1580s

The 1580s decade ran from January 1, 1580, to December 31, 1589.

Millennium:2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
  • 1580
  • 1581
  • 1582
  • 1583
  • 1584
  • 1585
  • 1586
  • 1587
  • 1588
  • 1589
Categories:
  • Births
  • Deaths
  • By country
  • By topic
  • Establishments
  • Disestablishments

Events

1580

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

  • The Billy Mitchell volcano, on the island of Bougainville, undergoes a catastrophic eruption (VEI 6).
  • The first session of the Jewish Vaad (Council of Four Lands) is held in Lublin, Poland; 70 delegates of Jewish local qahals meet to discuss taxation, and other issues important to Jewish communities.
  • The Old City of Zamość is established in Poland, by Jan Zamoyski.
  • Jesuit missionaries arrive at the court of Akbar, ruler of the Mughal Empire.[8]
  • A group of English merchants gains the right to trade in Ottoman territory, in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass and tin for his war with Persia.
  • An influenza pandemic sweeps the world, starting in Asia and moving rapidly through Africa, Europe, and eventually the Americas. More than 10% of the population of Rome dies, and whole towns in Spain are depopulated.[9]

1581

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

  • The Knights Hospitaller depose Jean de la Cassière as Grandmaster, and appoint Mathurin Romegas.
  • The Ming Dynasty Chancellor of China, Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng, imposes the Single Whip Reform, by which taxes are assessed on properties recorded in the land census, and paid in silver, as the accepted medium of exchange.
  • Oda Nobunaga invades Iga Province.
  • The Trier witch trials begin.
  • John Dee practices angel magic with Barnabas Saul, but with no success.
  • Guru Arjan Dev becomes the fifth Guru of Sikhs, succeeding his father Guru Ram Das.
  • The last Bishop of Meissen, John IX of Haugwitz, resigns his office in the wake of the Reformation.

1582

January–June

1583

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

  • The world's oldest, intact, still-surviving amusement park, Dyrehavsbakken, is founded north of Copenhagen.
  • The Bunch Of Grapes Pub is built on Narrow Street, London.[16] Referred to by Charles Dickens in Our Mutual Friend as "The Six Jolly Fellowship Porters", it still stands in the 21st century, much rebuilt and renamed The Grapes.

1584

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

1585

January–June

July–December

  • July 7 – The Treaty of Nemours forces King Henry III of France to capitulate to the demands of the Catholic League, triggering the Eighth War of Religion (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) in France.[23]
  • August 8 – English explorer John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in Baffin Island, in his quest for the Northwest Passage.
  • August 14 – Queen Elizabeth I of England agrees to establish a protectorate over the Netherlands.[10]
  • August 17
    • Fall of Antwerp: Antwerp is captured by Spanish forces under the Prince of Parma, who orders Protestants to leave the city. As a result, over half of the 100,000 inhabitants flee to the northern provinces. Furthermore, upon hearing of the capture of Antwerp, a relief fleet sent to raise the siege instead blockades the Scheldt River, preventing any and all ships from reaching Antwerp for two centuries. This effectively destroys Antwerp's position as an important trade city and de facto capital of the Dutch provinces. Its position is taken over by various northern cities, most prominently Amsterdam.
    • A first group of colonists sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, under the charge of Ralph Lane, lands in the New World to create Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island, off the coast of North Carolina. This group will depart the following June.[10]
  • August 20 – The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, committing England to support the Dutch Revolt, thus entering the Eighty Years' War.[4]
  • November 28Anglo-Spanish War: Santiago, Cape Verde is captured by Francis Drake.

Date unknown

  • Invasion of Shikoku: Toyotomi Hideyoshi seizes the island of Shikoku from Chōsokabe Motochika.
  • The Kingdom of Luba is founded.
  • History of chocolate in Spain: First recorded commercial importation of chocolate to Europe, from Veracruz in Mexico to Seville in Spain.[24]

1586

  • June 16 – The deposed and imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir.
  • July 6 – The Treaty of Berwick is signed between Queen Elizabeth I of England and King James VI of Scotland.[25]
  • July 21 – English explorer Thomas Cavendish begins the first deliberately planned circumnavigation of the globe.[26]
  • September 2021 – Execution of the Babington Plotters: The 14 men convicted of a plot (uncovered on July 17) to murder Queen Elizabeth and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, are hanged, drawn and quartered (the first seven being disembowelled before death) in St Giles Field, London.[27]
  • September 22Battle of Zutphen: Spanish troops defeat the Dutch rebels and their English allies. English poet and courtier Sir Philip Sidney is mortally wounded.[28]
  • October 1525Mary, Queen of Scots, is placed on treason trial at Fotheringhay Castle in England for complicity in the Babington Plot and sentenced to death.[25]
  • November 19 – English Separatist Puritan Henry Barrowe is imprisoned.
  • December 17 – The reign of Emperor Ōgimachi of Japan ends, and Emperor Go-Yōzei ascends to the throne.

