Millennium:2nd millennium
  • 1620s
  • 1630s
  • 1640s
  • 1650s
  • 1660s
  • 1641
  • 1642
  • 1643
  • 1644
  • 1645
  • 1646
  • 1647
1644 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1644
Ab urbe condita2397
Armenian calendar1093
Assyrian calendar6394
Balinese saka calendar1565–1566
Bengali calendar1051
Berber calendar2594
English Regnal year19 Cha. 1 – 20 Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar2188
Burmese calendar1006
Byzantine calendar7152–7153
Chinese calendar癸未(Water Goat)
4340 or 4280
    — to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4341 or 4281
Coptic calendar1360–1361
Discordian calendar2810
Ethiopian calendar1636–1637
Hebrew calendar5404–5405
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1700–1701
 - Shaka Samvat1565–1566
 - Kali Yuga4744–4745
Holocene calendar11644
Igbo calendar644–645
Iranian calendar1022–1023
Islamic calendar1053–1054
Japanese calendarKan'ei 21 / Shōhō 1
Javanese calendar1565–1566
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3977
Minguo calendar268 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar176
Thai solar calendar2186–2187
Tibetan calendar阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
1770 or 1389 or 617
    — to —
(male Wood-Monkey)
1771 or 1390 or 618
July 2: Battle of Marston Moor.

1644 (MDCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1644th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 644th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1640s decade. As of the start of 1644, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+500(D)+100(C)+(-10(X)+50(L))+(-1(I)+5(V)) = 1644).


© Marek and Ewa Wojciechowscy / Trips over Poland, CC BY-SA 3.0
Kolumna Zygmunta is erected.



Date unknown

  • The opera Ormindo is first performed in Venice (music by Francesco Cavalli, and libretto by Giovanni Faustini).
  • Sigismund's Column is erected in Warsaw, to commemorate King Sigismund III Vasa, who moved the capital of Poland from Kraków to Warsaw in 1596.
  • Philosopher René Descartes publishes Principia Philosophiae (Principles of Philosophy).
  • During the English Civil War, Prince Rupert and his men take Liverpool Castle, which is later reclaimed by Sir John Moore.
  • Opchanacanough leads the Powhatan Indians in an unsuccessful uprising against the English at Jamestown. This is the last such Indian rebellion in the region.
  • A Spanish officer is murdered in St. Dominic's Church, Macau during mass, by colonists loyal to Portugal, during the Portuguese Restoration War.
  • The West India Company displays greater interest in profit than in colonization.


Thomas Britton
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Otto Mencke
Henrietta of England


  • January 9Robert Gibbes, English landgrave (d. 1715)
  • January 10
    • Louis François, duc de Boufflers, Marshal of France (d. 1711)
    • Celestino Sfondrati, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1696)
  • January 11Hayashi Hōkō, Japanese philosopher (d. 1732)
  • January 14Thomas Britton, English concert promoter (d. 1714)
  • January 18John Partridge, English astrologer (d. 1708)
  • January 23Jonas Budde, Norwegian army officer (d. 1710)
  • January 25Antoine Thomas, Jesuit priest, missionary, astronomer (d. 1709)[7]
  • January 26Thomas Boylston, American colonial doctor (d. 1695)
  • February 2
    • Isaac Chayyim Cantarini, Italian rabbi (d. 1723)
    • Johannes Hancke, German writer (d. 1713)
  • February 7Nils Bielke, member of the High Council of Sweden (d. 1716)
  • February 8Pierre de La Broue, American bishop (d. 1720)
  • February 12Jakob Ammann, Swiss founder of the Amish sect (d. 1712)
  • February 24Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt, German mother of Johann Sebastian Bach (d. 1694)
  • March 1Simon Foucher, French polemicist (d. 1696)
  • March 15Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld, German iron and cobalt magnate (d. 1715)
  • March 21Sir Walter Bagot, 3rd Baronet, English politician (d. 1704)
  • March 22
    • Otto Mencke, German philosopher and scientist (d. 1707)
    • Sir James Rushout, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1698)
  • March 25Heinrich von Cocceji, German jurist from Bremen (d. 1719)
  • March 31Henry Winstanley, English engineer (d. 1703)


