1590s

The 1590s decade ran from January 1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.

Millennium:2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
  • 1590
  • 1591
  • 1592
  • 1593
  • 1594
  • 1595
  • 1596
  • 1597
  • 1598
  • 1599
Categories:
  • Births
  • Deaths
  • By country
  • By topic
  • Establishments
  • Disestablishments

Events

1590

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1591

January–June

  • March 13Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, forces sent by the Saadi Dynasty ruler of Morocco, Ahmad al-Mansur, and led by Judar Pasha, defeat the fractured Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.[6]
  • April 10English merchant James Lancaster sets off on a voyage to the East Indies.[7]
  • April 21 – Japanese tea-master Sen no Rikyū commits seppuku, on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
  • May 15 – In Russia, Tsarevich Dimitri, son of Ivan the Terrible, is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in Uglich. The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat during an epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his rival, Boris Godunov, who becomes tsar.
  • May 24 – Sir John Norreys, with an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England, takes the town of Guingamp after a brief siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre.
  • May 30Timbuktu is captured by an expedition of Arma people, sent by the Saadi ruler of Morocco, and led by Judar Pasha.
  • May 30Zutphen is captured by the Dutch and English, under Maurice of Nassau.
  • June 10Deventer is captured by the Dutch, under Maurice of Nassau.

July–December

Date unknown

1592

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1593

January–December

  • JanuarySiege of Pyongyang (1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated in Pyongyang by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops.[15]
  • January 18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2, Year of the Dragon, Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to January 25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal Thai Armed Forces Day.
  • January 27 – The Roman Inquisition opens the seven-year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno.
  • February 2 – Battle of Piątek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski are victorious.[16]
  • February 12Battle of Haengju: Korea defeats Japan.[17]
  • March 7 (February 25 Old Style) – The Uppsala Synod discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle between the Swedish Reformation and Counter-Reformation ends in Sweden.
  • March 14 – The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in mm/dd/yyyy format (this year Flemish mathematician Adriaan van Roomen arrives at 15 decimal places of Pi using the polygon approximation method).
  • April 18Anglo-Spanish War: Naval Battle of Blaye in the Gironde estuary sees a Spanish victory over the blockading English fleet, allowing the Spanish to relieve the French Catholic garrison of Blaye.[18]
  • After April – William Shakespeare's poem Venus and Adonis probably becomes his first published work, printed in London from his own manuscript. In his lifetime it will be his most frequently reprinted work: at least nine times.[19]
  • May 5 – "Dutch church libel" bills posted in London threaten Protestant refugees from France and the Netherlands, alluding to Christopher Marlowe's plays.
  • May 12 – English dramatist Thomas Kyd is arrested over the "Dutch church libel". "Atheist" literature found in his home is claimed to be Marlowe's.
  • May 18 – A warrant for the arrest of Christopher Marlowe is issued. On May 20 he presents himself to the Privy Council.
  • May 30Christopher Marlowe is stabbed to death in a dispute over a bill at a lodging house in Deptford.[20]
  • June 7 – Battle of Salbertrand in Piedmont: Victory of François de Bonne, Duke of Lesdiguières, over the Spanish of Rodrigue Alvarez of Toledo, allies of Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy.[21]
  • June 22Battle of Sisak in Croatia: The Habsburgs defeat the Ottoman Empire.[22]
  • July 25 – As he promised in January, Henry IV of France abjures Protestantism at the Basilica of Saint-Denis.[23] Legend attributes to him the saying Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a mass").[24]
  • July 29 – The Long War breaks out in Hungary between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
  • October 2425 – Supposed date of the event described in the 1593 transported soldier legend.

Date unknown

  • Mihai Viteazul becomes prince of Walachia.
  • Robert Bellarmine's Disputationes de Controversiis Christianae Fidei adversus hujus temporis Haereticos ("Controversiae") concludes publication in Ingolstadt.
  • Henry Constable's Spirituall Sonnettes are written.[25]
  • The parish of Laukaa was founded.[26]
  • Khwaja Usman takes shelter in Goyghor Mosque after the Afghan rebellion against the Subahdar of Mughal Bengal, Man Singh I.[27]

1594

January–June

  • March 21Henry IV enters his capital of Paris for the first time.
  • April 17Hyacinth of Poland is canonized.
  • May
  • June 5Willem Barents makes his first voyage to the Arctic Ocean, in search of the Northeast Passage.
  • June 11Philip II of Spain recognizes the rights and privileges of the local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, which paves the way for the stabilization of the rule of the Principalía.
  • June 2223Anglo-Spanish War: Action of Faial – In the Azores, an English attempt to capture the large Portuguese carrack Cinco Chagas, reputedly one of the richest ever to set sail from the East Indies, causes it to explode with the loss of all but 13 of the 700 on board, and all the treasure.

