2010 United States census

Twenty-third census
of the United States

April 1, 2010

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
Seal of the U.S. Census Bureau
US-Census-2010Logo.svg
2010 U.S. census logo
General information
CountryUnited States
Results
Total population308,745,538 (Increase 9.7%)
Most populous ​stateCalifornia (37,253,956)
Least populous ​stateWyoming (563,826)

The United States census of 2010 was the twenty-third United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010.[1] The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired.[2][3] The population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538,[4] a 9.7% increase from the 2000 census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million people as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000.

Introduction

As required by the United States Constitution, the U.S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U.S. census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U.S. census is required by law of persons living in the United States in Title 13 of the United States Code.[5]

On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves personally inaugurated the 2010 census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.[6] More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U.S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010.[7] The number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was approximately 134 million on April 1, 2010.[8] Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today."

The 2010 census national mail participation rate was 74%.[9] From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up" (NRFU).

In December 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U.S. president for apportionment, and later in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states.[1]

Personally identifiable information will be available in 2082.[10]

Major changes

The Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 census.[11] In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information. The 2010 census used only a short form asking ten basic questions:[11]

  1. How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010?
  2. Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: (checkboxes for: children; relatives; non-relatives; people staying temporarily; none)
  3. Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – [Checkboxes for owned with a mortgage, owned free and clear, rented, occupied without rent.]
  4. What is your telephone number?
  5. What is Person 1's name? (last, first)
  6. What is Person 1's sex? (male, female)
  7. What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth?
  8. Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? (checkboxes for: "No", and several for "Yes" which specify groups of countries)
  9. What is Person 1's race? (checkboxes for 14 including "other". One possibility was "Black, African Am., or Negro")
  10. Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? (checkboxes for "No", and several locations for "Yes")

The form included space to repeat some or all of these questions for up to twelve residents total.

In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download.[11][12]

Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey.[12] The survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years. A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, and no household will receive it more than once every five years.[13]

In June 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau announced that it would count same-sex married couples. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option. When noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples (whether same-sex or opposite-sex) who were not married.[14]

Cost

The 2010 census cost $13 billion, approximately $42 per capita; by comparison, the 2010 census per-capita cost for China was about US$1 and for India was US$0.40.[15] Operational costs were $5.4 billion, significantly under the $7 billion budget.[16] In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) noted that the cost of conducting the census has approximately doubled each decade since 1970.[15] In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, and at that time, had estimated the 2010 census cost to be $11 billion.[17]

In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in significantly under budget; of an almost $7 billion operational budget:[16]

  • $650 million was saved in the budget for the door-to-door questioning (NRFU) phase because 72% of households returned mailed questionnaires;
  • $150 million was saved because of lower-than-planned costs in areas including Alaska and tribal lands; and
  • the $800 million emergency fund was not needed.

Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency also has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be immediately reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U.S. households that did not reply by mail were based on such outside interviews, Groves said.[16]

Technology

In 2005, Lockheed Martin won a six-year, $500 million contract to capture and standardize data for the census. The contract included systems, facilities, and staffing.[18] The final value of that contract was in excess of one billion dollars.[19] Information technology was about a quarter of the projected $11.3 billion cost of the decennial census.[20] The use of high-speed document scanning technology, such as ImageTrac scanners developed by IBML, helped Lockheed Martin complete the project on schedule and under budget.[21]

This was the first census to use hand-held computing devices with GPS capability, although they were only used for the address canvassing operation. Enumerators (information gatherers) that had operational problems with the device understandably made negative reports. During the 2009 Senate confirmation hearings for Robert Groves, President Obama's Census Director appointee, there was much mention of contracting problems but very little criticism of the units themselves.[22] The Census Bureau chose to conduct the primary operation, Non-Response Follow Up (NRFU), without using the handheld computing devices.[23][24]

Marketing and undercounts

Due to allegations surrounding previous censuses that poor people and non-whites are routinely undercounted, for the 2010 census, the Census Bureau tried to avoid that bias by enlisting tens of thousands of intermediaries, such as churches, charities and firms, to explain to people the importance of being counted.[8]