Date unknown

1587

January–June

  • February 1 – Queen Elizabeth I of England signs the death warrant of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, after Mary has been implicated in a plot to murder Elizabeth. Seven days later, on the orders of Elizabeth's privy council, Mary is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.[29]
  • February 1224 – Period of exceptionally severe cold in western Europe.[30]
  • April 29Singeing the King of Spain's Beard: On an expedition against Spain, English privateer Sir Francis Drake leads a raid in the Bay of Cádiz, sinking at least 23 ships of the Spanish fleet.
  • May 19John Davis sets out from Dartmouth, Devon, for a third attempt to find the Northwest Passage.

July–December

Date unknown

  • Toyotomi Hideyoshi becomes Daijō-daijin of Japan and concludes the Kyūshū Campaign with the Siege of Kagoshima at which most of Kyushu is surrendered to him; he banishes European Christian missionaries from the province.
  • A severe famine breaks out in Ming dynasty China.
  • The Rose (theatre) is founded in London by Philip Henslowe.
  • The chapbook Historia von D. Johann Fausten, printed by Johann Spies in Frankfurt, is the first published version of the Faust story.
  • Everard Digby's De Arte Natandi, the first treatise on swimming in England, is published.
  • St. Dominic's Church, Macau is established.

1588

January–June

  • February – The Sinhalese abandon the siege of Colombo, capital of Portuguese Ceylon.
  • February 9 – The sudden death of Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, in the midst of preparations for the Spanish Armada, forces King Philip II of Spain to re-allocate the command of the fleet.
  • April 14 (April 4 Old Style) – Christian IV becomes king of Denmark–Norway, upon the death of his father, Frederick II.
  • May 12Day of the Barricades in Paris: Henry I, Duke of Guise seizes the city, forcing King Henry III to flee.[36]
  • May 28 – The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, begins to set sail from the Tagus estuary, heading for the English Channel (it will take until May 30 for all of the ships to leave port).[37]

July–December

  • July – King Henry III of France capitulates to the Duke of Guise, and returns to Paris.
  • July 31 – The first engagement between the English and Spanish fleets (off of Plymouth) results in a victory for the English, under command of Lord Howard of Effingham and Sir Francis Drake.
  • August 2 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet, off the Isle of Portland.
  • August 6 (July 29 Old Style) – Battle of Gravelines: The Spanish Armada is defeated by the English naval force off the coast of Gravelines, in the Spanish Netherlands (modern France).
  • August 7 – The English fleet defeats the Spanish fleet off the coast of Flanders.
  • August 89 – The Spanish are unable to reach the coast of Flanders, to meet up with the army of the Duke of Parma. The Duke of Medina Sidonia decides to return to Spain.
  • August 12 – The fleeing Spanish fleet sails past the Firth of Forth, and the English call off their pursuit. Much of the Spanish fleet is destroyed by storms, as it sails for home around Scotland and Ireland.
  • October 7 – The first biography of Nicolaus Copernicus (d.1543) is completed by Bernardino Baldi.
  • December 5 – The Order of Augustinian Recollects is formally recognised as a separate province from the Order of Saint Augustine, an event later known as the Día de la Recolección or Day of Recollection.
  • December 23 – Henry III of France strikes his ultra-Catholic enemies, having the Duke of Guise and his brother, Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, killed, and holding the Cardinal de Bourbon a prisoner. As a result, large parts of France reject Henry III as their king, forcing him to side with Henry of Navarre.

Unknown

  • William Morgan's Welsh translation of the Bible is published.[38]
  • The Armada Portrait of Elizabeth I of England is created, to celebrate the English defeat of the Spanish Armada, and to assert the strength of Elizabeth herself.

1589

January–June

  • War of the Three Henrys: In France, the Catholic League is in rebellion against King Henry III, in revenge for his murder of Henry I, Duke of Guise in December 1588. The King makes peace with his old rival, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre, his designated successor, and together they besiege Paris.
  • January 26Job is elected as the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia.
  • February 26Valkendorfs Kollegium is founded in Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • April 13 – An English Armada, led by Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norreys, and largely financed by private investors, sets sail to attack the Iberian Peninsula's Atlantic coast,[39] but fails to achieve any naval advantage.

July–December

  • August 1 – King Henry III of France is stabbed by the fanatical Dominican friar Jacques Clément (who is immediately killed).
  • August 2 – Following the death of Henry III of France, his army is thrown into confusion and an attempt to retake Paris is abandoned. Henry of Navarre succeeds to the throne as King Henry IV of France, but is not recognized by the Catholic League, who acclaim the imprisoned Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, as the rightful King of France, Charles X.
  • August 20 – King James VI of Scotland, the future James I of England, contracts a proxy marriage with the 14-year-old Anne of Denmark at Kronborg.[40] The formal ceremony takes place on November 23 at the Old Bishop's Palace in Oslo.
  • September 21Battle of Arques: King Henry IV of France's forces defeat those of the Catholic League, under Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne (younger brother of Henry I, Duke of Guise).
  • November 1Henry IV of France is repulsed in an attempt to capture Paris from the Catholic League.
  • December 25 (Christmas Day) – The monks of the Pechenga Monastery, the northernmost in the world, are massacred by Swedes, led by a Finnish peasant chief, in the course of the Russo-Swedish War.

