications Unit, Caricom Secretariat. p. 11.
  24. ^ Mel Watkins (August 24, 2005). "Brock Peters of 'To Kill a Mockingbird' Is Dead at 78". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-01-29.
  25. ^ "Fallece en La Ceiba Enrique Centeno Reneau". El Heraldo. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  26. ^ "Dame Elizabeth Blackadder obituary". The Guardian. 25 August 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  27. ^ "International Days". www.un.org. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2021.

External links