1638

Millennium:2nd millennium
Centuries:
  • 16th century
  • 17th century
  • 18th century
Decades:
  • 1610s
  • 1620s
  • 1630s
  • 1640s
  • 1650s
Years:
  • 1635
  • 1636
  • 1637
  • 1638
  • 1639
  • 1640
  • 1641
1638 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1638
MDCXXXVIII
Ab urbe condita2391
Armenian calendar1087
ԹՎ ՌՁԷ
Assyrian calendar6388
Balinese saka calendar1559–1560
Bengali calendar1045
Berber calendar2588
English Regnal year13 Cha. 1 – 14 Cha. 1
Buddhist calendar2182
Burmese calendar1000
Byzantine calendar7146–7147
Chinese calendar丁丑(Fire Ox)
4334 or 4274
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4335 or 4275
Coptic calendar1354–1355
Discordian calendar2804
Ethiopian calendar1630–1631
Hebrew calendar5398–5399
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1694–1695
 - Shaka Samvat1559–1560
 - Kali Yuga4738–4739
Holocene calendar11638
Igbo calendar638–639
Iranian calendar1016–1017
Islamic calendar1047–1048
Japanese calendarKan'ei 15
(寛永15年)
Javanese calendar1559–1560
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3971
Minguo calendar274 before ROC
民前274年
Nanakshahi calendar170
Thai solar calendar2180–2181
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1764 or 1383 or 611
    — to —
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1765 or 1384 or 612
June 20: Battle of Kallo

1638 (MDCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1638th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 638th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1638, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Events

January–June

  • February 28 – The Scottish National Covenant is signed in Edinburgh, Scotland.[1]
  • March 3Battle of Rheinfelden: A mercenary army under Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, fighting for France, defeats Imperial forces.[2]
  • March 5Thirty Years' War – The Treaty of Hamburg is signed by France and Sweden.
  • March 22Anne Hutchinson is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy, and goes to Rhode Island.
  • March 29 – Settlers from Sweden arrive on the ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip, to establish the settlement of New Sweden in Delaware, beginning the Swedish colonization of the Americas.
  • April 3John Wheelwright is banished from Boston, and founds Exeter, New Hampshire.
  • April 15Shogunate forces defeat the last remnants of the Shimabara Rebellion, in the fortress of Hara.
  • May 13 – Construction begins on the Red Fort in Delhi (India) for Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan who is transferring his capital there from Agra.
  • May 23 – The Kandyan Treaty is signed between Singhala King Rajasimha II and the Dutch, to rid Ceylon of the Portuguese.
  • June 20Eighty Years' WarBattle of Kallo: Spanish troops under Ferdinand of Austria defeat a much larger Dutch force, near Antwerp.
  • June 27Patriarch Cyril of Constantinople is deposed for high treason, and strangled and thrown into the sea by Janissaries, on Ottoman Sultan Murad IV's command.

July–December

  • September 21 – The Treaty of Hartford is signed, ending the Pequot War between British American colonists and the Pequot.
  • September – John Spofford arrives in Boston Harbor, on the ship John of London, and is one of the first people to establish Rowely, Essex County, Massachusetts.
  • October 21The Great Thunderstorm breaks out in Widecombe-in-the-Moor, England.
  • November – The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is summoned to Glasgow, by King Charles I of England.
  • December 18Cardinal Mazarin becomes the first adviser to French potentate Richelieu, on the death of Leclerc du Tremblay.
  • December 21 – The full moon is in total eclipse from 1:12 to 2:47 UT, and the solstice occurs later in the day, at 16:05 UT.
  • December 25Capture of Baghdad by the Ottomans under Sultan Murad IV.

Date unknown

  • Scottish Covenanters meet at Muchalls Castle, to compose responses to the Bishops of Aberdeen.
  • Pedro Teixeira makes the first ascent of the Amazon River, from its mouth to Quito, Ecuador (the same trip had been made in the opposite direction, in 1541).
  • Dutch merchant Willem Kieft is appointed Director of New Amsterdam, by the Dutch West India Company.
  • The Netherlands colonizes Mauritius.
  • The Dutch settle in Ceylon.
  • The Finnish postal service, now called Suomen Posti, is founded.
  • New Haven, the first planned city in America, is founded.
  • Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his sons capture the city of Kandahar, from the Safavids.
  • Shipwrecked English buccaneer Peter Wallace, called Ballis by the Spanish, settles near and perhaps gives his name to the Belize River, the first known European settlement in Belize.
  • The Peking Gazette makes an official switch in its production process of newspapers, from woodblock printing to movable type printing (private newspapers in Ming Dynasty China were first mentioned in 1582).