Date unknown

Births

1580

Thomas Middleton
  • January 8Jens Hermansson Juel, Danish governor of Norway (d. 1634)
  • January 12
    • Jan Baptist van Helmont, Flemish chemist (d. 1644)
    • Alexander Ruthven, Scottish earl (d. 1600)
  • January 20Stefano Amadei, Italian painter (d. 1644)
  • January 29Willem Isaacsz Swanenburg, Dutch engraver (d. 1612)
  • January 30Gundakar, Prince of Liechtenstein, court official in Vienna (d. 1658)
  • JanuaryJohn Smith, English explorer and Virginia settler (d. 1631)
  • FebruaryJohn Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol, English diplomat (d. 1653)
  • February 1Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland, English noble (d. 1629)
  • February 2Jens Bjelke, Norwegian noble (d. 1659)
  • February 22Charles de l'Aubespine, marquis de Châteauneuf, French diplomat and government official (d. 1653)
  • February 24Matthias Hoe von Hoenegg, German theologian (d. 1645)
  • February 28
    • Orazio Giustiniani, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1649)
    • Giovanni Srofenaur, Italian musician (d. 1634)
  • March 31Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1637)
  • April 8
    • Augusta of Denmark, Duchess Consort of Holstein-Gottorp (1596-1616) (d. 1639)
    • William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, English noble, courtier and patron of the arts (d. 1630)
  • April 18 – (baptism) Thomas Middleton, English playwright (d. 1627)[41]
  • April 24Miguel Avellán, Spanish Catholic prelate, Auxiliary Bishop of Toledo from 1633 (d. 1650)
  • May 5
    • Johann Faulhaber, German mathematician (d. 1635)
    • Richard Webb, English settler in America (d. 1665)
  • May 6Charles Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat, French noble (d. 1637)
  • May 14Bassam Al-Soukaria, Lebanese army commander (d. 1667)
  • May 30Fadrique de Toledo, 1st Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza, Spanish noble and admiral (d. 1634)
  • June 6Godefroy Wendelin, Flemish astronomer (d. 1667)
  • June 9Daniel Heinsius, Dutch scholar (d. 1655)
  • June 12Adriaan van Stalbemt, Flemish Baroque painter (d. 1662)
  • June 14Elisabeth Magdalena of Pomerania, German duchess (d. 1649)
  • June 26
    • Gaspar de Borja y Velasco, Spanish Catholic cardinal (d. 1645)
    • Peter Claver, Spanish Jesuit priest (d. 1654)
  • July 5Carlo Contarini, Doge of Venice (d. 1656)
  • July 6Johann Stobäus, German composer (d. 1646)
  • July 10Humphrey Chetham, English merchant (d. 1653)
  • July 18Giovanni Giacomo Semenza, Italian painter (d. 1638)
  • July 29Francesco Mochi, Italian early-Baroque sculptor (d. 1654)
  • August 2Prince Jeongwon, Korean prince (d. 1619)
  • August 19Pierre Vernier, French mathematician (d. 1637)
  • September 4George Percy, English explorer (d. 1632)
  • September 14
  • September 15
  • September 17Countess Charlotte Brabantina of Nassau, Belgian noble (d. 1631)
  • September 24Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, Duchess consort of Pomerania (d. 1653)
  • October 8Gábor Esterházy (1580–1626), Hungarian noble (d. 1626)
  • October 12Hortensio Félix Paravicino, Spanish preacher and poet from the noble house of Pallavicini (d. 1633)
  • October 20Peter Crüger, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1639)
  • October 30Armand-Nompar de Caumont, duc de La Force, Marshal of France (d. 1675)
  • November 9Johannes Narssius, Dutch physician and poet (d. 1637)
  • December 1Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, French astronomer (d. 1637)
  • December 4
    • Samuel Argall, English adventurer and naval officer (d. 1626)
    • Nabeshima Katsushige, Japanese daimyō (d. 1657)
  • date unknown
    • Philipp Clüver, German geographer and historian (d. 1623)
    • Francesco Fontana, Italian lawyer and astronomer (d. 1656)
    • Dirk Hartog, Dutch ship's captain and explorer (d. 1621)
    • Jean Jannon, Swiss-born typefounder (d. 1658)
    • Robert Killigrew, English courtier, politician, ambassador and knight (d. 1633)
    • Willebrord Snellius, Dutch astronomer and mathematician (d. 1626)
    • Raphael Sobiehrd-Mnishovsky, Bohemian lawyer and writer (d. 1644)
    • Pierre Vernier, French mathematician and instrument inventor (d. 1637)
    • Krzysztof Zbaraski, Polish nobleman (d. 1627)
    • George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, English politician and colonizer (d. 1623)
  • probable
    • William Brabazon, 1st Earl of Meath, English noble (d. 1651)
    • Edward Fairfax, English translator (d. 1635)
    • Frans Hals, Dutch painter (d. 1666)[42]
    • Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven, Scottish soldier (d. 1661)
    • Benjamin, Duke of Soubise, French Huguenot leader (d. 1642)
    • Adriana Basile, Italian composer (d. 1640)

