Anka year

Anka year (Odia: ଅଙ୍କ Aṅka) system is a unique regnal year system used in the state of Odisha, India and was instituted by the rulers of the Eastern Ganga dynasty for dating their reigns. It had a number of features that mark the regnal year different from that actual duration of the year elapsed during the reign. The system still survives today and is used in the Odia calendar (panji) to mark the titular regnal year of the King of Puri which is currently held by Gajapati Maharaja Divyasingha Deva IV of the Eastern Gangas of Puri, whose title carries the legacy of the historical ruling monarchs of Odisha.[1][2][3][4]

Description

The Anka system, also denoted as the Odisha style of dating refers to a special system of counting used only in Odisha which is written along with the name of the King of Puri accompanied by a simple calculation which yields the regnal year of the king. The Anka years were so popular in the Odia-speaking tracts that not only it was used in official records but also by the authors in their works and in the horoscopes prepared by the astrologers. Additional information are also provided on the lunar or solar date besides the King's Anka with the Odia calendar following the Purnimanta system of month naming.[5]

Features

  • The Anka system always starts on the Odia fiscal new year called Sunia which falls on the 12th day of the bright fortnight of the month Bhadra (August-September) known as Bhādra Sukḷa Dwādasi. If the king accedes the throne for a few days before this date, then the first year of his reign would then just be a few days long.
  • Coins were minted on the date of the new year and hence the first coins were given the Anka year 2, the number 1 was not used.
  • All years ending in 6 were skipped. As in the Anka year 5 was followed by Anka year 7, Anka year 15 was followed by Anka year 17 and so on.
  • All years ending in 0 were also skipped, except for the Anka year 10.

Hence no Anka years exist for 1, 6, 16, 20, 26, 30, 36, 40, 46, 50, 56 and so on.

Regnal and Anka year Timeline

Timeline of actual Regnal year and Anka year (shown till regnal year 30)
Regnal year123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
Anka year23457891011121314151718192122232425272829313233343537

Anka year of the current titular Gajapati Maharaja

Regnal & Anka year of Gajapati king of Puri
(titular reign since 7 July 1970)
Gregorian yearRegnal yearOdia yearAnka year
2021 CE50୧୪୨୯ ଉତ୍କଳାବ୍ଦ
1429 Utkaḷābda
୬୪ ଅଙ୍କ
64

List of Anka year for monarchs of the ruling dynasties

Eastern Ganga dynasty

RulerReignRegnal year durationAnka year duration
Anantavarman Vajrahasta III1038-10703241
Rajaraja Devendravarman I1070-1078811
Anantavarman Chodaganga1078-11476987
Kamarnava II1147-11571013
Raghava1157-11701317
Rajaraja II1170-11902025
Anivankabhima II1190-1197710
Rajaraja III1197-12111417
Anangabhima Deva III1211-12352431
Narasingha Deva I1238-12632633
Bhanudeva I1264-12791519
Narasimhadeva II1279-13062734
Bhanudeva II1306-13282228
Narasimhadeva III1328-13522431
Bhanudeva III1352-13782633
Narasimhadeva IV1378-14143645
Bhanudeva IV1414-14342025

Suryavamsa (Routray) dynasty

RulerReignRegnal year durationAnka year duration
Kapilendra Deva[6]1434–14703644
Purushottama Deva1470–14972733
Prataparudra Deva1497–15404353
Kalua Deva1540–154123
Kakharua Deva154112

Bhoi dynasty (1st reign)

RulerReignRegnal year durationAnka year duration
Govinda Vidyadhara1541–154879
Chakrapratapa1548–1557911
Narasimha Jena1557–155812
Raghuram Chhotaraya1558–156023

Chalukya dynasty

RulerReignRegnal year durationAnka year duration
Mukunda Deva1560-68810

Bhoi dynasty (2nd reign, Khurda-Puri)

RulerReignRegnal year durationAnka year durationNotes
Ramachandra Deva I (Abhinav Indradyumna)[7]1568-16003239founder of Khurda Kingdom
Purusottam Deva1600–16212125
Narasingha Deva1621–16472632
Balabhadra Deva1647–16571012
Mukunda Deva I1657–16893239
Divyasingha Deva I1689–17162733
Harekrushna Deva1716–172045
Gopinath Deva1720–172779
Ramachandra Deva II1727–1736911
Birakesari Deva I (Bhagirathi Deva)[8][9]1736–17935771
Divyasingha Deva II1793–179857
Mukundeva Deva II1798–18171923Puri Estate in 1804
Ramchandra Deva III1817–18543745
Birakesari Deva II1854–185957
Divyasingha Deva III1859–18822328
Mukundeva Deva III1882–19264454
Ramchandra Deva IV1926–19563037Titular since 1947(Indian independence)
Birakisore Deva III1956–19701417
Divyasingha Deva IV1970–current5063

References

  1. ^ Tripathi, Kunjabihari (1962). The Evolution of Oriya Language and Script. Utkal University. Retrieved 23 March 2021. Note on Regnal and Anka Year
  2. ^ Pankaj Tandon (2012), Tentative Attributions of some Gold Fanams of the Eastern Gangas, BU, retrieved 25 January 2021
  3. ^ Pankaj Tandon (2018), Coins of the Eastern Gangas ruler Anantavarman Chodaganga, BU, retrieved 25 January 2021
  4. ^ Panda, Shishir Kumar (2008), "Gajapati Kingship and the Cult of Jagannatha: A Study on the Chhamu Chitaus (Royal Letters)", Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Indian History Congress, 69: 226, JSTOR 44147183
  5. ^ Griffiths, Arlo (2003), "The Orissa Manuscripts of the Paippalāda Saṃhitā", Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Harrassowitz Verlag, 153 (2): 338, JSTOR 43382061, The Dating system found in the Manuscripts
  6. ^ Tripathi, K.B. (1956), "THE 19TH ANKA YEAR INSCRIPTION OF KAPILESWARADEVA OF THE PURI—JAGANNATHA TEMPLE" (PDF), Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Indian History Congress, 19: 251–253, JSTOR 44140844
  7. ^ Brundaban Mishra (3 January 2015), KINGDOM AT THE CROSSROADS: GEOPOLITICS OF KHURDA KINGDOM IN EARLY MODERN ORISSA, Journal of South Asian Studies
  8. ^ Hermann Kulke (1974), "Kings without a kingdom: The rajas of Khurda and the Jagannatha cult", South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies Vol 4, 4: 60-77, doi:10.1080/00856407408730688
  9. ^ Hermann Kulke (1974), KINGS WITHOUT A KINGDOM: THE RAJAS OF KHURDA AND THE JAGANNATHA CULT (PDF), South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies Vol 4, p. 60-77