The Association of Community Organizations for Reform Now (ACORN) was given a contract to help publicize the importance of the census count and to encourage individuals to fill out their forms. In September 2009, after controversial undercover videos showing four ACORN staffers giving tax advice to a man and a woman posing as a prostitute, the bureau canceled ACORN's contract.[25] Various American celebrities, including Demi Lovato and Eva Longoria,[26] were used in public service announcements targeting younger people to fill out census forms. Wilmer Valderrama and Rosario Dawson have helped spread census awareness among young Hispanics, a historically low participating ethnicity in the U.S. census.[27] Rapper Ludacris also participated in efforts to spread awareness of the 2010 census.[28]

The Census Bureau hired about 635,000 people to find those U.S. residents who had not returned their forms by mail; as of May 28, 2010, 113 census workers had been victims of crime while conducting the census.[3] As of June 29, there were 436 incidents involving assaults or threats against enumerators, more than double the 181 incidents in 2000; one enumerator, attempting to hand-deliver the census forms to a Hawaii County police officer, was arrested for trespassing – the officer's fellow policemen made the arrest.[2]

Some political conservatives and libertarians questioned the validity of the questions and even encouraged people to refuse to answer questions for privacy and constitutional reasons.[29] Michele Bachmann, a former conservative Republican Representative from Minnesota, stated that she would not fill out her census form other than to indicate the number of people living in her household because "the Constitution doesn't require any information beyond that."[30] Former Republican representative and Libertarian presidential candidate Bob Barr stated that the census has become too intrusive, going beyond the mere enumeration (i.e., count) intended by the framers of the U.S. Constitution.[31] According to political commentator Juan Williams, "Census participation rates have been declining since 1970, and if conservatives don't participate, doubts about its accuracy and credibility may become fatal."[29]

As a result, the Census Bureau undertook an unprecedented advertising campaign targeted at encouraging white political conservatives to fill out their forms, in the hope of avoiding an undercount of this group. The 2010 U.S. census was the primary sponsor at NASCAR races in Atlanta, Bristol, and Martinsville, and sponsored the No. 16 Ford Fusion driven by Greg Biffle for part of the season, because of a marketing survey that indicated most NASCAR fans lean politically conservative.[29] It also ran an advertisement during the 2010 Super Bowl, and hired singer Marie Osmond, who is thought to have many conservative fans, to publicize the census.[29]

Reapportionment

The 435 seats of the House grouped by state, as apportioned after the 2010 census

The results of the 2010 census determined the number of seats that each state received in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 2012 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state had in the Electoral College for the 2012 presidential election.

Because of population changes, eighteen states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and ten states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 12 seats being switched.[32]

Gained four seatsGained two seatsGained one seatLost one seatLost two seats
TexasFloridaArizona
Georgia
Nevada
South Carolina
Utah
Washington
Illinois
Iowa
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
New York
Ohio

Controversies

Some objected to the counting of persons who are in the United States illegally.[33][34] Senators David Vitter (R-LA) and Bob Bennett (R-UT) tried unsuccessfully to add questions on immigration status to the census form.[8]

Organizations such as the Prison Policy Initiative argued that the census counts of incarcerated men and women as residents of prisons, rather than of their pre-incarceration addresses, skewed political clout and resulted in misleading demographic and population data.[35]

The term "Negro" was used in the questionnaire as one of the options for African Americans (Question 9. What is Person (number)'s race? ... Black, African Am., or Negro) as a choice to describe one's race. Census Bureau spokesman Jack Martin explained that "many older African-Americans identified themselves that way, and many still do. Those who identify themselves as Negroes need to be included."[36][37] The word was also used in the 2000 census, with over 56,000 people identifying themselves as "Negro".[38]

The 2010 census contained ten questions about age, gender, ethnicity, home ownership, and household relationships. Six of the ten questions were to be answered for each individual in the household. Federal law has provisions for fining those who refuse to complete the census form.[39]

Detroit Mayor Dave Bing held a press conference on March 22, 2011, to announce that the city would challenge its census results.[40] The challenge, being led by the city's planning department, cited an inconsistency as an example showing a downtown census tract which lost only 60 housing units, but 1,400 people, implying that a downtown jail or dormitory was missed in canvassing.[41]

NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg held a conference on March 27, 2011, to announce that the city would also challenge his city's census results, specifically the apparent undercounting in the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn.[42] Bloomberg said that the numbers for Queens and Brooklyn, the two most populous boroughs, are implausible.[43] According to the census, they grew by only 0.1% and 1.6%, respectively, while the other boroughs grew by between 3% and 5%. He also stated that the census showed improbably high numbers of vacant housing in vital neighborhoods such as Jackson Heights, Queens.