1581

Countess Palatine Dorothea of Simmern
Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria
Princess Hedwig of Denmark
  • January 4James Ussher, Anglo-Irish priest and scholar (d. 1656)
  • January 6Countess Palatine Dorothea of Simmern, Princess consort of Anhalt-Dessau (d. 1631)
  • January 30Christian, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1603–1655) (d. 1655)
  • February 17Fausto Poli, Italian Catholic prelate and cardinal (d. 1653)
  • March 16Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, Dutch historian (d. 1647)
  • April 24Vincent de Paul, French Roman Catholic priest who dedicated himself to serving the poor (d. 1660)
  • May 4Arnold Möller, German calligrapher (d. 1655)
  • May 21Robert More, English politician (d. 1626)
  • May 22Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana of Austria, Austrian archduchess (d. 1597)
  • June 21Edward Barrett, 1st Lord Barrett of Newburgh, English politician (d. 1645)
  • June 27Louis Günther I, Count of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (1630–1646) (d. 1646)
  • July 18Pier Luigi Carafa, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1655)
  • July 20Isidoro Bianchi, Italian painter (d. 1662)
  • July 25Brian Twyne, English archivist (d. 1644)
  • August 5Hedwig of Denmark, Danish princess (d. 1641)
  • August 15Jeremias Drexel, Jesuit writer of devotional literature and a professor of the humanities and rhetoric (d. 1638)
  • September 21Simon Archer, English politician (d. 1662)
  • September 27Juan Damián López de Haro, Spanish Catholic bishop of Puerto Rico (d. 1648)
  • October 9Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac, French mathematician (d. 1638)
  • October 21Domenico Zampieri, Italian painter (d. 1641)
  • November 1William Hockmere, English politician (d. 1626)
  • November 11Edward Popham, English politician (d. 1641)
  • November 18Carlo I Cybo-Malaspina, marquisate of Massa (d. 1662)
  • November 26Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg (d. 1658)
  • December 17Walter Davison, English poet (d. 1600)
  • December 26Philip III, Landgrave of Hesse-Butzbach (1609–1643) (d. 1643)
  • December 27Jean Chalette, French painter (d. 1643)
  • date unknown
    • Gasparo Aselli, Italian physician (d. 1626)
    • Jeremias Drexel, German Jesuit writer of devotional literature
    • Edmund Gunter, English mathematician (d. 1626)
    • Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, French monk who introduced Jansenism into France (d. 1643)
    • Charles Malapert, Belgian Jesuit writer (d. 1630)
    • Łukasz Opaliński (1581–1654), Polish nobleman (d. 1654)
    • Thomas Overbury, English poet and essayist (d. 1613)
    • Johannes Rudbeckius, bishop at Västerås (d. 1646)
    • Choghtu Khong Tayiji, ruler of the Khalkha Mongols (d. 1637)
  • probable
    • Juan Ruiz de Alarcón, Mexican dramatist (d. 1639)
    • Sisto Badalocchio, Italian painter and engraver (d. 1647)