Births

Elisabetta Sirani
Shunzhi Emperor
Frederik Ruysch
Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve
Louis XIV of France

January–March

  • January 1
    • Antoinette du Ligier de la Garde Deshoulières, French writer (d. 1694)
    • Emperor Go-Sai of Japan (d. 1685)
    • Nicolas Steno, Danish pioneer in anatomy and geology, bishop (d. 1686)
  • January 7
    • Filippo Bonanni, Italian Jesuit scholar (d. 1723)
    • Marie Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, German noblewoman (d. 1687)
  • January 8Elisabetta Sirani, Italian painter (d. 1665)
  • January 12Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg, Austrian field marshal (d. 1701)
  • January 20Sir William Glynne, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1690)
  • January 21
    • David Elias Heidenreich, German poet, dramatist, librettist and translator (d. 1688)
    • Beata Rosenhane, Swedish writer (d. 1674)
  • February 13Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Grabow, German nobleman, titular Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1688)
  • February 18Ikeda Tsunamasa, Japanese daimyō, ruler of the Okayama Domain (d. 1714)
  • February 25Jørgen Iversen Dyppel, Governor of the Danish West Indies (d. 1683)
  • February 28John Carmichael, 1st Earl of Hyndford, Scottish nobleman (d. 1710)
  • March 6
    • Henry Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Tewkesbury, First Lord of the British Admiralty (d. 1696)
    • Statz Friedrich von Fullen, German-born nobleman, Geheimrat of war for Poland (d. 1703)
  • March 10John Vesey, Irish archbishop (d. 1716)
  • March 14Johann Georg Gichtel, German mystic and religious leader, critic of Lutheranism (d. 1710)
  • March 15Shunzhi Emperor of China (d. 1661)
  • March 16François Crépieul, Jesuit missionary in Canada (d. 1702)
  • March 28Frederik Ruysch, Dutch physician and anatomist (d. 1731)

April–June

  • April 2
    • Sir Henry Beaumont, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1689)
    • John Covel, English clergyman and scientist, Master of Christ's College (d. 1722)
  • May 9Gregorio Vasquez de Arce y Ceballos, Colombian painter (d. 1711)
  • May 11Guy-Crescent Fagon, French physician and botanist (d. 1718)
  • May 12Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra, Spanish artist (d. 1688)
  • May 13Richard Simon, French Biblical critic (d. 1712)
  • May 29John Manners, 1st Duke of Rutland, English nobleman and politician (d. 1711)
  • June 2Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, English nobleman (d. 1709)
  • June 3Thomas Smith, English scholar (d. 1710)
  • June 8Pierre Magnol, French botanist (d. 1715)
  • June 21Sir William Roberts, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1688)
  • June 23Princess Christine Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, German noblewoman (d. 1679)
  • June 27Samuel Frisching, Bernese soldier and politician (d. 1721)
  • June 28Louise Marie de La Grange d'Arquien, French noblewoman (d. 1728)
  • June 29Heinrich Meibom, German physicist and scholar (d. 1700)

July–September

  • July 10David Teniers III, Flemish painter (d. 1685)
  • July 11Olympia Mancini, French courtier (d. 1708)
  • July 15Giovanni Buonaventura Viviani, Italian composer (d. 1693)
  • July 20Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, leading Norwegian general during the Scanian War (d. 1704)
  • July 25Cristobal of Saint Catherine, Spanish Catholic priest (d. 1690)
  • August 3William Louis, Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (1650–1665) (d. 1665)
  • August 6Nicolas Malebranche, French philosopher (d. 1715)[3]
  • August 7John Tufton, 4th Earl of Thanet, English politician (d. 1680)
  • August 13Durgadas Rathore, Indian ruler (d. 1718)
  • August 15Pieter de Graeff, Dutch politician and noble (d. 1707)
  • August 22Georg Christoph Eimmart, German engraver (d. 1705)
  • September 5 – King Louis XIV of France, King of France from 1643 until his death (d. 1715)
  • September 10Maria Theresa of Spain, French queen, married to Louis XIV of France (d. 1683)
  • September 19Isaac Milles, English minister (d. 1720)
  • September 20Antonio Gherardi, Italian painter (d. 1702)
  • September 21Philippe de Courcillon, French officer and author (d. 1720)
  • September 30Maximilian Philipp Hieronymus, Duke of Bavaria-Leuchtenberg, German nobleman (d. 1705)

October–December

  • October 7Miguel Jerónimo de Molina, Spanish prelate, Bishop of Malta, then of Lleida in Catalonia (d. 1698)
  • October 14Bernhard II, Duke of Saxe-Jena, German noble (d. 1678)
  • October 17John Charles, Count Palatine of Gelnhausen (1654–1704) (d. 1704)
  • October 21Lucia Wijbrants, Dutch artist (d. 1719)
  • October 31Meindert Hobbema, Dutch painter (d. 1709)
  • November 4Nuno Álvares Pereira de Melo, 1st Duke of Cadaval, Portuguese nobleman and statesman (d. 1725)
  • November 8Anton van Dale, Dutch minister (d. 1708)
  • November 22Christoph Cellarius, German classical scholar (d. 1707)
  • November 25Catherine of Braganza, Portuguese princess, queen consort of Charles II of England (d. 1705)[4]
  • November 30Joachim Feller, German professor at the University of Leipzig (d. 1691)
  • December 17Anna Sophia II, Abbess of Quedlinburg, Abbesses of Quedlinburg (d. 1683)
  • December 24Tomás de la Cerda, 3rd Marquis of la Laguna, Spanish nobleman (d. 1692)
  • December 25Michel Bégon, French ancien regime official (d. 1710)

