1990 United States census

Twenty-first census of the United States

 

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
U.S. Census Bureau and the cats seal
1990USCensusLogo.svg
General information
CountryUnited States
Results
Total population248,709,873 (Increase 9.8%)
Most populous ​stateCalifornia
29,760,021
Least populous ​stateWyoming
453,588

The United States census of 1990, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 census.[1]

Approximately 16 percent of households received a "long form" of the 1990 census, which contained more than 100 questions. Full documentation on the 1990 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

It was the first census to designate "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" as a racial group separate from Asians.

To increase black participation in the 1990 United States census, the bureau recruited Bill Cosby, Magic Johnson, Alfre Woodard, and Miss America Debbye Turner as spokespeople.[2] The Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Personally identifiable information will be available in 2062.[3]

This was the first census since 1890 in which Chicago was not the second-largest city, having been overtaken by Los Angeles. As of the 2020 census, Los Angeles has remained the nation's second-largest city.

State rankings

A map showing the population change of each US State by percentage.
Population and population change in the United States by state
RankStatePopulation as of
1980 census
Population as of
1990 census
ChangePercent
change
1 California23,667,90229,760,021Increase 6,092,119Increase 25.7%
2 New York17,558,07217,990,455Increase 432,383Increase 2.5%
3 Texas14,229,19116,986,510Increase 2,757,319Increase 19.4%
4 Florida9,746,32412,937,926Increase 3,191,602Increase 32.7%
5 Pennsylvania11,863,89511,881,643Increase 17,748Increase 0.2%
6 Illinois11,426,51811,430,602Increase 4,084Increase 0.0%
7 Ohio10,797,63010,847,115Increase 49,485Increase 0.4%
8 Michigan9,262,0789,295,297Increase 33,219Increase 0.4%
9 New Jersey7,364,8237,730,188Increase 365,365Increase 5.0%
10 North Carolina5,881,7666,628,637Increase 746,871Increase 12.7%
11 Georgia5,463,1056,478,216Increase 1,015,111Increase 18.6%
12 Virginia5,346,8186,187,358Increase 840,540Increase 15.7%
13 Massachusetts5,737,0376,016,425Increase 279,388Increase 4.9%
14 Indiana5,490,2245,544,159Increase 53,935Increase 1.0%
15 Missouri4,916,6865,117,073Increase 200,387Increase 4.1%
16 Wisconsin4,705,7674,891,769Increase 186,002Increase 3.9%
17 Tennessee4,591,1204,877,185Increase 286,065Increase 6.2%
18 Washington4,132,1564,866,692Increase 734,536Increase 17.8%
19 Maryland4,216,9754,781,468Increase 564,493Increase 13.4%
20 Minnesota4,075,9704,375,099Increase 299,129Increase 7.3%
21 Louisiana4,205,9004,219,973Increase 14,073Increase 0.3%
22 Alabama3,893,8884,040,587Increase 146,699Increase 3.8%
23 Kentucky3,660,7773,685,296Increase 24,519Increase 0.7%
24 Arizona2,718,2153,665,228Increase 947,013Increase 34.8%
25 South Carolina3,121,8203,486,703Increase 364,883Increase 11.7%
26 Colorado2,889,9643,294,394Increase 404,430Increase 14.0%
27 Connecticut3,107,5763,287,116Increase 179,540Increase 5.8%
28 Oklahoma3,025,2903,145,585Increase 120,295Increase 4.0%
29 Oregon2,633,1052,842,321Increase 209,216Increase 7.9%
30 Iowa2,913,8082,776,755Decrease –137,053Decrease –4.7%
31 Mississippi2,520,6382,573,216Increase 52,578Increase 2.1%
32 Kansas2,363,6792,477,574Increase 113,895Increase 4.8%
33 Arkansas2,286,4352,350,725Increase 64,290Increase 2.8%
34 West Virginia1,949,6441,793,477Decrease –156,167Decrease –8.0%
35 Utah1,461,0371,722,850Increase 261,813Increase 17.9%
36 Nebraska1,569,8251,578,385Increase 8,560Increase 0.5%
37 New Mexico1,302,8941,515,069Increase 212,175Increase 16.3%
38 Maine1,124,6601,227,928Increase 103,268Increase 9.2%
39 Nevada800,4931,201,833Increase 401,340Increase 50.1%
40 New Hampshire920,6101,109,252Increase 188,642Increase 20.5%
41 Hawaii964,6911,108,229Increase 143,538Increase 14.8%
42 Idaho943,9351,006,749Increase 62,814Increase 6.7%
43 Rhode Island947,1541,003,464Increase 56,310Increase 5.9%
44 Montana786,690799,065Increase 12,375Increase 1.6%
45 South Dakota690,768696,004Increase 5,236Increase 0.8%
46 Delaware594,338666,168Increase 71,830Increase 12.1%
47 North Dakota652,717638,800Decrease –13,917Decrease –2.1%
 District of Columbia638,333606,900Decrease –31,433Decrease –4.9%
48 Vermont511,456562,758Increase 51,302Increase 10.0%
49 Alaska401,851550,043Increase 148,192Increase 36.8%
50 Wyoming469,557453,588Decrease –15,969Decrease –3.4%
  United States226,545,805248,709,87322,164,0689.8%