1582

George II, Duke of Pomerania
Taichang Emperor
  • January 6
    • Alonso de Contreras, Spanish privateer and writer (d. 1641)
    • Jaroslav Borzita of Martinice, Bohemian noble (d. 1649)
  • January 7Magdalene of Brandenburg, Landgravine consort of Hesse-Darmstadt (1598–1616) (d. 1616)
  • January 26Giovanni Lanfranco, Italian painter (d. 1647)
  • January 28John Barclay, Scottish satirist and Latin poet (d. 1621)
  • January 30George II, Duke of Pomerania (d. 1617)
  • February 8Matthias Bernegger, German philologist (d. 1640)
  • February 17George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (d. 1641)
  • February 22John Ratcliffe, English politician and soldier (d. 1627)
  • March 15
    • Daniel Featley, English theologian and controversialist (d. 1645)
    • Deodat del Monte, Flemish painter, architect (d. 1644)
  • March 22John Williams, Welsh clergyman and political advisor to King James I (d. 1650)
  • March 31Duchess Sophie of Prussia, Duchess consort of Courland (1609–1610) (d. 1610)
  • April 8(bapt.) Phineas Fletcher, English poet (d. 1650)
  • April 11Justus de Harduwijn, Dutch Catholic priest and poet (d. 1636)
  • May 1Marco da Gagliano, Italian composer of the early Baroque era (d. 1643)
  • May 5John Frederick, Duke of Württemberg (1608–1628) (d. 1628)
  • June 26Johannes Schultz, German composer (d. 1653)
  • June 28William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele, English nobleman and politician (d. 1662)
  • July 27Sir John Isham, 1st Baronet, English Member of Parliament (d. 1651)
  • August 11Sabina Catharina of East Frisia, Countess of Rietberg (1586–1618) (d. 1618)
  • August 17John Matthew Rispoli, major Maltese philosopher of great erudition (d. 1639)
  • August 26Humilis of Bisignano, Italian Franciscan friar and saint (d. 1637)
  • August 27Maria Amalia of Nassau-Dillenburg, German noble (d. 1635)
  • August 28
    • Taichang Emperor, of the Ming Dynasty of China (d. 1620)
    • Hans Meinhard von Schönberg, German military commander (d. 1616)
  • September 25Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (d. 1620)
  • September 26Eitel Frederick von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, German Catholic cardinal (d. 1625)
  • October 2Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach, Count Palatine of Neuburg (1614–1632) (d. 1632)
  • October 17Johann Gerhard, Lutheran church leader (d. 1637)
  • October 19Dmitri Ivanovich, Russian Tsarevich (d. 1591)
  • October 21Johan Ernst van Nassau-Siegen, Dutch general (d. 1617)
  • October 22Francesco Piccolomini, Italian Jesuit (d. 1651)
  • November 2Elizabeth Jane Weston, English Czech poet (d. 1612)
  • November 21François Maynard, French poet (d. 1646)
  • November 27Pierre Dupuy, French historian (d. 1651)
  • November 30Anselm Casimir Wambold von Umstadt, Archbishop of Mainz (d. 1647)
  • December 10William Chappell, Irish bishop (d. 1649)
  • December 16Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey, English adventurer and soldier (d. 1642)
  • December 23Severo Bonini, Italian composer (d. 1663)[43]
  • date unknown
    • Giovanni Francesco Abela, Maltese writer (d. 1655)
    • Giulio Alenio, Italian Jesuit missionary (d. 1649)
    • Gregorio Allegri, Italian composer (d. 1652)
    • John Bainbridge, English astronomer (d. 1648)
    • Richard Corbet, English poet and bishop (d. 1635)
    • William Juxon, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1663)
    • Thomas Moulson, Lord Mayor of London (d. 1638)
    • David Teniers the Elder, Flemish painter (d. 1649)
    • Francis Windebank, English politician (d. 1646)
    • Jacomina de Witte, politically influential Dutch woman (d. 1661)
    • Jakub Zadzik, Polish nobleman and diplomat (d. 1642)
  • probableSigismondo d'India, Italian composer (d. 1629)

1583

Peter Bulkley
Albrecht von Wallenstein
  • January 8Simon Episcopius, Dutch theologian (d. 1643)
  • January 12Niccolò Alamanni, Greek-born Roman antiquarian (d. 1626)
  • January 31Peter Bulkley, English and later American Puritan (d. 1659)
  • February 4John Ley, English priest (d. 1662)
  • February 17Johann Heinrich Alting, German Lutheran theologian (d. 1644)
  • February 23Jean-Baptiste Morin, French mathematician (d. 1656)
  • March 3Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, English diplomat, poet, and philosopher (d. 1648)[44]
  • April 4Franciscus Quaresmius, Italian writer and orientalist (d. 1650)
  • April 8Nikolaus, Count Esterházy, Hungarian noble (d. 1645)
  • April 10Hugo Grotius, Dutch philosopher and writer (d. 1645)[45]
  • May 1Orazio Grassi, Italian Jesuit priest, architect and scientist (d. 1654)
  • May 10Fernando Afán de Ribera, duke of Alcalá de los Gazules, Spanish diplomat (d. 1637)
  • May 26Susanna Hall, Daughter of William Shakespeare (d. 1649)
  • June 16Axel Oxenstierna, Lord High Chancellor of Sweden (d. 1654)
  • June 20Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (d. 1652)
  • June 22Joachim Ernst, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1603–1625) (d. 1625)
  • June 27Christopher von Dohna, German politician and scholar (d. 1637)
  • July 2Dodo Knyphausen, German soldier (d. 1636)
  • July 9John, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein, Danish prince (d. 1602)
  • July 20Alban Roe, English Benedictine martyr (d. 1642)
  • July 22Jacobus Trigland, Dutch theologian (d. 1654)
  • August 19Daišan, Manchu politician (d. 1648)
  • August 21
    • Denis Pétau, French Jesuit theologian (d. 1652)
    • Eleanor of Prussia, Electress consort of Brandenburg (d. 1607)
  • August 26Adam, Count of Schwarzenberg, German politician (d. 1641)
  • August 31Richard Harrison, English politician (d. 1655)
  • September 23Christian II, Elector of Saxony from 1591 to 1611 (d. 1611)
  • September 24Albrecht von Wallenstein, Austrian general (d. 1634)
  • September 29John VIII, Count of Nassau-Siegen (1623–1638) (d. 1638)
  • September – Girolamo Frescobaldi, Italian composer (d. 1643)[46]
  • October 22Laurens Reael, Dutch admiral (d. 1637)
  • November 10Anthony Günther, Count of Oldenburg (d. 1667)
  • November 15Théophile Raynaud, French theologian (d. 1663)
  • November 17Archduke Maximilian Ernest of Austria, Austrian archduke (d. 1616)
  • November 24Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar, Spanish poet (d. 1641)
  • December 25Orlando Gibbons, English composer (d. 1625)[47]
  • date unknown
    • Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer, Dutch pirate and buccaneer (d. 1627)
    • John Beaumont, English poet (d. 1627)
    • Bonaventura Elzevir, Dutch printer (d. 1652)
    • Stanisław Lubomirski, Polish nobleman (d. 1649)
    • Philip Massinger, English dramatist (d. 1640)
    • Hayashi Razan, Japanese neo-Confucianist scholar (d. 1657)
  • probable
    • Alexander Henderson, Scottish theologian (d. 1646)
    • Nzinga, warrior sovereign queen of Ndongo and Matamba (d. 1663)
    • Aurelian Townshend, English poet (d. 1643)