July–December

Date unknown

1595

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1596

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

  • Elizabeth I of England decrees that all Africans should be removed from the British realm, in reaction to the food crisis.[35]
  • The first water closet, by Sir John Harington, is installed in a manor near Kelston in England.
  • King Sigismund III Vasa moves the capital of Poland from Kraków to Warsaw.
  • Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, is founded.
  • The Black Death hits parts of Europe.
  • Dutch ships, commanded by Frederick de Houtman, reach Sumatra and Java for the first time.
  • The fourth of a five year run of poor harvests, largely caused by the weather, a pattern typical of the last third of the century. This causes famine throughout Europe, which leads to food riots in Britain.[36]

1597

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

  • Abbas I ends the Uzbek raids on his lands.
  • Yaqob succeeds his father Sarsa Dengel, as Emperor of Ethiopia at the age of 7.
  • Jacopo Peri writes Dafne, now recognised as the first opera.
  • The first edition of Francis Bacon's Essays is published.[41]
  • Andreas Libavius publishes Alchemia, a pioneering chemistry textbook.[42]
  • 12 million pesos of silver cross the Pacific. Although it is unknown just how much silver flowed from the Spanish base of Manila in the Philippines to the Ming Dynasty of China, it is known that the main port for the Mexican silver trade—Acapulco—shipped out 150,000 to 345,000 kg (4 to 9 million taels) of silver annually from this year to 1602.
  • Tobias Hess corresponds with Simon Studion and agrees with him that the Papacy must fall in 1604.

1598

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1599

January–June

July–December

  • July – Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch fleet returns to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of cloves and nutmeg.
  • July 24Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is dethroned by his uncle Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, when he becomes King Charles IX.
  • August 15 – First Battle of Curlew Pass: Irish forces defeat the English.
  • September 21 – The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre in London (erected over Spring/Summer), a presentation of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (probably new to that year), is recorded by Swiss traveller Thomas Platter the Younger.
  • September 28 – The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying the Queen's strict orders.
  • October 18Battle of Sellenberk: Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the army of Andrew Báthory near Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanians.
  • November 10 – The Åbo Bloodbath takes place in Åbo, Swedish Finland.
  • NovemberPersian embassy to Europe (1599–1602): A Persian embassy arrives in Moscow.
  • December 19 – The forces of Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and his ally Min Razagyi of the Kingdom of Mrauk U end the First Toungoo Empire by capturing Pegu (modern-day Bago, Myanmar).