Reapportionment

The results of the 1990 census determined the number of seats that each state receives in the United States House of Representatives starting with the 1992 elections. Consequently, this affected the number of votes each state has in the Electoral College for the 1992 presidential election.

Because of population changes, twenty-one states had changes in their number of seats. Eight states gained at least one seat, and thirteen states lost at least one seat. The final result involved 19 seats being switched.[4]

Gained seven seatsGained four seatsGained three seatsGained one seatLost one seatLost two seatsLost three seats
CaliforniaFloridaTexasArizona
Georgia
North Carolina
Virginia
Washington
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Montana
New Jersey
West Virginia
Illinois
Michigan
Ohio
Pennsylvania
New York

City rankings

Top five

RankCityPopulation as of
1980 census
Population as of
1990 census
ChangePercent
change
1 New York, NY7,071,6397,322,564Increase 250,925Increase 3.5%
2 Los Angeles, CA2,966,8503,485,398Increase 518,548Increase 17.5%
3 Chicago, IL3,005,0722,783,726Decrease -221,346Decrease -7.4%
4 Houston, TX1,595,1381,630,553Increase 35,415Increase 2.2%
5 Philadelphia, PA1,688,2101,585,577Decrease -102,633Decrease -6.1%

Top 100

RankCityStatePopulation[5]Region (2016)[6]
01New YorkNew York7,322,564Northeast
02Los AngelesCalifornia3,485,398West
03ChicagoIllinois2,783,726Midwest
04HoustonTexas1,630,553South
05PhiladelphiaPennsylvania1,585,577Northeast
06San DiegoCalifornia1,110,549West
07DetroitMichigan1,027,974Midwest
08DallasTexas1,006,877South
09PhoenixArizona983,403West
10San AntonioTexas935,933South
11San JoseCalifornia782,248West
12BaltimoreMaryland736,014South
13IndianapolisIndiana731,327Midwest
14San FranciscoCalifornia723,959West
15JacksonvilleFlorida635,230South
16ColumbusOhio632,910Midwest
17MilwaukeeWisconsin628,088Midwest
18MemphisTennessee610,337South
19WashingtonDistrict of Columbia606,900South
20BostonMassachusetts574,283Northeast
21SeattleWashington516,259West
22El PasoTexas515,342South
23ClevelandOhio505,616Midwest
24New OrleansLouisiana496,938South
25Nashville-DavidsonTennessee488,374South
26DenverColorado467,610West
27AustinTexas465,622South
28Fort WorthTexas447,619South
29Oklahoma CityOklahoma444,719South
30PortlandOregon437,319West
31Kansas CityMissouri435,146Midwest
32Long BeachCalifornia429,433West
33TucsonArizona405,390West
34St. LouisMissouri396,685Midwest
35CharlotteNorth Carolina395,934South
36AtlantaGeorgia394,017South
37Virginia BeachVirginia393,069South
38AlbuquerqueNew Mexico384,736West
39OaklandCalifornia372,242West
40PittsburghPennsylvania369,879Northeast
41SacramentoCalifornia369,365West
42MinneapolisMinnesota368,383Midwest
43TulsaOklahoma367,302South
44HonoluluHawaii365,272West
45CincinnatiOhio364,040Midwest
46MiamiFlorida358,548South
47FresnoCalifornia354,202West
48OmahaNebraska335,795Midwest
49ToledoOhio332,943Midwest
50BuffaloNew York328,123Northeast
51WichitaKansas304,011Midwest
52Santa AnaCalifornia293,742West
53MesaArizona288,091West
54Colorado SpringsColorado281,140West
55TampaFlorida280,015South
56NewarkNew Jersey275,221Northeast
57Saint PaulMinnesota272,235Midwest
58LouisvilleKentucky269,063South
59AnaheimCalifornia266,406West
60BirminghamAlabama265,968South
61ArlingtonTexas261,721South
62NorfolkVirginia261,229South
63Las VegasNevada258,295West
64Corpus ChristiTexas257,453South
65St. PetersburgFlorida238,629South
66RochesterNew York231,636Northeast
67Jersey CityNew Jersey228,537Northeast
68RiversideCalifornia226,505West
69AnchorageAlaska226,338West
70Lexington-FayetteKentucky225,366South
71AkronOhio223,019Midwest
72AuroraColorado222,103West
73Baton RougeLouisiana219,531South
74StocktonCalifornia210,943West
75RaleighNorth Carolina207,951South
76RichmondVirginia203,056South
