Millennium:2nd millennium
  • 16th century
  • 17th century
  • 18th century
  • 1590s
  • 1600s
  • 1610s
  • 1620s
  • 1630s
  • 1609
  • 1610
  • 1611
  • 1612
  • 1613
  • 1614
  • 1615
1612 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1612
Ab urbe condita2365
Armenian calendar1061
Assyrian calendar6362
Balinese saka calendar1533–1534
Bengali calendar1019
Berber calendar2562
English Regnal yearJa. 1 – 10 Ja. 1
Buddhist calendar2156
Burmese calendar974
Byzantine calendar7120–7121
Chinese calendar辛亥(Metal Pig)
4308 or 4248
    — to —
壬子年 (Water Rat)
4309 or 4249
Coptic calendar1328–1329
Discordian calendar2778
Ethiopian calendar1604–1605
Hebrew calendar5372–5373
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1668–1669
 - Shaka Samvat1533–1534
 - Kali Yuga4712–4713
Holocene calendar11612
Igbo calendar612–613
Iranian calendar990–991
Islamic calendar1020–1021
Japanese calendarKeichō 17
Javanese calendar1532–1533
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3945
Minguo calendar300 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar144
Thai solar calendar2154–2155
Tibetan calendar阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1738 or 1357 or 585
    — to —
(male Water-Rat)
1739 or 1358 or 586
November 30: Battle of Swally

1612 (MDCXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1612th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 612th year of the 2nd millennium, the 12th year of the 17th century, and the 3rd year of the 1610s decade. As of the start of 1612, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.



  • January 6Axel Oxenstierna becomes Lord High Chancellor of Sweden. He persuades the Riksdag of the Estates to grant the Swedish nobility the right and privilege to hold all higher offices of government.
  • January 20Matthias becomes Holy Roman Emperor, upon the death of Rudolf II.[1]
  • January 20November 4An uprising in Moscow expels Polish troops.
  • March 2False Dmitry III is recognised as tsar by the Cossacks.
  • April 11Edward Wightman, a radical Anabaptist, is the last person to be executed for heresy in England, by burning at the stake in Lichfield.[1]
  • May 10Shah Jahan marries Mumtaz Mahal.[2]
  • May 2325 – A SicilianNeapolitan galley fleet defeats the Tunisians at La Goulette.
  • June 13Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, is formally elected.[1]


  • July 22 – Four women and one man are hanged, following the Northamptonshire witch trials in Northampton, England.
  • August 20 – Ten Pendle witches are hanged, having been found guilty of practising witchcraft in Lancashire, England.
  • August 26Battle of Kringen: A Scottish mercenary force is destroyed in Norway.
  • November 29Battle of Swally, in which the English fleet beat the Portuguese
  • November 29 – The Treaty of Nasuh Pasha is signed, between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire.
  • November 30Battle of Swally: Forces of the English East India Company and Portugal engage off the coast of India, resulting in an English victory.[3]
  • December 15Simon Marius is the first to observe the Andromeda Galaxy through a telescope.
  • December 28Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune when in conjunction with Jupiter, yet he mistakenly catalogues it as a fixed star, because of its extremely slow motion along the ecliptic. Neptune is not truly discovered as a planet until 1846, about 234 years later when Johann Gottfried Galle first sights it in the Berlin Observatory.

Date unknown

  • Jamestown: John Rolfe exports the first crop of improved tobacco (seeds from Trinidad).
  • The Nagoya Castle is completed in Japan.
  • The Okamoto Daihachi incident in Japan.
  • Thomas Shelton's English translation of the first half of Don Quixote is published. It is the first translation of the Spanish novel into any language.


Thomas Killigrew
Pier Francesco Mola
Joannes Meyssens
Margherita de' Medici
Frans Post


