17th century

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The 17th century lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). It falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world's first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis. The greatest military conflicts were the Thirty Years' War,[1] the Great Turkish War, Mughal–Safavid Wars (Mughal–Safavid War (1622–23), Mughal–Safavid War (1649–53)), Anglo-Mughal Indian War, and the Dutch–Portuguese War. It was during this period also that European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe.[2]

Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
A scene on the ice, Dutch Republic, first half of 17th century
Persian Ambassador during his entry into Kraków for the wedding ceremonies of King Sigismund III of Poland in 1605.
Åbo Akademi University's inauguration on 1640 in Turku.
Catholic general Albrecht von Wallenstein
René Descartes with Queen Christina of Sweden.
James I of England and VI of Scotland
Tsar Michael I of Russia
Battle of Nördlingen (1634). The Catholic Imperial army, bolstered by professional Habsburg Spanish troops won a great victory in the battle over the combined Protestant armies of Sweden and their German allies
This file is not in the public domain. Therefore you are requested to use the following next to the image if you reuse this file: © Yann Forget / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0
The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642. Oil on canvas; on display at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam
The massacre of settlers in 1622. The massacre was instrumental in causing English colonists to view all natives as enemies.
Map of Europe in 1648 at the end of the Thirty Years' War
Claiming Louisiana for France
Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century

In the Islamic world, the gunpowder empires – the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal – grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, is believed to have had the world's largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP,[3] and its wealthiest province, the Bengal Subah, signaled the period of proto-industrialization.[4]

In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzhi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.

From the middle decades of the 17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that the English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton's Laws of Motion, air pressure and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

Events

1601–1650

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1651–1700

French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.

References

  1. ^ "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England College. Archived from the original on 1999-10-09. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
  2. ^ "The Seventeenth-Century Decline". The Library of Iberian resources online. Retrieved 13 August 2008.
  3. ^ Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing,ISBN 9264104143, pages 259–261
  4. ^ Lex Heerma van Voss; Els Hiemstra-Kuperus; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 9780754664284.
  5. ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 28
  6. ^ History of UST UST.edu.ph. Retrieved December 21, 2008.
  7. ^ "The Tatar Khanate of Crimea". Archived from the original on 2016-03-23. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
  8. ^ Alan Macfarlane (1997). The savage wars of peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian trap. Wiley . p. 64.ISBN 0-631-18117-2
  9. ^ Karen J. Cullen (2010). "Famine in Scotland: The 'Ill Years' of the 1690s". Edinburgh University Press. p. 20.ISBN 0-7486-3887-3

Further reading

Detail of a 17th-century Tekke Turkmen carpet
  • Chang, Chun-shu, and Shelley Hsueh-lun Chang. Crisis and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century China" (1998).
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events online free
  • Reid, A. J. S. Trade and State Power in 16th & 17th Century Southeast Asia (1977).
  • Spence, J. D. The Death of Woman Wang: Rural Life in China in the 17th Century (1978).

Focus on Europe

  • Clark, George. The Seventeenth Century (2nd ed. 1945).
  • Hampshire, Stuart. The Age of Reason the 17th Century Philosophers, Selected, with Introduction and Interpretive Commentary (1961).
  • Hugon, Cécile (1997) [1911]. "Social Conditions in 17th-Century France (1649-1652)". In Halsall, Paul (ed.). Social France in the XVII Century. London: Methuen. pp. 171–172, 189. ISBN 9780548161944. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  • Lewitter, Lucian Ryszard. "Poland, the Ukraine and Russia in the 17th Century." The Slavonic and East European Review (1948): 157–171. in JSTOR
  • Ogg, David. Europe in the Seventeenth Century (6th ed. 1965).
  • Rowbotham, Sheila. Hidden from history: Rediscovering women in history from the 17th century to the present (1976).
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh R. "The general crisis of the 17th century." Past & Present 16 (1959): 31–64.

External links

  • Vistorica: Timelines of 17th century events, science, culture and persons

Media files used on this page

Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B10 050-De belegering van Wenen door de Turken in 1683.jpeg
In 1683 the town of Vienna was besieged for two months by a great Turkish army. The siege was followed daily in the Dutch papers, the papers using correspondants who stayed near the battle fields. Newspaper articles were clarified by separate maps and news prints to provide readers with actual information about the battle sites. For the publisher Nicolaes Visscher II (1649-1702), engraver Romeyn de Hooghe (1645-1708) prepared a series of prints in which the complete history of the siege is being depicted. De Hooghe did not attend the siege himself but used drawings made by Jacob Peeters from Antwerp.
John de Critz the Elder James I of England with a Red Curtain.jpg
Portrait of James I of England. One of a number of similar paintings produced by John de Critz and his studio around 1605 and 1606, with small variations of costume, accessories, and background.
Tsar Mikhail I.jpg
Title: Portrait of Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich
La ronda de noche, por Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg
Frans Banning Cocq, heer van purmerlant en Ilpendam, Capiteijn Willem van Ruijtenburch van Vlaerdingen, heer van Vlaerdingen, Luijtenant, Jan Visscher Cornelisen Vaendrich, Rombout Kemp Sergeant, Reijnier Engelen Sergeant, Barent Harmansen, Jan Adriaensen Keyser, Elbert Willemsen, Musketier Jan Clasen Leydeckers (behind the Lieutenant in Yellow blowing into the powder pan of a musket which once belonged to Jan Snedeker), Jan Ockersen, Jan Pietersen bronchorst, Harman Iacobsen wormskerck, Jacob Dirksen de Roy (the Governor on far left of the cut off section of the painting), Jan vander heede, Walich Schellingwou, Jan brugman, Claes van Cruysbergen, Paulus Schoonhoven
Albrecht Wallenstein.jpeg
Albrecht von Wallenstein (24 September 1583 – 25 February 1634), was a Bohemian military leader and politician, who offered his services and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men during the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. He became the supreme commander of the armies of the Habsburg Monarchy and a major figure of the Thirty Years' War.
Europe map 1648.png
Author/Creator: Rake, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
قریم یورتی ، یورپ دے 1648ء دے نقشے وچ.
Turun akatemian vihkiäiset.jpg
Albert Edelfelts paintings Turun akatemian vihkiäiset, parts 1, 2 and 3 combined.
1622 massacre jamestown de Bry.jpg
'Jamestown: Massacre, 1622.' / 'The Massacre At Jamestown, Virginia, 1622.' Line Engraving, 1628, By Matthaeus Merian. A 1628 woodcut by Matthaeus Merian published along with Theodore de Bry's earlier engravings in 1628 book on the New World. The engraving shows the March 22, 1622 massacre when Powhatan Indians attacked Jamestown and outlying Virginia settlements. Merian relied on de Bry's earlier depictions of the Indians, but the image is largely considered conjecture (need reference).
Lasalle au Mississippi.jpg
Lasalle claiming mouth of Mississippi for France. Detail.
Aurangzeb-portrait.jpg
Aurangzeb holds court, as painted by (perhaps) Bichitr; Shaistah Khan stands behind Prince Muhammad Azam
Taj Mahal (Edited).jpeg
This file is not in the public domain. Therefore you are requested to use the following next to the image if you reuse this file: © Yann Forget / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 4.0
Taj Mahal, Agra. FP on the English Wikipedia.
Polska rullen - Livrustkammaren - 55709.tif
Note: For documentary purposes the original description has been retained. Factual corrections and alternative descriptions are encouraged separately from the original description.
Polska rullen
Detail of Tekke Lot 86 2019.jpeg
Detail of a Tekke Khali.. See Auctioneer website link and see File:Early Tekke Turkmen hali (main carpet).jpg