Date unknown

Births

1590

Emperor Ahmed I
  • January 9Simon Vouet, French painter (d. 1649)[50]
  • January 13Arthur Bell, English Franciscan martyr (d. 1643)
  • January 20Edward Convers, American settler (d. 1663)
  • January 27Charles Caesar, English politician and judge (d. 1642)
  • January 30Lady Anne Clifford, 14th Baroness de Clifford (d. 1676)
  • February 7Barthold Nihus, Roman Catholic priest (d. 1657)
  • March – Roger Ludlow, one of the founders of the colony (later the state) of Connecticut (d. 1664)
  • March 6Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament, French Discalced Carmelite nun (d. 1660)
  • March 10Dietrich Reinkingk, German lawyer and politician (d. 1664)
  • March 18Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Spanish and Portuguese historian and poet (d. 1649)
  • March 29Michael Reyniersz Pauw, Dutch businessman (d. 1640)
  • April 7
    • Louis de Dieu, Dutch theologian (d. 1642)
    • John Upton, English politician (d. 1641)
  • April 18Ahmed I, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1617)
  • May – William Cecil, 17th Baron de Ros (d. 1618)
  • May 3Franco Burgersdijk, Dutch logician (d. 1635)
  • May 5
    • John Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1636)
    • Jakub Sobieski, Polish noble (d. 1646)
  • May 12Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (d. 1621)[51]
  • May 31Frances Carr, Countess of Somerset (d. 1632)
  • June 1Isaac Manasses de Pas, Marquis de Feuquieres, French soldier (d. 1640)
  • June 9Caspar Sibelius, Dutch Protestant minister (d. 1658)
  • June 19Philip Bell, British colonial governor (d. 1678)
  • June 24Samuel Ampzing, Dutch linguist and historian (d. 1632)
  • June 29Edward Rodney, English politician (d. 1657)
  • July 3Lucrezia Orsina Vizzana, Italian singer and composer (d. 1662)
  • July 13Pope Clement X (d. 1676)[52]
  • July 26Johannes Crellius, Polish–German theologian (d. 1633)
  • August 6 – Count John Louis of Nassau-Hadamar (d. 1653)
  • August 7Charles of Austria, Bishop of Wroclaw (d. 1624)
  • August 9John Webster, colonial settler and governor of Connecticut (d. 1661)
  • August 19Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, English soldier (d. 1649)
  • August 27Ferruccio Baffa Trasci, Italian bishop (d. 1656)
  • August 30Anthony Stapley, English politician (d. 1655)
  • September 12María de Zayas, Spanish writer (d. 1661)
  • September 15Erasmus Earle, English barrister and politician (d. 1667)
  • October 3Anna of Pomerania, Duchess-Consort of Croy and Havré (d. 1660)
  • October 11William Pynchon, English colonist and fur trader in North America (d. 1662)
  • November 25Juan Alonso de Cuevas y Davalos, Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Mexico and Antequera (d. 1665)
  • December 3Daniel Seghers, Flemish Jesuit brother and painter (d. 1661)
  • December 14John West, colonial governor of Virginia (d. 1659)
  • December 18William Louis, Count of Nassau-Saarbrücken (d. 1640)
  • Angelica Veronica Airola, Italian painter (d. 1670)
  • Boris Morozov, Russian statesman and boyar (d. 1661)
  • Isaac de Caus, French landscaper (d. 1648)
  • Yamada Nagamasa, Japanese adventurer (d. 1630)
  • William Bradford, English leader of Plymouth Colony (d. 1657)
  • William Browne, English poet (d. 1645)
  • Theophilus Eaton, Puritan colonial merchant (d. 1658)
  • Kösem Sultan (d. 1651)
  • Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, Irish chronicler (d. 1643)
  • Marie Vernier, French actress (d. 1627)
  • Caterina Assandra, Italian composer (died c. 1618)
  • Magdalena Andersdotter, Norwegian-Faroese shipowner (d. 1650)
  • Teofila Chmielecka, Polish military role model (d. 1650)
  • Marie Fouquet, French medical writer and philanthropist (d. 1681)

1591

Michael de Sanctis
  • David Blondel, French Protestant clergyman (d. 1655)
  • Andrew Bobola, Polish Jesuit missionary and martyr (d. 1657)
  • Thomas Goffe, English dramatist (d. 1629)
  • William Lenthall, English politician of the Civil War period (d. 1662)

1592

Emperor Shah Jahan born on January 15
Sir John Eliot born on April 11
Francis Quarles born on May 8
Emperor Hong Taiji born on November 28