  • January 17Thomas Fairfax, English Civil War general (d. 1671)[4]
  • January 21Henry Casimir I of Nassau-Dietz, Stadtholder of Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe (d. 1640)
  • January 22Daniel Zwicker, German physician (d. 1678)
  • January 23George FitzGerald, 16th Earl of Kildare, Irish earl (d. 1660)
  • February 1William West, English politician (d. 1670)
  • February 2Thomas Wentworth, 5th Baron Wentworth, English baron and politician (d. 1665)
  • February 4Arthur Spry, English politician (d. 1685)
  • February 5Crown Prince Sohyeon, Korean crown prince (d. 1645)
  • February 6Antoine Arnauld, French theologian (d. 1694)
  • February 7Thomas Killigrew, English dramatist and theatre manager (d. 1683)[5]
  • February 9Pier Francesco Mola, Italian painter of the High Baroque (d. 1666)
  • February 15Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, French military officer, founder of Montreal in New France (d. 1676)
  • February 20Richard Olmsted, Connecticut settler (d. 1687)
  • February 21Lorenzo Imperiali, Italian cardinal (d. 1673)
  • February 22 (bapt.)George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol, English statesman (d. 1677)
  • March 20Anne Bradstreet, née Dudley, English-born American Puritan poet (d. 1672)


  • April 6James Stewart, 1st Duke of Richmond (d. 1655)
  • April 10Francesco Lorenzo Brancati di Lauria, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1693)
  • April 12Simone Cantarini, Italian painter and engraver (d. 1648)
  • April 28Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1622 to 1646 (d. 1646)
  • May 6François-Joseph Bressani, Italian missionary (d. 1672)
  • May 10Francesco Palliola, Italian Servant of God (d. 1648)
  • May 12Laurence Womock, English Bishop of St David's (d. 1687)
  • May 17
    • Matthew Babington, English politician (d. 1669)
    • Joannes Meyssens, Flemish painter (d. 1670)
  • May 26Raja Wodeyar II, King of Mysore (d. 1638)
  • May 31Margherita de' Medici, Italian noble (d. 1679)
  • June 1Frans Post, Dutch painter (d. 1680)
  • June 23André Tacquet, Brabantian mathematician, Jesuit priest (d. 1660)
  • June 25John Albert Vasa, Polish bishop (d. 1634)
  • June 29Sir William Bowyer, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1679)


  • July 23Christian Lupus, Flemish historian (d. 1681)
  • July 27Murad IV, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1640)
  • August 2Saskia van Uylenburgh, wife of painter Rembrandt van Rijn (d. 1642)
  • August 10Charles de Grimaldi-Régusse, French aristocrat (d. 1687)
  • August 12Allart Pieter van Jongestall, Dutch jurist, politician, and diplomat (d. 1676)
  • August 17Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, Polish nobleman (d. 1651)
  • August 23Francis Lascelles, English politician (d. 1667)
  • August 28Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn, Dutch scholar (d. 1653)
  • September 1Nicolas Chorier, French historian, lawyer and writer (d. 1692)
  • September 24William Gawdy, English politician (d. 1669)


  • October 6
    • Claude Françoise de Lorraine, Princess of Lorraine (d. 1648)
    • Louis Maracci, Italian priest (d. 1700)
  • October 14
    • Pierre Bailloquet, French missionary (d. 1692)
    • Thomas Fitch, Connecticut settler (d. 1704)
  • October 18John Eliot, English politician (d. 1685)
  • October 19Nicolas Chaperon, French painter (d. 1656)
  • October 20Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Burlington, Anglo-Irish nobleman, Lord High Treasurer of Ireland, Cavalier (d. 1698)
  • October 23Henry Lingen, English politician (d. 1662)
  • October 25James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, Scottish soldier (d. 1650)
  • October 26Henry Wilmot, 1st Earl of Rochester (d. 1658)
  • October 27Margravine Magdalene Sibylle of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, Electress of Saxony by marriage (1656–1680) (d. 1687)
  • October 30Paul Würtz, Swedish general (d. 1676)
  • November 7Pierre Mignard, French painter (d. 1695)
  • November 11
    • Jean Garnier, French historian (d. 1681)
    • August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, Danish-German prince and member of the House of Oldenburg (d. 1675)
    • Richard Sherlock, English priest (d. 1689)
  • November 17Dorgon, Chinese Manchu prince (d. 1650)
  • November 28Sir Thomas Whitmore, 1st Baronet, English politician and Baronet (d. 1653)
  • December 2David Ryckaert III, Flemish painter (d. 1661)


Leonard Holliday
Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah
Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua
Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp
John Salusbury