The District of Columbia announced in August 2011 that it would also challenge its census results. The Mayor's Office claimed that the detailed information provided for 549 census blocks is "nonsensical", listing examples of census data that show housing units located in the middle of a street that does not actually exist. However, officials do not believe the city's total population will drastically change as a result of the challenge.[44]

State rankings

The state with the highest percentage rate of growth was Nevada, while the state with the largest population increase was Texas.[45] Michigan, the 8th largest by population, was the only state to lose population (although Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, lost population as well), and the District of Columbia saw its first gain since the 1950s.[46] Note that the resident populations listed below do not include people living overseas. For Congressional apportionment, the sum of a state's resident population and its population of military personnel and federal contractors living overseas (but not other citizens overseas, such as missionaries or expatriate workers) is used.[47]

A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage.
Population and population change in the United States by state
RankStatePopulation as of
2000 census
Population as of
2010 census[48]
ChangePercent
change
1 California33,871,64837,253,9563,382,308 Increase10.0% Increase
2 Texas20,851,82025,145,5614,293,741 Increase20.6% Increase
3 New York18,976,45719,378,102401,645 Increase2.1% Increase
4 Florida15,982,37818,801,3102,818,932 Increase17.6% Increase
5 Illinois12,419,29312,830,632411,339 Increase3.3% Increase
6 Pennsylvania12,281,05412,702,379421,325 Increase3.4% Increase
7 Ohio11,353,14011,536,504183,364 Increase1.6% Increase
8 Michigan9,938,4449,883,640−54,804 Decrease−0.6% Decrease
9 Georgia8,186,4539,687,6531,501,200 Increase18.3% Increase
10 North Carolina8,049,3139,535,4831,486,170 Increase18.5% Increase
11 New Jersey8,414,3508,791,894377,544 Increase4.5% Increase
12 Virginia7,078,5158,001,024922,509 Increase13.0% Increase
13 Washington5,894,1216,724,540830,419 Increase14.1% Increase
14 Massachusetts6,349,0976,547,629198,532 Increase3.1% Increase
15 Indiana6,080,4856,483,802403,317 Increase6.6% Increase
16 Arizona5,130,6326,392,0171,261,385 Increase24.6% Increase
17 Tennessee5,689,2836,346,105656,822 Increase11.5% Increase
18 Missouri5,595,2115,988,927393,716 Increase7.0% Increase
19 Maryland5,296,4865,773,552477,066 Increase9.0% Increase
20 Wisconsin5,363,6755,686,986323,311 Increase6.0% Increase
21 Minnesota4,919,4795,303,925384,446 Increase7.8% Increase
22 Colorado4,301,2615,029,196727,935 Increase16.9% Increase
23 Alabama4,447,1004,779,736332,636 Increase7.5% Increase
24 South Carolina4,012,0124,625,364613,352 Increase15.3% Increase
25 Louisiana4,468,9764,533,37264,396 Increase1.4% Increase
26 Kentucky4,041,7694,339,367297,598 Increase7.4% Increase
27 Oregon3,421,3993,831,074409,675 Increase12.0% Increase
28 Oklahoma3,450,6543,751,351300,697 Increase8.7% Increase
29 Connecticut3,405,5653,574,097168,532 Increase4.9% Increase
30 Iowa2,926,3243,046,355120,031 Increase4.1% Increase
31 Mississippi2,844,6582,967,297122,639 Increase4.3% Increase
32 Arkansas2,673,4002,915,918242,518 Increase9.1% Increase
33 Kansas2,688,4182,853,118164,700 Increase6.1% Increase
34 Utah2,233,1692,763,885530,716 Increase23.8% Increase
35 Nevada1,998,2572,700,551702,294 Increase35.1% Increase
36 New Mexico1,819,0462,059,179240,133 Increase13.2% Increase
37 West Virginia1,808,3441,852,99444,650 Increase2.5% Increase
38 Nebraska1,711,2631,826,341115,078 Increase6.7% Increase
39 Idaho1,293,9531,567,582273,629 Increase21.1% Increase
40 Hawaii1,211,5371,360,301148,764 Increase12.3% Increase
41 Maine1,274,9231,328,36153,438 Increase4.2% Increase
42 New Hampshire1,235,7861,316,47080,684 Increase6.5% Increase
43 Rhode Island1,048,3191,052,5674,248 Increase0.4% Increase
44 Montana902,195989,41587,220 Increase9.7% Increase
45 Delaware783,600897,934114,334 Increase14.6% Increase
46 South Dakota754,844814,18059,336 Increase7.9% Increase
47 Alaska626,932710,23183,299 Increase13.3% Increase
48 North Dakota642,200672,59130,391 Increase4.7% Increase
49 Vermont608,827625,74116,914 Increase2.8% Increase
 District of Columbia572,059601,72329,664 Increase5.2% Increase
50 Wyoming493,782563,62669,844 Increase14.1% Increase
  United States281,421,906308,745,53827,323,632 Increase9.7% Increase