1593

Saint Jean de Brebeuf
Catherine de' Medici, Governor of Siena
Cesare Monti
Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg
  • January 1Sun Chuanting, Ming Dynasty general (d. 1643)
  • January 10Prince Maurice of Savoy, Catholic cardinal and Prince of Savoy (d. 1657)
  • February 8Louis de Nogaret de La Valette, French Catholic Cardinal (d. 1639)
  • February 24Henry de Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford, English noble (d. 1625)
  • March 1Franz Wilhelm von Wartenberg, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1661)
  • March 13Georges de La Tour, French Baroque painter (d. 1652)
  • March 20Jean de La Haye, French preacher and biblical scholar (d. 1661)
  • March 22Johann Ulrich Steigleder, German composer (d. 1635)
  • March 25Jean de Brébeuf, French Jesuit missionary who travelled to Canada in 1625 (d. 1649)
  • AprilMumtaz Mahal, Queen of India (d. 1631)
  • April 3George Herbert, Welsh-born English poet (d. 1633)[56]
  • April 4Edward Nicholas, English statesman (d. 1669)
  • April 12Nicholas Martyn, English politician (d. 1653)
  • April 13Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, English statesman (d. 1641)
  • April 19Sir John Hobart, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1647)
  • April 27Jérôme Lalemant, French Jesuit priest and missionary to Canada (d. 1673)
  • May 2
    • John Forbes, Scottish theologian (d. 1648)
    • Catherine de' Medici, Governor of Siena, Italian princess (d. 1629)
  • May 5Cesare Monti, Italian cardinal, Archbishop of Milan (d. 1650)
  • May 19
    • Jacob Jordaens, Flemish painter (d. 1678)
    • Claude Vignon, French painter (d. 1670)
  • June 3Richard Knightley, English politician (d. 1639)
  • June 8George I Rákóczi, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (d. 1648)
  • June 22Sir John Gell, 1st Baronet, Parliamentarian politician and military figure in the English Civil War (d. 1671)
  • June 23Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess of Saxe-Altenburg (d. 1650)
  • June 24Abraham von Franckenberg, German writer (d. 1652)
William, Margrave of Baden-Baden
Sixtinus Amama
Liborius Wagner
  • July 5Achille d'Étampes de Valençay, Knight of Malta (d. 1646)
  • July 8
    • Artemisia Gentileschi, Italian painter (d. 1656)[57]
    • Peter Sainthill, English politician (d. 1648)
  • July 20Henry Ernest, Count of Stolberg, then count of Stolberg-Ilsenburg (d. 1672)
  • July 30William, Margrave of Baden-Baden (1596–1677) (d. 1677)
  • August 9Izaak Walton, English writer (d. 1683)[58]
  • August 12Jonathan Brewster, American settler (d. 1659)
  • August 30Noël Juchereau, Quebec pioneer (d. 1648)
  • September 5Orazio Riminaldi, Italian painter (d. 1630)
  • September 8Toyotomi Hideyori, Japanese nobleman (d. 1615)
  • September 20Gottfried Scheidt, German composer (d. 1661)
  • September 22A. Matthäus Merian, Swiss cartographer (d. 1650)
  • September 26Francis Osborne, English writer (d. 1659)
  • October 6Jobst Herman, Count of Schaumburg (d. 1635)
  • October 9Nicolaes Tulp, Dutch anatomist and politician (d. 1674)
  • October 13Sixtinus Amama, Dutch Reformed theologian and orientalist (d. 1629)
  • October 23Michael Warton, English politician (d. 1645)
  • October 27Christoffer Urne, Governor General of Norway (d. 1663)
  • November 1Abel Servien, French diplomat (d. 1659)
  • November 25Alain de Solminihac, French bishop and beatified person (d. 1659)
  • December 5Liborius Wagner, German Roman Catholic priest (d. 1631)
  • December 11Sir William Airmine, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1651)
  • December 12
    • Adam Christian Agricola, German Evangelical preacher (d. 1645)
    • Nathaniel Bacon, English politician (d. 1660)
  • Leonardo Agostini, Italian antiquary (d. 1685)
  • Louis Barbier, French bishop (d. 1670)
  • Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford (d. 1641)
  • Claudia Rusca, Italian composer, singer, and organist (d. 1676)
  • Mervyn Tuchet, 2nd Earl of Castlehaven (d. 1631)
  • Anthony van Diemen, Dutch merchant (d. 1645)
  • Jerónimo Lobo, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (d. 1678)
  • Mikołaj Ostroróg, Polish nobleman (d. 1651)
  • Sir George Radcliffe, English politician (d. 1657)
  • Kimura Shigenari, Japanese samurai (d. 1615)
  • Giovanni Battista Pacetti, Italian painter (d. 1630)

1594

Maria Tesselschade Visscher
King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
  • July 6Frederick V, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1622–1659) (d. 1659)
  • July 10Bartolomeo Gennari, Italian painter (d. 1661)
  • July 14Beat Albrecht von Ramstein, German Catholic bishop (d. 1651)
  • August 4Aleksander Ludwik Radziwiłł, Polish noble (d. 1654)
  • August 5Stefano Durazzo, Italian cardinal (d. 1667)
  • August 16Queen Inyeol, Korean royal consort (d. 1636)
  • September 13Francesco Manelli, Italian composer (d. 1667)
  • September 30Antoine Girard de Saint-Amant, French poet (d. 1661)
  • October 4Johan Schatter, Dutch Golden Age member of the Haarlem schutterij (d. 1673)
  • October 27Johann Rudolf Wettstein, Swiss diplomat (d. 1666)
  • November 15Jean Puget de la Serre, French author and dramatist (d. 1665)
  • November 24Henry Grey, 10th Earl of Kent (d. 1651)
  • November 26James Ware, Irish genealogist (d. 1666)
  • November 30John Cosin, English churchman (d. 1672)
  • December 7Frederik Coning, Dutch Golden Age member of the Haarlem schutterij (d. 1636)
  • December 8Pierre Petit, French astronomer, military engineer, and physicist (d. 1677)
  • December 9 – King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Swedish king and general (d. 1632)
  • December 21Robert Sutton, 1st Baron Lexinton, English politician (d. 1668)
  • December 24Otto, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Prince of Hesse-Kassel, Administrator of Hersfeld Abbey (d. 1617)
  • December 27Ove Gjedde, Danish admiral, member of the interim government after the death of Christian IV (d. 1660)
  • John Bramhall, English Anglican clergyman and controversialist (d. 1663)
  • Peter Oliver, English miniaturist (d. 1648)
  • Tomasz Zamoyski, Polish nobleman (d. 1638)
  • Tarquinio Merula, Italian composer (d. 1665)

