Millennium:2nd millennium
  • 1630s
  • 1640s
  • 1650s
  • 1660s
  • 1670s
  • 1654
  • 1655
  • 1656
  • 1657
  • 1658
  • 1659
  • 1660
1657 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1657
Ab urbe condita2410
Armenian calendar1106
Assyrian calendar6407
Balinese saka calendar1578–1579
Bengali calendar1064
Berber calendar2607
English Regnal yearCha. 2 – 9 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar2201
Burmese calendar1019
Byzantine calendar7165–7166
Chinese calendar丙申年 (Fire Monkey)
4353 or 4293
    — to —
丁酉年 (Fire Rooster)
4354 or 4294
Coptic calendar1373–1374
Discordian calendar2823
Ethiopian calendar1649–1650
Hebrew calendar5417–5418
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1713–1714
 - Shaka Samvat1578–1579
 - Kali Yuga4757–4758
Holocene calendar11657
Igbo calendar657–658
Iranian calendar1035–1036
Islamic calendar1067–1068
Japanese calendarMeireki 3
Javanese calendar1579–1580
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3990
Minguo calendar255 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar189
Thai solar calendar2199–2200
Tibetan calendar阳火猴年
(male Fire-Monkey)
1783 or 1402 or 630
    — to —
(female Fire-Rooster)
1784 or 1403 or 631
April 20: Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife

1657 (MDCLVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1657th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 657th year of the 2nd millennium, the 57th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1650s decade. As of the start of 1657, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.




Date unknown


Wigerus Vitringa



  1. ^ a b c "1657". British Civil Wars. Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-60. June 7, 2010. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  2. ^ Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6765. Retrieved February 17, 2012. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ Blusse, Leonard; Vaillé, Cynthia (2005). The Deshima Dagregisters, Volume XII 1650-1660. Leiden.
  4. ^ a b Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 267–268. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  5. ^ "American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust". doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim110060068. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ "Chocolate Arrives in England". Cadbury. Archived from the original on February 2, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2012.
  7. ^ Ukers, William H. (1935). All About Tea. Vol. I. New York: The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal. p. 38.
  8. ^ Mair, Victor H.; Hoh, Erling (2009). The True History of Tea. London; New York: Thames & Hudson. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-500-25146-1.
  9. ^ Shipley, John (March 2, 2015). The Little Book of Shropshire. History Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7509-6342-8.
  10. ^ Anselment, Raymond (2004). "Lovelace, Richard (1617–1657)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/17056. Retrieved July 30, 2021. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  11. ^ "BBC - History - William Harvey". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved October 26, 2020.

Media files used on this page

Jacob van Campen - Afbeeldingen Stadhuis Amsterdam.png
Jacob van Campen in his book Images of the City Hall of Amsterdam in 30 engravings, 1665.
Robert Blake.jpg
Robert Blake, General at Sea, 1598-1657

This retrospective, highly romanticized portrait was painted some 170 years after Blake's death. It shows him full-length to the left, wearing a breast-plate and leather coat with a red sash and cloak, breeches, and stockings. He wears red ribbons on his shoes. He stands on the deck of a ship and, holding a sword in his gloved right hand, he points it over the gunwale and out to sea. He holds his other glove in his left hand and stands in front of a cannon, while to the right in the foreground the sheath of his sword lies on the deck.

Blake was one of the first to take up arms against King Charles I and as commander of the navy of Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth became one of the most renowned seamen in English history. In 1640 he was elected to the Short Parliament and his staunch Puritanism led him to join the Parliamentary cause against King Charles I at the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642. He soon won fame as a general by brilliantly defending Lyme, Dorset, in 1644 and by holding Taunton, Somerset, from its besiegers for more than a year 1644-45. He was appointed General-at-Sea in 1649 and led the English fleet against the Dutch, 1652-54, and against the Spanish 1656-57. His articles of war and fighting instructions represented fundamental reforms, which helped to lay the foundations of England's maritime supremacy. The artist has played on 19th-century interest in the heroic to create this portrait, which was commissioned by Sir Robert Preston Bt., one of the Directors of Greenwich Hospital, for presentation to the Naval Gallery there in 1829. It was reputed to be based on a contemporary miniature of Blake.

Robert Blake, General at Sea, 1599-1657
Wigerus Vitringa.jpg
Portret van de Friese zeeschilder Wigerus Vitringa (1657-1725)