1584

Archduchess Maria of Austria

1585

John Cotton
  • January 5Carlo Emanuele Pio di Savoia, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1641)
  • January 6Claude Favre de Vaugelas, Savoyard grammarian and man of letters (d. 1650)
  • January 8Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse, Duke of Joyeuse (d. 1656)
  • January 9Sir Richard Grosvenor, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1645)
  • January 23Mary Ward, English Catholic Religious Sister (d. 1645)
  • January 24Anna Maria of Solms-Sonnewalde, Countess consort of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (d. 1634)
  • January 27Hendrick Avercamp, Dutch painter (d. 1634)[49]
  • January 28Domenico II Contarini, Doge of Venice (d. 1675)
  • January 31Daniel Schwenter, German Orientalist (d. 1636)
  • February 2
    • Judith Quiney, William Shakespeare's youngest daughter (d. 1662)[50]
    • Hamnet Shakespeare, William Shakespeare's only son (d. 1596)[50]
  • February 25Pieter van den Broecke, Dutch merchant (d. 1640)
  • March 2John Macias, Spanish Dominican lay brother (d. 1645)
  • March 5
    • Frederick I, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, founder of the junior line Hesse-Homburg (d. 1638)
    • John George I, Elector of Saxony (d. 1656)
  • March 6Francesco Cornaro, Doge of Venice (d. 1656)
  • March 16Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero, Dutch writer (d. 1618)
  • March 22Krzysztof Radziwiłł, Polish nobleman (d. 1640)
  • April 6Marzio Ginetti, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1671)
  • April 28George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, English soldier and politician (d. 1663)
  • May 1Sophia Olelkovich Radziwill, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1612)
  • May 5Vincenzo Carafa, Italian Jesuit priest and spiritual writer (d. 1649)
  • May 6Guy XX de Laval, French noble (d. 1605)
  • May 12John Oglander, English politicians (d. 1655)
  • June 11Evert Horn, Swedish soldier (d. 1615)
  • June 13Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, Peruvian and Paraguayan linguist (d. 1652)
  • June 24Johannes Lippius, German theologian, philosopher, composer and music theorist (d. 1612)
  • July 2Jean Guiton, French Huguenot ship owner (d. 1654)
  • July 11
    • Nicolaus Hunnius, German theologian (d. 1643)
    • Timothy Turner, British serjeant-at-law (d. 1677)
  • July 26Dániel Esterházy, Hungarian noble (d. 1654)
  • August 3Sir Thomas Burdett, 1st Baronet, of Bramcote, Sheriff of Derbyshire (d. 1647)
  • August 5Jesper Brochmand, Danish bishop (d. 1652)
  • August 25Giovanni Biliverti, Italian painter (d. 1644)
  • August 26Peter Lauremberg, German writer and professor (d. 1639)
  • September 9Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, French statesman and 4th Prime Minister of France (d. 1642)
  • September 15Ottavio Vannini, Italian painter (d. 1640)
  • September 26Antonio Franco, Italian Catholic bishop, prelate of Santa Lucia del Mela (d. 1626)
  • September 27John Strangways, English politician (d. 1666)
  • October 4Anna of Tyrol, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1618)
  • October 8Heinrich Schütz, German composer (d. 1672)
  • October 10Sir Edward Hussey, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1648)
  • October 11Johann Heermann, German poet, hymn-writer (d. 1647)
  • October 15Louis Cappel, French Protestant churchman and scholar (d. 1658)
  • October 28Cornelius Jansen, French bishop of Ypres and religious reformer (d. 1638)[51]
  • October – John Ball, English puritan divine (d. 1640)
  • November 1
    • Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician and astronomer (d. 1652)
    • Adriaan Pauw (d. 1653)
  • November 2Rudolf von Colloredo, Austrian field marshal (d. 1657)
  • November 5Sir John St John, 1st Baronet, English baronet (d. 1648)
  • November 26Herman op den Graeff, Dutch bishop (d. 1642)
  • November 30Filippo Benedetto de Sio, Italian Catholic prelate, Bishop of Boiano (1641–1651) and Bishop of Caiazzo (1623–1641) (d. 1651)
  • December 3Matthew Wren, influential English clergyman (d. 1667)
  • December 4
    • John Cotton, clergyman in England and the American colonies, founder of Boston (d. 1652)
  • December 13William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet (d. 1649)
  • December 16Livia della Rovere, Italian noble (d. 1641)
  • December 25Christian, Count of Waldeck-Wildungen (1588–1637) (d. 1637)
  • December 31
    • Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Spanish general (d. 1645)
    • Sumitomo Masatomo, Japanese businessman (d. 1652)
  • date unknown
    • Zachary Boyd, Scottish religious writer (d. 1653)
    • Ambrose Barlow, Catholic priest and martyr (d. 1641)
    • Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, Irish soldier (d. 1655)
    • Lucilio Vanini, Italian free-thinker (d. 1619)
    • Alexander Whitaker, Virginia Colony religious leader (d. 1616)
    • Fang Weiyi, Chinese poet, calligrapher, painter and literature historian (d. 1668)