1595

Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Jan Marek Marci
Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł
  • January 15Henry Carey, 2nd Earl of Monmouth, English politician (d. 1661)
  • January 22George Rudolf of Liegnitz, Polish noble (d. 1653)
  • January 23Herman Fortunatus, Margrave of Baden-Rodemachern (d. 1665)
  • February 9Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess consort of Pomerania (d. 1650)
  • March 19Carlo de' Medici, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1666)
  • March 21Ferdinando Ughelli, Italian Cistercian monk and church historian (d. 1670)
  • March 23Bevil Grenville, English royalist soldier (d. 1643)
  • April 5John Wilson, English composer (d. 1674)
  • April 6
    • Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville, Prince of France (d. 1663)
    • Pieter de Molijn, Dutch painter (d. 1661)
  • April 12Miles Hobart, English politician (d. 1632)
  • April 30
    • Anne Lykke, Danish noble (d. 1641)
    • Henri II de Montmorency, French nobleman and military commander (d. 1632)
  • May 1Lars Kagg, Swedish count and military Officer (d. 1661)
  • May 3Aloysius Gottifredi, Italian Jesuit (d. 1652)
  • June 9 – King Wladislaus IV of Poland (d. 1648)[60]
  • June 10Aegidius Gelenius, German heraldist (d. 1656)
  • June 13
    • John Holles, 2nd Earl of Clare, English politician and Earl (d. 1666)
    • Jan Marek Marci, Bohemian physician and scientist (d. 1667)
  • June 19Guru Har Gobind, the Sixth Sikh Guru (d. 1644)
  • June 24Ulderico Carpegna, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1679)
  • Thomas Carew, English poet (d. 1645)
  • Miles Corbet, English Puritan politician (d. 1662)
  • Jean Desmarets, French writer (d. 1676)
  • Henry Herbert, English official (d. 1673)
  • Lars Kagg, Swedish soldier and politician (d. 1661)
  • Thomas May, English poet and historian (d. 1650)
  • Bartholomaeus Nigrinus, Polish Rosicrucian (d. 1646)
  • Pocahontas, Algonquian princess (d. 1617)
  • Mikołaj Potocki, Polish politician (d. 1651)
  • Robert Sempill the younger, Scottish writer (d. 1663)
  • Cornelius Vermuyden, Dutch engineer (d. 1683)
  • Dirck van Baburen, Dutch painter (d. 1624)
  • Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł, Lithuanian chancellor (d. 1656)

1596

Jan van Goyen
  • Francesco Buonamici, Italian architect, painter and engraver (d. 1677)[65]
  • John Dury, Scottish-born Calvinist minister (d. 1680)
  • Franz von Hatzfeld, Prince-Bishop of Würzburg (d. 1642)
  • Lucas Holstenius, German humanist (d. 1661)
  • Georg Jenatsch, Swiss political leader (d. 1639)
  • Richard Mather, American clergyman (d. 1669)
  • Horio Tadaharu, Japanese warlord (d. 1633)

1597

Henry Gage
Justus Sustermans
  • April 9John Davenport, English Puritan clergyman, co-founder of the American colony of New Haven (d. 1670)
  • April 13Giovanni Battista Hodierna, Italian astronomer (d. 1660)
  • April 23Alvise Contarini, Italian diplomat, nobleman (d. 1651)
  • May 13Cornelis Schut, Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver (d. 1655)
  • May 15Squire Bence, English politician (d. 1648)
  • May 25Veit Erbermann, German theologian (d. 1675)
  • May 31Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac, French author (d. 1654)
  • June 9Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, Dutch painter (d. 1665)
  • October 7Captain John Underhill, English settler and soldier (d. 1672)
  • October 13Otto Louis of Salm-Kyrburg-Mörchingen, Swedish general in the Thirty Years' War (d. 1634)
  • October 20Matthew Hutton, English politician (d. 1666)
  • November 15Juan Tellez-Girón y Enriquez de Ribera, 4th Duke of Osuna (d. 1656)
  • November 19Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, wife of George William (d. 1660)
  • December 16
    • George Albert I, Count of Erbach-Schönberg (d. 1647)
    • Pieter de Neyn, Dutch painter (d. 1639)
  • December 22Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (d. 1659)
  • December 23
    • Martin Opitz, German poet (d. 1639)
  • December 24Honoré II, Prince of Monaco (d. 1662)
  • Cristóbal Diatristán de Acuña, Spanish missionary and explorer (d. 1676)
  • Johan van Heemskerk, Dutch poet (d. 1656)
  • Cornelis Jol, Dutch naval commander and privateer (d. 1641)
  • Wang Wei, Chinese poet (d. 1647)