  • January 4Hendrik Laurenszoon Spiegel, Dutch writer (b. 1549)
  • January 9Leonard Holliday, Lord Mayor of London, 1605-1606 (b. 1550)
  • January 11Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda; founded the city of Hyderabad (b. 1565)
  • January 12Charles III de Croÿ, Belgian noble (b. 1560)
  • January 13Jane Dormer, English lady-in-waiting to Mary I (b. 1538)
  • January 20Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Austrian Habsburg ruler (b. 1552)[6]
  • February 6Christopher Clavius, German mathematician and astronomer (b. 1538)
  • February 9Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (b. 1562)
  • February 12Jodocus Hondius, Flemish cartographer (b. 1563)
  • February 17Ernest of Bavaria, German Catholic bishop (b. 1554)
  • February 18Roberto di Ridolfi, Italian conspirator against Elizabeth I of England (b. 1531)[7]
  • February 21Christian Barnekow, Danish noble, explorer and diplomat (b. 1556)
  • March 16Margaret Fiennes, 11th Baroness Dacre (b. 1541)
  • March 18Bartholomew Legate, English anti-Trinitarian martyr (b. c. 1575)
  • March 19Sophia Olelkovich Radziwill, Polish-Lithuanian noble (b. 1585)


  • April 5Diana Scultori, Italian engraver
  • April 8Anne Catherine of Brandenburg (b. 1575)
  • April 11
    • Emanuel van Meteren, Flemish historian (b. 1535)[8]
    • Edward Wightman, English Baptist preacher (burned at the stake) (b. 1580)
  • April 19Anne d'Escars de Givry, French Catholic cardinal (b. 1546)
  • April 21David van Goorle, theologian and theoretical scientist (b. 1591)
  • MayFalse Dmitry III, pretender to the Russian throne (secretly executed)[9]
  • May 19Gregorio Petrocchini, Italian Cardinal Bishop, Conclave member, Cardinal protector of the Augustines (b. 1535)
  • May 24Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, English statesman and spymaster (b. 1563)
  • May 31Willem Isaacsz Swanenburg, Dutch engraver (b. 1580)
  • June 5Arima Harunobu, Japanese daimyō (b. 1567)
  • June 8Hans Leo Hassler, German composer (b. 1562)
  • June 21Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp (b. 1561)
  • June 26Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland, eldest surviving son of John Manners (b. 1576)


  • July 16Leonardo Donato, Doge of Venice (b. 1536)
  • July 24
    • Ottavio Mirto Frangipani, Italian bishop and papal diplomat (b. 1544)
    • John Salusbury, Welsh politician (b. 1567)[10]
  • July 29Jacques Bongars, French scholar and diplomat (b. 1554)[11]
  • August 3John Bond, English politician and classicist (b. 1550)
  • August 4Hugh Broughton, English scholar (b. 1549)
  • August 9Philipp Ludwig II, Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (1580–1612) (b. 1576)
  • August 12Giovanni Gabrieli, Italian composer (b. c. 1554)
  • August 15Michael Hicks, English politician (b. 1543)
  • August 18Giacomo Boncompagni, Italian feudal lord of the 16th century (b. 1548)
  • August 20Naitō Nobunari, Japanese samurai and daimyō of Omi Province (b. 1545)
  • September 9Nakagawa Hidenari, Japanese warlord (b. 1570)
  • September 12 – Tsar Vasili IV of Russia (b. 1552)
  • September 13Karin Månsdotter, Queen of Sweden (b. 1550)
  • September 24Johannes Lippius, German theologian, philosopher, composer, and music theorist (b. 1585)[12]
  • September 27Piotr Skarga, Polish Jesuit and polemicist (b. 1536)[13]
  • September 28Ernst Soner, German physician (b. 1572)


  • October 7
    • Menso Alting, Dutch preacher and reformer (b. 1541)
    • Giovanni Battista Guarini, Italian poet (b. 1538)[14]
  • October 10Bernardino Poccetti, Italian painter (b. 1548)
  • October 23János Petki, Hungarian politician (b. 1572)
  • October 28Edward Darcy, English politician (b. 1544)
  • November 1Charles, Count of Soissons, French prince du sang and military commander in the struggles over religion and the throne (b. 1566)
  • November 2Maurice, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, 1581–1612 (b. 1551)
  • November 6
    • Nicholas Fitzherbert, English martyr (b. 1550)
    • Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, elder son of King James I & VI and Anne of Denmark (b. 1594)[15]
  • November 9Paul Jenisch, German pastor (b. 1551)
  • November 16William Stafford, English spy (b. 1554)
  • November 20John Harington, English courtier, writer and inventor of a flush toilet (b. 1561)[16]
  • November 23
    • Juan Fernández de Olivera, Spanish colonial governor (b. 1560)
    • Elizabeth Jane Weston, English Czech poet (b. 1582)
  • November 26Thomas Walmsley, English judge (b. 1537)
  • December 4Jacob Taets van Amerongen, Teutonic Knights commander (b. 1542)
  • December 12Nicholas Mosley, Lord Mayor of London (b. 1527)
  • December 22Francesco IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (b. 1586)[17]