1586

Duchess Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia
  • January 1Pau Claris i Casademunt, Catalan ecclesiastic (d. 1641)
  • January 20Johann Hermann Schein, German composer of the early Baroque era (d. 1630)[52]
  • January 29Louis Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Montbéliard (1617–1631) (d. 1631)
  • February 8Jacob Praetorius, German Baroque composer and organist (d. 1651)
  • February 15Jacques de Bela, French writer (d. 1667)
  • February 20Hachisuka Yoshishige, Japanese daimyō of the Edo period (d. 1620)
  • February 24Matthias Faber, German Jesuit priest, writer (d. 1653)
  • February 26Niccolò Cabeo, Italian Jesuit writer, theologian (d. 1657)
  • March 12Jean Dolbeau, French missionary (d. 1652)
  • March 28Domenico Massenzio, Italian baroque composer (d. 1657)
  • March 29Ludwig Crocius, German Calvinist minister (d. 1653)
  • April 2Pietro Della Valle, Italian composer (d. 1652)
  • April 4Richard Saltonstall, English diplomat (d. 1661)
  • April 5Christopher Levett, English explorer (d. 1630)
  • April 9Julius Henry, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (d. 1665)
  • April 17John Ford, English dramatist and poet (d. 1640)
  • April 20 – Saint Rose of Lima, Spanish colonist in Lima (d. 1617)
  • April 23Martin Rinkart, German clergyman and hymnist (d. 1649)
  • April 24Henry Hastings, 5th Earl of Huntingdon, English noble (d. 1643)
  • May 2Étienne de Courcelles, French scholar (d. 1659)
  • May 7Francesco IV Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat (d. 1612)
  • May 9Tsugaru Nobuhira, Japanese daimyō (d. 1631)
  • May 11Angelo Giori, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1662)
  • May 23Paul Siefert, German composer and organist (d. 1666)
  • June 24George John II, Count Palatine of Lützelstein-Guttenberg, German noble (d. 1654)
  • July 1Claudio Saracini, Italian composer (d. 1630)
  • July 5Thomas Hooker, prominent Puritan colonial leader (d. 1647)
  • July 6Thomas Trevor, English politician and judge (d. 1656)
  • July 7Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, English courtier (d. 1646)
  • July 26Diego de Colmenares, Spanish historian (d. 1651)
  • August 14William Hutchinson, founder of Rhode Island (d. 1642)
  • August 17Johann Valentin Andrea, German theologian (d. 1654)
  • September 15Antoon Sanders, Dutch priest, historian (d. 1664)
  • September 29William Lytton, English Member of Parliament (d. 1660)
  • October 7Isaac Massa, Dutch diplomat (d. 1643)
  • October 9Leopold V, Archduke of Austria, regent of Tyrol (d. 1632)[53]
  • October 20Luke Foxe, English explorer (d. 1635)
  • October 28Francis West, Deputy Governor of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia (d. 1634)
  • November 20Polykarp Leyser II, German theologian (d. 1633)
  • November 22Walter Erle, English politician (d. 1665)
  • November 23Juan Bautista de Lezana, Spanish theologian (d. 1659)
  • November 27Sir John Wray, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1655)
  • November 28Sir Thomas Bowyer, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1650)
  • December 6Niccolò Zucchi, Italian astronomer and physicist (d. 1670)
  • December 14Georg Calixtus, German Lutheran theologian who looked to reconcile all Christendom (d. 1656)
  • December 31Duchess Magdalene Sibylle of Prussia, Electress of Saxony (d. 1659)
  • date unknownJohn Mason, English explorer (d. 1635)
  • date unknownKocc Barma Fall, Senegambian philosopher (d. 1655)[54][55]
  • probable
    • Giles Fletcher, English poet (d. 1623)
    • David HaLevi Segal, Polish Jewish rabbi (d. 1667)