1598

1599

  • John Alden, English settler of Plymouth Colony (d. 1687)
  • Stefan Czarniecki, Polish military commander (d. 1665)
  • Lucy Hay, Countess of Carlisle, English courtier (d. 1660)
  • Charlotte Stanley, Countess of Derby defender of Latham House (d. 1664)
  • Jirgalang, Qing Dynasty prince (d. 1655)

Deaths

1590

Saint Catherine de Ricci

1591

John of the Cross
  • Ananias Dare, father of Virginia Dare, (b. circa 1560)
  • Virginia Dare, first English child born in America, (b. 1587) (Unverified)
  • Crispin van den Broeck, Flemish painter (b. 1523)
  • John Erskine of Dun, Scottish religious reformer (b. 1509)
  • Toyotomi Hidenaga, Japanese nobleman (b. 1540)
  • John Stubbs, English pamphleteer (b. 1543)
  • Veronica Franco, Italian poet and courtesan (b. 1546)

1592

Saint Paschal Baylon died on May 17, 1592
King John III of Sweden died on November 17, 1592

1593

Emperor Ogimachi
The Marlowe portrait, often claimed to be Christopher Marlowe, playwright

1594

Gerardus Mercator
  • February – Barnabe Googe, English poet (b. 1540)
  • February 2Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Italian composer (b. 1525)[82]
  • February 8Countess Palatine Elisabeth of Simmern-Sponheim, Duchess of Saxony (b. 1540)
  • April 16Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby (b. 1559), second in line to the throne of England[83]
  • April 29Thomas Cooper, English bishop, lexicographer, and writer (b. c. 1517)
  • May 2Edward Atslowe, English physician
  • May 15Charlotte de La Marck, French duchess (b. 1574)
  • May 30Bálint Balassi, Hungarian writer and noble (b. 1554)
  • May 31
  • June 3John Aylmer, English divine (b. 1521)
  • June 7Rodrigo Lopez, Queen Elizabeth's physician (executed for treason) (b. 1525)
  • June 14Orlande de Lassus, Flemish composer (b. 1532)[85]
  • June 29Niels Kaas, Danish chancellor (b. 1535)
  • July – Girolamo Mei, Italian historian and humanist (b. 1519)
  • July 10Paolo Bellasio, Italian composer and organist (b. 1554)
  • August 5Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (b. 1534)
  • October 8Ishikawa Goemon, Japanese ninja and thief (b. 1558)
  • October 16William Allen, English cardinal (b. 1532)
  • November 15 – Sir Martin Frobisher, British explorer (b. 1535)[86]
  • November 20Gaspar de Quiroga y Vela, General Inquisitor of Spain (b. 1512)
  • November 29Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga, Basque soldier and poet (b. 1533)
  • December 2Gerardus Mercator, Flemish-German cartographer (b. 1512)
  • December 16Allison Balfour, alleged Scottish witch
  • date unknown
    • John Johnson, English lutenist and composer (b. c. 1545)
    • Thomas Kyd, author of The Spanish Tragedy (b. 1558)

