Millennium:2nd millennium
  • 1636
  • 1637
  • 1638
  • 1639
  • 1640
  • 1641
  • 1642
1639 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1639
Ab urbe condita2392
Armenian calendar1088
Assyrian calendar6389
Balinese saka calendar1560–1561
Bengali calendar1046
Berber calendar2589
English Regnal year14 Cha. 1 – 15 Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar2183
Burmese calendar1001
Byzantine calendar7147–7148
Chinese calendar戊寅(Earth Tiger)
4335 or 4275
    — to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
4336 or 4276
Coptic calendar1355–1356
Discordian calendar2805
Ethiopian calendar1631–1632
Hebrew calendar5399–5400
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1695–1696
 - Shaka Samvat1560–1561
 - Kali Yuga4739–4740
Holocene calendar11639
Igbo calendar639–640
Iranian calendar1017–1018
Islamic calendar1048–1049
Japanese calendarKan'ei 16
Javanese calendar1560–1561
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3972
Minguo calendar273 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar171
Thai solar calendar2181–2182
Tibetan calendar阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1765 or 1384 or 612
    — to —
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1766 or 1385 or 613
October 21: Battle of the Downs

1639 (MDCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1639th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 639th year of the 2nd millennium, the 39th year of the 17th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1639, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.




Date unknown

  • The Casiquiare canal, a river forming a natural channel between the Amazon River and Orinoco River basins, is first encountered by Europeans, an expedition led by Pedro Teixeira and Cristóbal Diatristán de Acuña.
  • French nobleman Jérôme le Royer de la Dauversière obtains the seigneurial title to the island of Montreal in New France (modern-day Quebec) in the name of the Société Notre-Dame de Montréal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize indigenous peoples.
  • The House of Assembly of Barbados meets for the first time.
  • Russian Cossacks advance over the Urals to the Pacific, to Okhotsk.
  • Sakoku, the isolationist foreign policy of Japan, comes fully into effect.
    • Dejima, an island trading post off Nagasaki, becomes the only official port of trade allowed for Europeans, with the multi-national United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) as the only European party officially allowed. Trading parties from China, India and other places are still officially allowed, though the VOC will become the usual broker for them.
    • Japanese wives and children of Dutch and British people from Hirado are sent to Batavia (Asian headquarters of the VOC, renamed Jakarta by the Japanese around three centuries later) on Dutch ships.[6]
  • The Treaty of Zuhab is signed between the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire and Safavid Persia, delineating the modern Turkey-Iran and Iraq-Iran border lines.


Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse
Giovanni Battista Gaulli
Increase Mather


  • January 1
    • Jacob Knijff, Dutch painter (d. 1681)
    • Sir Thomas Spencer, 3rd Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1685)
  • January 3Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse, French Huguenot noblewoman, grandmother of George II of Great Britain, great-grandmother of Frederick the Great (d. 1722)
  • January 5Otto Wilhelm Königsmarck, Swedish military officer (d. 1688)
  • January 16John Proby, English politician (d. 1710)
  • January 17Sir Francis Lee, 4th Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1667)
  • January 19Noël Alexandre, French theologian and ecclesiastical historian (d. 1724)
  • January 20Hungerford Dunch, English politician (d. 1680)
  • January 29Gover Le Buen, Dutch revolutionary fighter (d. 1712)
  • January 31Duke Bernhard of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön, German-Danish general (d. 1676)
  • February 4Alessandro Melani, Italian composer (d. 1703)
  • February 6Daniel Georg Morhof, German writer and scholar (d. 1691)
  • February 12Juan García de Salazar, Spanish Baroque composer (d. 1710)
  • February 17Claude Estiennot de la Serre, French historian (d. 1699)
  • February 27Adriaen van Bloemen, Flemish painter, printmaker, draughtsman and engraver (d. 1697)
  • March 7Charles Stewart, 3rd Duke of Richmond, English nobleman (d. 1672)
  • March 20Ivan Mazepa, Hetman of Ukraine (d. 1709)
  • March 30Elanor Allerton, English-born American colonist (d. 1674)