77ShreveportLouisiana198,525South
78JacksonMississippi196,637South
79MobileAlabama196,278South
80Des MoinesIowa193,187Midwest
81LincolnNebraska191,972Midwest
82MadisonWisconsin191,262Midwest
83Grand RapidsMichigan189,126Midwest
84YonkersNew York188,082Northeast
85HialeahFlorida188,004South
86MontgomeryAlabama187,106South
87LubbockTexas186,206South
88GreensboroNorth Carolina183,521South
89DaytonOhio182,044Midwest
90Huntington BeachCalifornia181,519West
91GarlandTexas180,650South
92GlendaleCalifornia180,038West
93ColumbusGeorgia178,681South
94SpokaneWashington177,196West
95TacomaWashington176,664West
96Little RockArkansas175,795South
97BakersfieldCalifornia174,820West
98FremontCalifornia173,339West
99Fort WayneIndiana173,072Midwest
100ArlingtonVirginia170,936South

References

  1. ^ "Population and Area (Historical Censuses)" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  2. ^ Brown, Frank Dexter (February 1990). "The 1990 Census: Will Blacks Be Counted Out?". Black Enterprise. Earl G. Graves, Ltd. 20 (7): 195. ISSN 0006-4165. Retrieved July 29, 2011.
  3. ^ "The "72-Year Rule" – History". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
  4. ^ "1990 Apportionment Results". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  5. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  6. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links

Media files used on this page

Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
Seal of the United States Census Bureau. The blazon is defined here as:

On a shield an open book beneath which is a lamp of knowledge emitting rays above in base two crossed quills. Around the whole a wreath of single leaves, surrounded by an outer band bearing between two stars the words "U.S. Department of Commerce" in the upper portion and "Bureau of the Census" in the lower portion, the lettering concentric with an inner beaded rim and an outer dentilated rim.

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Flag of California. This version is designed to accurately depict the standard print of the bear as well as adhere to the official flag code regarding the size, position and proportion of the bear, the colors of the flag, and the position and size of the star.
Flag of Ohio.svg
The flag of the U.S. state of Ohio, officially known as the "Ohio Burgee"
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Flag of North Carolina, 1885–1991
Flag of Oklahoma.svg
Flag of Oklahoma, adopted in November 2006.
Flag of Oregon.svg
Flag of Oregon (obverse): The flag was adopted by the state on February 26, 1925.[1] The state seal was decided in 1903.[2][3]
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Flag of Utah (1913–1922)
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Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
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Flag of Nevada (1929–1991).
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Flag of South Dakota (1963-1992).
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Flag of Alaska
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Flag of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.svg
Flag of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, adopted in 1895. Image created by uploader based on various images found on the web, as well as the blazon found at the Philadelphia city web site.
Flag of Houston, Texas.svg
The official city flag of Houston, Texas, created in 1915. SVG image created by uploader based on a bitmap image on the Wikipedia and other images on the web.
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1990 US Census Map
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Flag of South Dakota (1963-1992).
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Flag of Nevada (1929–1991).