  • April 6António Luís de Sousa, 2nd Marquis of Minas, Portuguese general, governor-general of Brazil (d. 1721)
  • April 7
    • Nathaniel Johnson, American politician (d. 1713)
    • François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy, French soldier (d. 1730)
  • April 11Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours, Duchess of Savoy (d. 1724)
  • April 17Abraham Storck, Dutch painter (d. 1708)
  • April 21Conrad von Reventlow, Danish statesman and the first Grand Chancellor of Denmark (d. 1708)
  • May 2Robert Cotton, English politician (d. 1717)
  • May 4Juan Caballero y Ocio, Spanish priest remarkable for lavish gifts to the Catholic Church and charity (d. 1707)
  • May 5Sir Richard Newdigate, 2nd Baronet, English landowner (d. 1710)
  • May 26Michael Ettmüller, German physician (d. 1683)
  • June 2William Salmon, English medical writer (d. 1713)
  • June 7Johann Christoph Volkamer, German botanist (d. 1720)
  • June 16Henrietta Anne Stuart, Princess of Scotland, England and Ireland (d. 1670)[8]
  • June 17Johann Wolfgang Franck, German baroque composer (d. 1710)


  • July 2Abraham a Sancta Clara, German Augustinian monk (d. 1709)
  • July 4Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, English noble (d. 1670)
  • July 7Joan Geelvinck, Dutch politician (d. 1707)
  • July 10Miguel Bayot, Spanish Catholic prelate, Bishop of Cebu (1697–1700) (d. 1700)
  • July 22Peter Drelincourt, Irish chaplain (d. 1722)
  • August 6
    • Christian Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1655–1712) (d. 1712)
    • Louise de La Vallière, French mistress of Louis XIV of France (d. 1710)[9]
  • August 12Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber, Bohemian composer and violinist (d. 1704)
  • August 29Anne Bourdon, nun in New France (d. 1711)
  • August 30Thomas Tufton, 6th Earl of Thanet, British politician (d. 1729)
  • September 3Richard Newport, 2nd Earl of Bradford, English politician (d. 1723)
  • September 6Juan Bautista Cabanilles, Spanish composer (d. 1712)
  • September 11Jacob Rotius, Dutch painter (d. 1681)
  • September 22Jacques Échard, French Dominican, historian of the Order (d. 1724)
  • September 25Ole Rømer, Danish astronomer (d. 1710)


Date unknown


Johannes Wtenbogaert


  1. ^ Braddick, M. J. (2015). The Oxford handbook of the English revolution. Oxford, United Kingdom New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780199695898.
  2. ^ Coward, Barry (1994). The Stuart age: England, 1603-1714. London New York: Longman. p. 223. ISBN 9780582067226.
  3. ^ a b "What Happened In 1644". hisdates.com. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
  4. ^ Levene, Mark (1999). The massacre in history. New York: Berghahn Books. p. 93. ISBN 9781571819345.
  5. ^ Jeremy Black (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: Renaissance to Revolution, 1492-1792. Cambridge University Press. p. 80.
  6. ^ Levillain, Philippe (2002). The papacy : an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 801. ISBN 9780415922289.
  7. ^ Walle, Willy (2003). The history of the relations between the Low Countries and China in the Qing era (1644-1911. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press Ferdinand Verbiest Foundation. p. 90. ISBN 9789058673152.
  8. ^ Lowther, Kenneth (1979). Dartmoor : Exeter, Newton Abbot, Totnes, Plymouth, Teignmouth, Dawlish. London: Ward Lock. p. 35. ISBN 9780706357929.
  9. ^ Dumas, Alexandre (1998). The Vicomte de Bragelonne. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. p. 674. ISBN 9780192834638.
  10. ^ Schiavone, Michael J. (2009). Dictionary of Maltese Biographies Vol. 1 A–F. Pietà: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza. p. 756. ISBN 9789993291329.
  11. ^ Fetis, FirstName (2013). Anthony Stradivari the Celebrated Violin Maker. Newburyport: Dover Publications. p. x. ISBN 9780486316529.
  12. ^ Baker, Christopher (2002). Absolutism and the scientific revolution, 1600-1720 : a biographical dictionary. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 382. ISBN 9780313308277.
  13. ^ John Evelyn (2000). The Diary of John Evelyn: 1620-1649. Clarendon Press. p. 379.
  14. ^ Venning, Timothy (2005). Compendium of British office holders. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 118. ISBN 9780230505872.
  15. ^ Baker, Christopher (2002). Absolutism and the scientific revolution, 1600-1720 : a biographical dictionary. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 313. ISBN 9780313308277.

Media files used on this page

Otto Mencke.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Kolumna Zygmunta.jpg
© Marek and Ewa Wojciechowscy / Trips over Poland, CC BY-SA 3.0
Kolumna Zygmunta is erected. Warsaw, Poland.
Johannes Wtenbogaert by Rembrandt van Rijn.jpg
Portrait of Johannes Wtenbogaert (1557–1644), remonstrant minister, at the age of 76. Standing, at half length, gloves in his right hand, his left hand on his chest. To the right an open book stands against the wall. In front of it a broad-rimmed black hat is placed.
Thomas britton.jpg
Thomas Britton - English concert promoter
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld.jpg
Veit Hans Schnorr von Carolsfeld, 43 or 44 years old