Date unknown

  • Hannah Allen, British writer (d. 1668)

Deaths

Cornelis van Haarlem
Barbara Longhi
  • January 21Ignazio Donati, Italian composer (b. c. 1570)
  • January 27Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses, Spanish novelist (b. c. 1585)
  • February 26Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac, French mathematician (b. 1581)
  • March 2William Spring of Pakenham, Member of Parliament (b. 1588)
  • March 22Johann, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (b. 1578)
  • April 1Henry Ley, 2nd Earl of Marlborough, English politician (b. 1595)
  • April 7Shimazu Tadatsune, Japanese ruler of Satsuma (b. 1576)
  • April 13Henri, Duke of Rohan, French Huguenot leader (b. 1579)
  • April 19Jeremias Drexel, Jesuit writer and professor of rhetoric (b. 1581)
  • April 26Margareta Brahe, Swedish political activist (b. 1564)
  • May 6
    • Cornelius Jansen, French bishop and religious reformer (b. 1585)[5]
    • Gaj Singh of Marwar, Raja of Marwar Kingdom (r (b. 1595)
  • May 9Frederick I, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (b. 1585)
  • May 27Pietro Paolo Floriani, Italian architect (b. 1585)
  • June 25Juan Pérez de Montalbán, Spanish writer (b. 1602)
  • July 27John VIII, Count of Nassau-Siegen (b. 1583)
  • July 31Sibylla Schwarz, German poet (b. 1621)
  • August 3Philipp Moritz, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg, German noble (b. 1605)
  • August 10Anton Henry, Count of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1586–1638) (b. 1571)
  • August 12Baltasar Marradas, Spanish count (b. 1560)
  • August 13Carolus Mulerius, Dutch Hispanist (b. 1601)
  • August 27John Hoskins, English poet (b. 1566)
  • SeptemberChristoph Besold, German jurist (b. 1577)
  • September 5Dorothea of Hanau-Münzenberg, German noblewoman (b. 1556)
  • September 14John Harvard, American clergyman (b. 1607)
  • September 24Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1604–1622) (b. 1573)
  • October 6Jacob Dircksz de Graeff, Dutch mayor (b. 1579)
  • October 4Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy (b. 1632)
  • October 8Raja Wodeyar II, King of Mysore (b. 1612)
  • October 14Gabriello Chiabrera, Italian poet (b. 1552)
  • October 23John Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Eisenach, German duke (b. 1566)
  • October 28Robert Petre, 3rd Baron Petre, English baron (b. 1599)
  • November 9Johann Heinrich Alsted, German theologian (b. 1588)
  • November 11Cornelis Corneliszoon van Haarlem, Dutch painter (b. 1562)
  • November 16Edward Cecil, 1st Viscount Wimbledon (b. 1572)
  • November 19Lelio Biscia, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1575)
  • November 27
    • Redemptus of the Cross, Portuguese Carmelite lay brother and martyr (b. 1598)
    • Denis of the Nativity, French sailor and cartographer (b. 1600)
  • December 8Ivan Gundulić, Croatian poet (b. 1589)
  • December 13Catherine of Sweden, Countess Palatine of Kleeburg (b. 1584)
  • December 17François Leclerc du Tremblay (b. 1577)
  • December 23Barbara Longhi, Italian painter (b. 1552)

References

  1. ^ Lynch, Michael (ed.). The Oxford companion to Scottish history. Oxford University Press. p. 436. ISBN 9780199693054.
  2. ^ Parrott, David (2001). Richelieu's army : war, government, and society in France, 1624-1642. Cambridge, U.K. New York, N.Y: Cambridge University Press. p. 205. ISBN 9780521792097.
  3. ^ Nadler, Steven (2000). The Cambridge companion to Malebranche. Cambridge England New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780521627290.
  4. ^ Panton, Kenneth (2011). Historical dictionary of the British monarchy. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press. p. 562. ISBN 9780810874978.
  5. ^ Carey, Patrick (2000). Biographical dictionary of Christian theologians. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 273. ISBN 9780313296499.

Historical Events in 1638

Media files used on this page

Portrait of Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Count of Laurvig (1638-1704).JPG
Portrait of Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, Count of Laurvig, viceroy of norway (1638-1704) son of Frederick iii of denmark norway
清 佚名 《清世祖顺治皇帝朝服像》.jpg
清 佚名 《清世祖顺治皇帝朝服像》
Frederik Ruysch, by Jurriaen Pool.jpg
Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731)
  • oil on canvas
  • 49 x 41 cm
  • 1694
Battle of Kallo.jpg
The Battle of Kallo, 1638