1595

Magnus, Duke of Östergötland
Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople
Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira
  • January 2Barbara of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brieg, German princess (b. 1527)
  • January 15Murad III, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1546)
  • January 24Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, regent of Tyrol and Further Austria (b. 1529)
  • February – William Painter, English translator (b. 1540)
  • February 20Archduke Ernest of Austria, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands (b. 1553)
  • February 21Robert Southwell, Jesuit priest and poet (b. 1561)
  • April 25Torquato Tasso, Italian poet (b. 1544)[87]
  • May 4Hugues Loubenx de Verdalle, Cardinal and 52nd Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1531)
  • May 14Wolfgang, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (b. 1531)
  • May 19John Frederick II, Duke of Saxony (b. 1529)
  • May 25
    • Valens Acidalius, German critic and poet (b. 1567)
    • Philip Neri, Italian Roman Catholic priest and saint (b. 1515)[88]
  • June 23Louis Carrion, Flemish humanist and classical scholar (b. 1547)
  • June 26Magnus, Duke of Östergötland, Swedish prince (b. 1542)
  • July 10Udai Singh of Marwar, Ruler of Marwar (b. 1538)
  • July 23Thoinot Arbeau, French priest and author (b. 1519)
  • August 24Thomas Digges, English astronomer (b. 1546)
  • August 26Antonio, Prior of Crato, claimant to the throne of Portugal (b. 1531)
  • September 3Philip of Nassau, Count of Nassau (b. 1566)
  • September 4Jeremias II of Constantinople (b. 1530)
  • October 15Faizi, Indo-Persian poet and scholar (b. 1547)
  • October 18Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, Spanish navigator and explorer (b. 1542)
  • October 19Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, English nobleman (b. 1537)
  • October 23Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, Italian-French dignitary and diplomat (b. 1539)
  • November 4Francesco Cattani da Diacceto, Bishop of Fiesole (b. 1531)
  • November 5Luis Barahona de Soto, Spanish poet (b. 1548)
  • November 12John Hawkins, English shipbuilder and trader (b. 1532)
  • November 23Clara of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Abbess of Gandersheim and Duchess of Brunswick-Grubenhagen (b. 1532)
  • December 11Philipe de Croÿ, Duke of Aerschot (b. 1526)
  • December 14Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon (b. 1535)
  • date unknown
    • Grzegorz Branicki, Polish noble (b. 1534)
    • Helena Antonia, court dwarf (b. 1550)
    • Turlough Luineach O'Neill, Irish chief of Tyrone (b. c. 1530)
    • Robert Sempill, Scottish ballad-writer (b. 1530)
    • Thomas Whythorne, English author and musician (b. 1528)

1596

Hattori Hanzō

1597

Edward Kelley
  • January 29
    • Maharana Pratap, Indian statesman (b. 1540)
    • Elias Ammerbach, German organist (b. 1530)
  • February 2James Burbage, English actor
  • February 5
    • Francisco Blanco, Spanish Franciscan and Roman Catholic priest, missionary, martyr and saint (b. 1570)
    • Gonsalo Garcia, Portuguese Franciscan and Roman Catholic priest, missionary, martyr and saint (b. 1557)
    • Paulo Miki, Japanese Roman Catholic priest, martyr and saint (b. c.1562)
    • Philip of Jesus, Mexican Roman Catholic priest, missionary, martyr and saint (b. 1572)
    • 26 Martyrs of Japan
  • February 6Franciscus Patricius, Italian philosopher and scientist (b. 1529)
  • February 16Gilbert Génébrard, French Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1535)
  • March 6William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham, English noble and politician (b. 1527)
  • April 2Blas Valera, Peruvian historian (b. 1545)
  • April 16Caspar Cruciger the Younger, German theologian (b. 1525)
  • June 6William Hunnis, English poet
  • June 8Barbara of Hesse (b. 1536)
  • June 9José de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit missionary (b. 1534)
  • June 18Markus Fugger, German businessman (b. 1529)
  • June 20Willem Barents, Dutch navigator and explorer (b. c. 1550)[91]
  • July 8Luís Fróis, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (b. 1532)
  • July 19Gunilla Bielke, Queen of Sweden (b. 1568)
  • July 20Franciscus Raphelengius, Dutch printer (b. 1539)
  • July 22Gabriele Paleotti, Italian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1522)
  • August 27
    • Won Gyun, Korean general and admiral during the Joseon Dynasty (b. 1540)
    • Yi Eokgi, Korean admiral during the Joseon Dynasty (b. 1561)
  • September 3Jakobea of Baden, Margravine of Baden by birth, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (b. 1558)
  • September 20Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria, Austrian archduchess (b. 1581)
  • September 30William I, Count of Schwarzburg-Frankenhausen (b. 1534)
  • October 4Sarsa Dengel, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1550)[92]
  • October 19Ashikaga Yoshiaki, Japanese shōgun (b. 1537)
  • October 23Cyriakus Schneegass, German hymnwriter (b. 1546)
  • October 27Alfonso II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Italian noble (b. 1533)
  • November 1Edward Kelley, English spirit medium (b. 1555)
  • November 11Gustav of Saxe-Lauenburg, German noble (b. 1570)
  • November 6Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain (b. 1567)
  • December 17Frederick, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Vohenstrauss-Parkstein (b. 1557)
  • December 21Petrus Canisius, Dutch Jesuit priest and saint (b. 1521)[93]
  • date unknown - Margaretha Coppier, Dutch heroine (b. 1516)

1598

1599

Cornelis de Houtman
Andrew Báthory

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Media files used on this page