Metropolitan rankings

These are core metropolitan rankings versus combined statistical areas. For full list with current data, go to metropolitan statistics.

The top 25 metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America

RankMetropolitan statistical area2010 censusEncompassing combined statistical area
1New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area19,567,410New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area
2Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area12,828,837Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area
3Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area9,461,105Chicago-Naperville, IL-IN-WI Combined Statistical Area
4Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area6,426,214Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area
5Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area5,965,343Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD Combined Statistical Area
6Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area5,920,416Houston-The Woodlands, TX Combined Statistical Area
7Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area5,636,232Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area
8Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area5,564,635Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL Combined Statistical Area
9Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area5,286,728Atlanta–Athens-Clarke County–Sandy Springs, GA Combined Statistical Area
10Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area4,552,402Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area
11San Francisco-Oakland-Fremont, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area4,335,391San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area
12Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area4,296,250Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area
13Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area4,224,851Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area
14Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area4,192,887
15Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA Metropolitan Statistical Area3,439,809Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area
16Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area3,348,859Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI Combined Statistical Area
17San Diego-Carlsbad, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area3,095,313
18St. Louis, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area2,787,701St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area
19Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area2,783,243
20Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area2,710,489Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area
21Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area2,543,482Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area
22Pittsburgh, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area2,356,285Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV Combined Statistical Area
23Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA Metropolitan Statistical Area2,226,009Portland-Vancouver-Salem, OR-WA Combined Statistical Area
24Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC Metropolitan Statistical Area2,217,012Charlotte-Concord, NC-SC Combined Statistical Area
25San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area2,142,508