  • April 3Alessandro Stradella, Italian composer (k. 1682)
  • April 12Martin Lister, English naturalist and physician (d. 1712)
  • April 13Joan Leonardsz Blasius, Dutch writer (d. 1672)
  • April 16Alessandro Baratta, Italian painter, engraver (d. 1714)
  • April 24Johann Benedict Carpzov II, German theologian (d. 1699)
  • April 29François Nepveu, French Jesuit writer on ascetical subjects (d. 1708)
  • May 8Giovanni Battista Gaulli, Italian artist working in the High Baroque and early Rococo periods (d. 1709)
  • May 10Peleg Sanford, Rhode Island colonial governor (d. 1701)
  • May 19Charles Weston, 3rd Earl of Portland, English nobleman (d. 1665)
  • May 27Laura Martinozzi, Duchess consort of Modena (d. 1687)
  • June 21Increase Mather, American minister (d. 1723)



  • October 14Simon van der Stel, last Commander and first Governor of the Cape Colony (d. 1712)
  • October 17Charles-Claude Genest, French dramatist and playwright (d. 1719)
  • November 17Eleazer Kimberly, Secretary of the State of Connecticut (d. 1709)
  • November 21Fortunatus Hueber, German Franciscan historian and theologian (d. 1706)
  • December 3Isidoro de Atondo y Antillon, Spanish admiral (d. 1689)
  • December 18Gottfried Kirch, German astronomer, first 'Astronomer Royal' in Berlin (d. 1710)
  • December 22Jean Racine, French dramatist (d. 1699)[7]
  • December 28Dirk van Bleiswijk, Dutch politician, writer (d. 1681)
  • December 29Muhammad Sultan, Mughal Empire emperor (d. 1676)

Date unknown

  • Yair Bacharach, German rabbi (d. 1702)
  • Consort Donggo, concubine of the Shunzhi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty (d. 1660)
  • Dirck Ferreris, Dutch painter (d. 1693)
  • Caspar Netscher, Dutch painter (d. 1684)
  • Samuel Peterson, early Swedish settler of New Sweden, founder of modern-day Wilmington (d. 1689)


Mustafa I
Johannes Meursius


  1. ^ HÄMEENLINNA - TAVASTEHUS Kaupunkiarkeologinen inventointi (in Finnish)
  2. ^ Bély, Lucien (2015). L'art de la paix en Europe: naissance de la diplomatie moderne, XVIe-XVIIIe siècle. Presses Universitaires de France. ISBN 9782130738961.
  3. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of battles and sieges : a guide to 8,500 battles from antiquity through the Twenty-first century. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 650. ISBN 9780313335389.
  4. ^ Peberdy, Robert (2021). A dictionary of British and Irish history. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 53. ISBN 9780631201540.
  5. ^ Roberts, J. (1994). History of the World. Penguin.
  6. ^ "平戸観光協会|History". Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  7. ^ LastName, FirstName (2020). Chase's calendar of events 2021 : the ultimate go-to guide for special days, weeks and months. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 607. ISBN 9781641434249.
  8. ^ Magill, Frank (1997). Cyclopedia of world authors. Pasadena, Calif: Salem Press. p. 1739. ISBN 9780893564483.
  9. ^ Flood, John (2006). Poets laureate in the Holy Roman Empire. a bio-bibliographical handbook. Berlin New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 1452. ISBN 9783110912746.
  10. ^ Warrack, John (1992). The Oxford dictionary of opera. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. p. 394. ISBN 9780198691648.

Media files used on this page

Eleonore, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg.jpg
Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse (1639-1722), Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg, consort of George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of Alexandre Desmier d'Olbreuse
Johannes van Meurs.gif
Johannes van Meurs (1579-1639) niederländischer Jurist, Altphilologe und Historiker
I Mustafa (cropped).jpg
Sultan Mustafa I "the Mad", oil on canvas, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul (Inv. 17/389)