Millennium:2nd millennium
  • 1675
  • 1676
  • 1677
  • 1678
  • 1679
  • 1680
  • 1681
1678 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1678
Ab urbe condita2431
Armenian calendar1127
Assyrian calendar6428
Balinese saka calendar1599–1600
Bengali calendar1085
Berber calendar2628
English Regnal year29 Cha. 2 – 30 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2222
Burmese calendar1040
Byzantine calendar7186–7187
Chinese calendar丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4374 or 4314
    — to —
戊午年 (Earth Horse)
4375 or 4315
Coptic calendar1394–1395
Discordian calendar2844
Ethiopian calendar1670–1671
Hebrew calendar5438–5439
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1734–1735
 - Shaka Samvat1599–1600
 - Kali Yuga4778–4779
Holocene calendar11678
Igbo calendar678–679
Iranian calendar1056–1057
Islamic calendar1088–1089
Japanese calendarEnpō 6
Javanese calendar1600–1601
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar4011
Minguo calendar234 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar210
Thai solar calendar2220–2221
Tibetan calendar阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1804 or 1423 or 651
    — to —
(male Earth-Horse)
1805 or 1424 or 652

1678 (MDCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1678th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 678th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1670s decade. As of the start of 1678, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

August 1415: Battle of Saint-Denis




  • April 2Ignatius Gregory Peter VI Shahbaddin is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Syriac Catholic Church in Aleppo, after receiving recognition by Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV and by Pope Innocent XI.
  • April 12 – The Treaty of Casco Bay is signed between officials of the Province of New York and the Penobscot tribe and the Wabanaki Confederacy, bringing and end to further fighting that had happened in the two years saince the end of King Philip's War in what is now the U.S. state of Maine. Under the terms of the treaty, English settlers pay rent to the Penobscots and are given back farm land that had been confiscated in the war, while the English settlers agree to respect the Penobscot land rights. [2]
  • May 11 – French admiral Jean d'Estrees runs his whole fleet aground in Curaçao.
  • June 10 – French buccaneer Michel de Grammont arrives at Spanish-held Venezuela with six pirate ships, 13 smaller craft, and 2,000 men in a daring raid on the South American territory, then leads half of his force inward toward Maracaibo, which he takes on June 14. During the rest of the month, he and his soldiers march inland as far as Trujillo. Grammont and his pirates finally depart on December 3. [3]
  • June 25Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia becomes the first woman to be awarded a university degree, a doctorate in philosophy from the University of Padua.



Date unknown

  • Rebellion breaks out in southern China.
  • About 1,200 Irish families sail from Barbados, to Virginia and the Carolinas.
  • In Ireland, the vacant Bishopric of Leighlin is given to the Bishop of Kildare, to form the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kildare and Leighlin.



Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten


  1. ^ "Romantics, Stoics and Martyrs", by Frederic Wakeman, Journal of Asian Studies (August 1984) pp. 631-665), in Telling Chinese History: A Selection of Essays (University of California Press, 2009) p. 123
  2. ^ "Casco, Treaty of", by Jaime Ramon Olivares, in The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890: A Political, Social, and Military History, ed. by Spencer Tucker (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p. 134
  3. ^ David Marley, Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflict in the Western Hemisphere (ABC-CLIO, 2008) p. 289
  4. ^ "The Historical Theater in the Year 400 AD, in Which Both Romans and Barbarians Resided Side by Side in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire". World Digital Library. 1725. Retrieved 2013-07-27.

Media files used on this page

Amaro Pargo.jpg
Detalle del lienzo «Cristo de la Humildad y Paciencia» de la Ermita de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, en el que aparece Amaro Pargo
"An anonymous portrait in oils in the Museo Internazionale e Biblioteca della Musica di Bologna is generally believed to be of Vivaldi and may be linked to the Morellon La Cave engraving, which appears to be a modified mirror reflection of it. It is striking how the engraving and the painting 'secularize' Vivaldi: they contain no hint of his identity as a priest. (The fashionable, though slightly informal, dress and self-confident attitude of the composer resemble very closely those of Telemann in the well-known engraving by Georg Lichtensteger.) Ghezzi's sketch likewise shows Vivaldi in a non-clerical black stock as opposed to the white clerical stock and still wearing a wig. (Two years later, in the anno santo of 1725, Innocent XIII was to ban the wearing of wigs by priests.) There is disagreement over whether the hint of red showing in front of the centre of the composer's wig in the painting is a sly reference to his famous hair-colour or simply an unpainted part of the canvas. Whatever the case, it is not out of place to observe that, contrary to the belief of many modern illustrators, Vivaldi's wigs were never coloured red." Michael Talbot, The Vivaldi Compendium (2011), p. 148. The proposition that the painting actually depicts Antonio Vivaldi has been questioned by some sources (e.g. by Groves dictionary).
1678 Slag bij St. Denis - Romeyn de Hooghe.jpg
Ingekleurde Dubbelplatige prent