City rankings

RankCityStatePopulationLand area
(square miles)
Population density
(per square mile)
Region
1New YorkNew York8,175,133302.627,016.3Northeast
2Los AngelesCalifornia3,792,621468.78,091.8West
3ChicagoIllinois2,695,598227.611,843.6Midwest
4HoustonTexas2,100,263599.63,502.8South
5PhiladelphiaPennsylvania1,526,006134.111,379.6Northeast
6PhoenixArizona1,445,632516.72,797.8West
7San AntonioTexas1,327,407460.92,880.0South
8San DiegoCalifornia1,307,402325.24,020.3West
9DallasTexas1,197,816340.53,517.8South
10San JoseCalifornia945,942176.55,359.4West
11JacksonvilleFlorida821,784747.01,100.1South
12IndianapolisIndiana820,445361.42,270.2Midwest
13San FranciscoCalifornia805,23546.917,169.2West
14AustinTexas790,390297.92,653.2South
15ColumbusOhio787,033217.23,623.5Midwest
16Fort WorthTexas741,206339.82,181.3South
17CharlotteNorth Carolina731,424297.72,456.9South
18DetroitMichigan713,777138.85,142.5Midwest
19El PasoTexas649,121255.22,543.6South
20MemphisTennessee646,889315.12,053.0South
21BaltimoreMaryland620,96180.97,675.7South
22BostonMassachusetts617,59448.312,786.6Northeast
23SeattleWashington608,66083.97,254.6West
24WashingtonDistrict of Columbia601,72361.09,864.3South
25NashvilleTennessee601,222475.11,265.5South
26DenverColorado600,158153.03,922.6West
27LouisvilleKentucky597,337385.091,551.2South
28MilwaukeeWisconsin594,83396.16,189.7Midwest
29PortlandOregon583,776134.34,346.8West
30Las VegasNevada583,756135.84,298.6West
31Oklahoma CityOklahoma579,999606.4956.5South
32AlbuquerqueNew Mexico545,852187.72,908.1West
33TucsonArizona520,116226.72,294.3West
34FresnoCalifornia494,665112.04,416.7West
35SacramentoCalifornia466,48897.94,764.9West
36Long BeachCalifornia462,25750.39,190.0West
37Kansas CityMissouri459,787315.01,459.6Midwest
38MesaArizona439,041136.53,216.4West
39Virginia BeachVirginia437,994249.01,759.0South
40AtlantaGeorgia420,003133.23,153.2South
41Colorado SpringsColorado416,427194.52,141.0West
42OmahaNebraska408,958127.13,217.6Midwest
43RaleighNorth Carolina403,892142.92,826.4South
44MiamiFlorida399,45735.911,126.9South
45ClevelandOhio396,81577.75,107.0Midwest
46San JuanPuerto Rico395,32647.98,253.1
47TulsaOklahoma391,906196.81,991.4South
48OaklandCalifornia390,72455.87,002.2West
49MinneapolisMinnesota382,57854.07,084.8Midwest
50WichitaKansas382,368159.32,400.3Midwest
51ArlingtonTexas365,43895.93,810.6South
52BakersfieldCalifornia347,483142.22,443.6West
53New OrleansLouisiana343,829169.42,029.7South
54HonoluluHawaii337,25660.55,574.5West
55AnaheimCalifornia336,26549.86,752.3West
56TampaFlorida335,709113.42,960.4South
57AuroraColorado325,078154.72,101.3West
58Santa AnaCalifornia324,52827.311,887.5West
59Saint LouisMissouri319,29461.95,158.2Midwest
60PittsburghPennsylvania305,70455.45,518.1Northeast
61Corpus ChristiTexas305,215160.61,900.5South
62RiversideCalifornia303,87181.13,746.9West
63CincinnatiOhio296,94377.93,811.8Midwest
64LexingtonKentucky295,803283.61,043.0South
65AnchorageAlaska291,8261,704.7171.2West
66StocktonCalifornia291,70761.74,727.8West
67ToledoOhio287,20880.73,559.0Midwest
68Saint PaulMinnesota285,06852.05,482.1Midwest
69NewarkNew Jersey277,14024.211,452.1Northeast
70GreensboroNorth Carolina269,666126.52,131.7South
71BuffaloNew York261,31040.46,468.1Northeast
72PlanoTexas259,84171.63,629.1South
73LincolnNebraska258,37989.12,899.9Midwest
74HendersonNevada257,729107.72,393.0West
75Fort WayneIndiana253,691110.62,293.8Midwest
76Jersey CityNew Jersey247,59714.816,729.5Northeast
77Saint PetersburgFlorida244,76961.73,967.1South
78Chula VistaCalifornia243,91649.64,917.7West
79NorfolkVirginia242,80354.14,488.0South
80OrlandoFlorida238,300102.42,327.1South
81ChandlerArizona236,12364.43,666.5West
82LaredoTexas236,09188.92,655.7South
83MadisonWisconsin233,20976.83,036.6Midwest
84Winston-SalemNorth Carolina229,617132.41,734.3South
85LubbockTexas229,573122.41,875.6South
86Baton RougeLouisiana229,49376.92,984.3South
87DurhamNorth Carolina228,330107.42,126.0South
88GarlandTexas226,87657.13,973.3South
89GlendaleArizona226,72160.03,778.7West
90RenoNevada225,221103.02,186.6West
91HialeahFlorida224,66921.510,449.7South
92ChesapeakeVirginia222,209340.8652.0South
93ScottsdaleArizona217,385183.91,182.1West
94North Las VegasNevada216,961101.32,141.8West
95IrvingTexas216,29067.03,228.2South
96FremontCalifornia214,08977.52,762.4West
97IrvineCalifornia212,37566.13,212.9West
98BirminghamAlabama212,237146.11,452.7South
99RochesterNew York210,56535.85,881.7Northeast
100San BernardinoCalifornia209,92459.23,546.0West