Date unknown

  • Federico Barocci, Italian painter (b. c. 1535)
  • Isabel Barreto, Spanish admiral (b. 1567)


  1. ^ a b c Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 244. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  2. ^ Soma Mukherjee (2001). Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions. Gyan Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-81-212-0760-7.
  3. ^ Manekshah Sorabshah Commissariat (1980). A History of Gujarat: Including a Survey of Its Chief Architectural Monuments and Inscriptions. Longmans, Green & Company, Limited. p. 192.
  4. ^ Geoffrey Ridsdill Smith; Margaret Toynbee; Peter Young (1977). Leaders of the Civil Wars, 1642-1648. Roundwood Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-900093-56-2.
  5. ^ Christopher Baker (2002). Absolutism and the Scientific Revolution, 1600-1720: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-313-30827-7.
  6. ^ "Rudolf II | Holy Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  7. ^ Hugh Chisholm; James Louis Garvin (1926). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature & General Information. Encyclopædia Britannica Company, Limited. p. 320.
  8. ^ Walpole Society (Great Britain) (1980). The ... Volume of the Walpole Society. Walpole Society. p. 205.
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc (1998). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-85229-633-2.
  10. ^ Edmund Gosse (January 28, 2019). The Life and Letters of John Donne, Vol I: Dean of St. Paul's. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-5326-7810-3.
  11. ^ Keith Busby (1993). Les Manuscrits de Chrétien de Troyes. Rodopi. p. 98. ISBN 90-5183-603-1.
  12. ^ Benito V. Rivera (1980). German Music Theory in the Early 17th Century: The Treatises of Johannes Lippius. UMI Research Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8357-1074-9.
  13. ^ Harvard Theological Studies. Scholars Press. 1995. p. 865. ISBN 978-0-8006-7085-6.
  14. ^ Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800. Gale Research Company. 2004. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7876-6968-3.
  15. ^ Robert L. Martensen; James a Knight Chair in Humanities and Ethics in Medicine and Professor of Surgery Robert L Martensen (April 8, 2004). The Brain Takes Shape: An Early History. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-19-515172-5.
  16. ^ Jason Scott-Warren (2001). Sir John Harington and the Book as Gift. Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-19-924445-4.
  17. ^ Ludwig Burchard; Roger Adolf d' Hulst (1963). Rubens Drawings. Arcade Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8390-9043-4.

Media files used on this page

Lady Katherine Grey and her son Lord Edward Beauchamp v2.jpg
Portrait of Lady Katherine or Catherine Grey (25 August 1540 - 26 January 1568) and her son Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp of Hache (21 September 1561 – 21 July 1612).
Vincenzo I Gonzaga nel giorno dell’incoronazione.jpg
Vincenzo I Gonzaga nel giorno dell’incoronazione.
Sir John Salisbury by Moses Griffith 02197.jpg

An image from a set of 8 extra-illustrated volumes of A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798) that chronicle the three journeys he made through Wales between 1773 and 1776. These volumes are unique because they were compiled for Pennant's own library at Downing. This edition was produced in 1781.

The volumes include a number of original drawings by Moses Griffiths, Ingleby and other well known artists of the period.

Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)
Sir Leonard Halliday.jpg
Sir Leonard Halliday; Lord Mayor of London 1605.
Battle of Swally.jpg
Gravure du XVIIIème siècle montrant la bataille de Swally livrée les 9/10 décembre 1612 entre des navires de la Bristish East India Company et la marine portugaise
Thomas Killigrew by Sir Anthony Van Dyck cropped.jpg
Cropped detail of Thomas Killigrew, by Sir Anthony Van Dyck (died 1641). See source website for additional information.
Jan Meyssens by his son Cornelis.jpg
Portrait of Jan Meyssens after a self-portrait, by his son.