Toyotomi hideyoshi.jpg
Portrait of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, part of (Kodaiji holdings)
Johannes Körnlein - portrait of Maria Tesselschade Visscher.jpg
Portrait of Maria Tesselschade Visscher, daughter of Roemer Visscher, copy after Hendrick Goltzius in 1612
Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra.png
Alvaro de Mendaña de Neyra
Wilhelm I von Baden.jpg
Markgraf Wilhelm von Baden (* 30. Juli 1593 in Baden-Baden; † 22. Mai 1677 in Baden-Baden) war von 1621 bis 1677 Regent der Markgrafschaft Baden-Baden.
Mercator.jpg
Portrait engraving (135mm by 187mm) of Gerard Mercator: This was published in the first volume of Joannis Francisci Foppens' Bibliotheca Belgica in 1739.[1][2]
Sultan Murad III.jpeg
A life-size portrait of Sultan Murad III (1574-1595), attributed to a Spanish artist, 17th century
YiSunsin person.jpg
Retrato de Yi Sun Sin.
Hattori Hanzo.jpg
A portrait of Hattori Masanari aka Hattori Hanzo from the 17th century.
Giovanni berchmans.jpg
Author/Creator: Santi Beati, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
São João Berchmans
Andreas Bathory, polsk biskop (1589-99), målad 1688-1703 - Skoklosters slott - 98170.tif
Note: For documentary purposes the original description has been retained. Factual corrections and alternative descriptions are encouraged separately from the original description.
Andreas Bathory, polsk biskop (1589-99), målad 1688-1703.
Nyckelord: Porträtt, Biskop, Katolskt, Föremålsbild, Ansikten
Feodor I of Russia - Project Gutenberg eText 20880.jpg
Feodor I of Russia. Fyodor I Ivanovich (Russian: Фёдор I Иоаннович) (May 31, 1557 - January 6/7, 1598) was the last Rurikid Tsar of Russia (1584 - 1598), son of Ivan the Terrible and Anastasia Romanovna. He is known as Feodor the Bellringer in consequence of his inclination to travel the land and ring the bells at churches.
QUARLES Francis.png
Author/Creator: Künstler: unbekannt; hochgeladen von ANKAWÜ, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Francis QUARLES (1592-1644); English poet most famous for his Emblem book aptly entitled Emblems
Hong Taiji.jpg
Hongtaiji, Emperor Taizong (1592–1643), Meditating with a Buddhist Rosary
Barents.jpg

Willem Barentsz, portret. 16e/17e eeuws, dus vrij van auteursrechten

/Portrait engraving of Willem Barents, a Dutch explorer.
Magnus of Sweden (1542) c 1580.jpg
Prince Magnus of Sweden (1542-1595),[1][2][3] son of King Gustav I; disputed: Nationalmuseum identifies this as Erik Sture
SirHenryGage.jpg
A portrait of the english royalist Sir Henry Gage (1597-1645)
Sixtinus Amama.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown painter, Licence: CC0
Sixtinus (ab) Amama (Franeker, 13 oktober 1593 - Franeker, 9 november 1629) was een Nederlands hoogleraar Oosterse talen.
Pope Sixtus V.jpg
Sixto V con tiara
Sirjohneliot.jpg
Sir John Eliot (1592-1632)
Edward Kelly prophet or seer to Dr Dee 02355.jpg

An image from a set of 8 extra-illustrated volumes of A tour in Wales by Thomas Pennant (1726-1798) that chronicle the three journeys he made through Wales between 1773 and 1776. These volumes are unique because they were compiled for Pennant's own library at Downing. This edition was produced in 1781.

The volumes include a number of original drawings by Moses Griffiths, Ingleby and other well known artists of the period.

Thomas Pennant (1726-1798)
Ieremias II Tranos.JPG
griechischer Bischof
Tintorettoselfportrait.jpg
slightly reworked version of:
Umbrella-china2-lg.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Shah Jahan in Mughal Green
Brébuef-jesuits04jesuuoft.jpg
Saint Jean de Brébeuf
1593 Elisabeth.jpg
Elisabeth (1593-1650), Tochter von Heinrich Julius (Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel)
Self-portrait by Guercino.jpg
Self-portrait. Oil on canvas, 641 x 521 mm (25 1/4 x 20 1/2"). Private Collection, courtesy Richard L. Feigen & Co. Sydney only.
Sir Martin Frobisher by Cornelis Ketel.jpeg
Portrait of Sir Martin Frobisher. Courtesy of the collections of the University of Oxford.
Guru Har Gobind.jpg
Guru Har Gobind
Card Cesare Monti.jpg
Author/Creator: A ntv, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Anonymous of 17th century, Card Cesare Monti Archbishop of Milan, Diocesan Museum of Milan
091015-Ausa 021.JPG
St. Miquel dels Sants, patron of Vic, sculpture of 18th cent. at his native home chapel.