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Interactive Timeline". About the 2010 Census. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  2. ^ a b "Census worker taken to court for trespassing". New York Post. Associated Press. July 5, 2010. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017. The resident continued to refuse to take the Census, and [census worker Russell] Haas said he waited outside a chain-link fence while the resident called his co-workers at the Hawai‘i County Police Department. When police arrived, instead of asking the resident to accept the forms as required by federal law, the officers crumpled the papers into Haas' chest and handcuffed him, Haas said....Haas said he told officers that it was his duty to leave the Census forms with the resident, and that he would leave as soon as he did it. The officers were enforcing state law and had not been trained on the federal Census law, Hawaii County Police Maj. Sam Thomas said.
  3. ^ a b "US Census Takers Attacked on the Job". National Ledger. May 28, 2010. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved May 30, 2010.
  4. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  5. ^ Selby, W. Gardner. "Americans must answer U.S. Census Bureau survey by law, though agency has not prosecuted since 1970" (January 9, 2014). politifact.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  6. ^ D'oro, Rachel (January 25, 2010). "Remote Alaska village is first eyed in census". The Denver Post. Noorvik, Alaska. Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 7, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  7. ^ "2010 Census forms arrive, kicking off once-a-decade head count". NJ.com. March 15, 2010. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c "Stand up and be counted". The Economist. March 31, 2010. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2017.
  9. ^ "Take 10 Map 2010 Census Participation Census Bureau". Archived from the original on August 20, 2010. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  10. ^ PIO, US Census Bureau, Census History Staff. "The "72-Year Rule" – History – U.S. Census Bureau". www.census.gov. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  11. ^ a b c "Frequently Asked Questions" (PDF). 2010 Census. U.S. Census Bureau. May 10, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 14, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
  12. ^ a b Castro, Daniel (February 2008). "e-Census Unplugged: Why Americans Should Be Able to Complete the Census Online" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Information Technology & Innovation Foundation. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 4, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
  13. ^ "Chapter 4: Sample Design and Selection" (PDF). ACS Design and Methodology. U.S. Census Bureau. December 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 20, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
  14. ^ "LGBT Fact Sheet" (PDF). 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  15. ^ a b "Censuses: Costing the count". The Economist. June 2, 2011. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
  16. ^ a b c "Census Bureau comes in under budget for 2010 operational costs". CNN. August 10, 2010. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  17. ^ "2010 Census: Cost and Design Issues Need to Be Addressed Soon (GAO-04-37)" (PDF) (GAO-04-37). Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. January 15, 2004. OCLC 54778614. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved December 27, 2009. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ Mosquera, Mary (October 3, 2005). [harps://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/02/AR2005100201032.html "Lockheed Gets Census Job"]. The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on September 29, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  19. ^ 2010 CENSUS PLANNING MEMORANDA SERIES No 195 (PDF) (Report). May 22, 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  20. ^ Sternstein, Aliya (June 13, 2005). "Preparing for a decennial task". Federal Computer Week. Falls Church, Virginia: 1105 Media. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
  21. ^ "IBML Scanning Platform Helps Lockheed Martin Team Complete 2010 Census Project On Schedule, Under Budget" Archived January 8, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Health IT Outcomes. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  22. ^ Chan, Wade-Hahn (March 28, 2008). "Have feds cheapened contract bonuses?". FCW. Archived from the original on August 26, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  23. ^ "Press Releases". Harris.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  24. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau – Use of Global Positioning Systems (GPS)". Ask.census.gov. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  25. ^ Sherman, Jake (September 12, 2009). "Census Bureau Cuts Its Ties With Acorn". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
  26. ^ "Demi Lovato And Eva Longoria Urge Census Participation". Looktothestars.org. March 19, 2010. Archived from the original on May 24, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  27. ^ "Rosario Dawson, Wilmer Valderrama Encourage Latinos To Complete 2010 Census In New PSA's". icelebz.com. Archived from the original on February 21, 2010. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
  28. ^ "Ludacris 2010 Census Campaign In New York". Killerhiphop.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  29. ^ a b c d Williams, Juan (March 1, 2010). "Marketing the 2010 census with a conservative-friendly face". Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  30. ^ Swami, Perana (June 18, 2009). "Rep. Bachmann Refuses To Fill Out 2010 Census". Political Hotsheet. CBS News. Archived from the original on September 9, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  31. ^ "Census goes too far with children". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on September 11, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
  32. ^ "Apportionment Population and Number of Representatives, By State: 2010 Census" (PDF). US Census. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24, 2011. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
  33. ^ Baker, John S.; Stonecipher, Elliott (August 9, 2009). "Our Unconstitutional Census". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  34. ^ "Census 2010: Latino Pastors Urge Census Boycott". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 30, 2011. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
  35. ^ Lotke, Eric; Wagner, Peter (Spring 2004). "Prisoners of the Census: Electoral and Financial Consequences of Counting Prisoners Where They Go, Not Where They Come From" (PDF). Pace Law Review. White Plains, NY: Pace Law School. 24 (2): 587–607. ISSN 0272-2410. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 10, 2014. Originally presented at Prison Reform Revisited: a symposium held at Pace University School of Law and the New York State Judicial Institute, Oct. 16–18, 2003. Research supported by grants from the Soros Justice Fellowship Program of the Open Society Institute. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  36. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau interactive form, Question 9". Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  37. ^ McFadden, Katie; McShane, Larry (January 6, 2010). "Use of word Negro on 2010 census forms raises memories of Jim Crow". NYDailyNews.com. Archived from the original on January 9, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  38. ^ Kiviat, Barbara (January 23, 2010). "Should the Census Be Asking People if They Are Negro?". Time. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2010.
  39. ^ Frequently Asked Questions on the National Census Archived August 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine from the ACLU website
  40. ^ Cwiek, Sarah (March 22, 2011). "Bing plans to challenge Detroit census numbers". MichiganRadio.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
  41. ^ Davidson, Kate (May 2, 2011). "Detroit census challenge". MichiganRadio.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
  42. ^ NYC To File Formal Challenge to 2010 Census under Count Question Resolution Process"NYC To File Formal Challenge to the 2010 Census Count". Archived from the original on March 30, 2011. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
  43. ^ On the 2010 Census Results Archived May 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ DeBonis, Mike (August 10, 2011). "District challenges its 2010 Census count". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  45. ^ "Texas Adds Four Congressional Seats as State's Hispanic Population Grows". Bloomberg.com. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2017.(subscription required)
  46. ^ "USA Today 2010 Census". Usatoday.com. Archived from the original on March 9, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  47. ^ "Congressional Apportionment" (PDF). Census.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  48. ^ "Resident Population Data: Population Change". United States Census Bureau. December 23, 2010. Archived from the original on December 25, 2010. Retrieved December 23, 2010.

External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of California.svg
Flag of California. This version is designed to accurately depict the standard print of the bear as well as adhere to the official flag code regarding the size, position and proportion of the bear, the colors of the flag, and the position and size of the star.
Flag of Ohio.svg
The flag of the U.S. state of Ohio, officially known as the "Ohio Burgee"
Flag of Oregon.svg
Flag of Oregon (obverse): The flag was adopted by the state on February 26, 1925.[1] The state seal was decided in 1903.[2][3]
Flag of Oklahoma.svg
Flag of Oklahoma, adopted in November 2006.
Flag of Nevada.svg
Flag of the State of Nevada. The flag is described in Nevada Revised Statutes Chapter 235, Sec. 20 as follows: The body of the flag must be of solid cobalt blue. On the field in the upper left quarter thereof must be two sprays of Sagebrush with the stems crossed at the bottom to form a half wreath. Within the sprays must be a five-pointed silver star with one point up. The word “Nevada” must also be inscribed below the star and above the sprays, in a semicircular pattern with the letters spaced apart in equal increments, in the same style of letters as the words “Battle Born.” Above the wreath, and touching the tips thereof, must be a scroll bearing the words “Battle Born.” The scroll and the word “Nevada” must be golden-yellow. The lettering on the scroll must be black-colored sans serif gothic capital letters.
Flag of New Mexico.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Alaska.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Alaska
Flag of the United States.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
Seal of the United States Census Bureau. The blazon is defined here as:

On a shield an open book beneath which is a lamp of knowledge emitting rays above in base two crossed quills. Around the whole a wreath of single leaves, surrounded by an outer band bearing between two stars the words "U.S. Department of Commerce" in the upper portion and "Bureau of the Census" in the lower portion, the lettering concentric with an inner beaded rim and an outer dentilated rim.

HouseDelegations2013-23.svg
Author/Creator: Xyzzyva, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
State delegations in the US House of Representatives after the 2010 Census.
Population Change by Percentage - 2010 US Census.png
Author/Creator: Mr. Banana Fana Fo Filly, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Map of Population Change by Percentage - 2010 US Census
Flag of Utah (1913–1922).png
Flag of Utah (1913–1922)
Flag of Louisiana (2006–2010).svg
Author/Creator: Various, Licence: FAL
Flag of Louisiana, April 2006 to 2010