1587

Jan Pieterszoon Coen
Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna
Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger
  • January 2Anders Arrebo, Danish writer (d. 1637)
  • January 5Xu Xiake, Chinese adventurer and geographer (d. 1641)
  • January 6Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares, Spanish politician (d. 1645)
  • January 8
    • Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (d. 1629)
    • Johannes Fabricius, Frisian/German astronomer (d. 1616)
  • January 12John Winthrop, English Puritan lawyer (d. 1649)
  • February 1Pál Esterházy, Hungarian noble (d. 1645)
  • February 3Dorothea Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst (d. 1609)
  • February 20Emanuel Sueyro, Dutch historian, translator, spymaster (d. 1629)
  • February 26Stefano Landi, Italian composer (d. 1639)
  • March 17David Lindsay, 1st Lord Balcarres, Scottish politician and noble (d. 1642)
  • April 1Sir John Mill, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1648)
  • April 2Virginia Centurione Bracelli, Italian saint (d. 1651)
  • April 18Sir Charles Morrison, 1st Baronet, Member of the Parliament of England (d. 1628)
  • April 26
    • Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1626)
    • Abraham van der Haagen, Dutch painter (d. 1639)[56]
  • April 28Krzysztof Ossoliński, Polish nobleman (d. 1645)
  • April 29Sophie of Saxony, Duchess of Pomerania (d. 1635)
  • April 30Éléonore de Bourbon, Dutch princess (d. 1619)
  • May 7Richard Newport, 1st Baron Newport, English politician (d. 1651)
  • May 8Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy (d. 1637)
  • May 17Esaias van de Velde, Dutch painter (d. 1630)
  • May - Esaias van de Velde, Dutch landscape painter (died 1630)[57]
  • May 26Susan de Vere, Countess of Montgomery, English noblewoman (d. 1628)
  • June 2Willem Bontekoe, skipper in the Dutch East India Company (d. 1657)
  • June 5Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick, English colonial administrator and admiral (d. 1658)
  • June 11Sir Thomas Jervoise, English politician (d. 1654)
  • June 15Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna, Swedish statesman (d. 1640)
  • June 21Kaspar von Barth, German philologist and writer (d. 1658)
  • June 24
    • William Arnold, American settler (d. 1676)
    • Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger, Danish architect (d. 1639)
  • July 4Magdalene of Bavaria, Consort of Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg (d. 1628)
  • August 16Khusrau Mirza, Mughal prince (d. 1622)
  • August 18Virginia Dare, Virginia colony settler
  • August 23Johann Friedrich, Count Palatine of Sulzbach-Hilpoltstein (1614–1644) (d. 1644)
  • August 28Christian William of Brandenburg, administrator of bishoprics of Magdeburg and Halberstadt (d. 1665)
  • September 1Gómez Suárez de Figueroa, 3rd Duke of Feria, Spanish general (d. 1634)
  • September 3 – Countess Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg, Landgravine of Hesse-kassel (d. 1643)
  • September 18Francesca Caccini, Italian composer[58]
  • September 19
    • Robert Sanderson, English theologian and casuist (d. 1663)
    • Mu Zeng, Chinese politician (d. 1646)
  • October 8Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Berkshire, English politician (d. 1669)
  • October 17Nathan Field, English dramatist and actor (d. 1620)
  • October 18Philippe-Charles, 3rd Count of Arenberg (d. 1640)
  • October 19Thomas Dacres, English politician (d. 1668)
  • October 22Joachim Jungius, German mathematician and philosopher (d. 1657)[59]
  • October 23Sir Gilbert Gerard, 1st Baronet of Harrow on the Hill, English politician (d. 1670)
  • November 3Samuel Scheidt, German composer (d. 1653)[60]
  • November 17
    • Charles Lallemant, French Jesuit (d. 1674)
    • Joost van den Vondel, Dutch dramatist and poet (d. 1679)
  • November 25Sir Gervase Clifton, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1666)
  • December 13Emmanuel Stupanus, Swiss physician (d. 1664)
  • December 19Dorothea Sophia, Abbess of Quedlinburg Abbey (1618–1645) (d. 1645)
  • December 30Simon VII, Count of Lippe-Detmold (1613–1627) (d. 1627)
  • date unknown
    • William Feilding, 1st Earl of Denbigh (d. 1643)
    • Francis Kynaston, English courtier and poet (d. 1642)[61]
    • Yun Seondo, Korean politician and poet (d. 1671)
    • Song Yingxing, Chinese encyclopedist (d. 1666)
    • George Yeardley, English colonial administrator in America (d. 1627)

1588

Pierre Seguier
  • January 4Arnold Vinnius, Dutch lawyer (d. 1657)
  • January 6Elizabeth Stanley, Countess of Huntingdon, English noblewoman and writer (d. 1633)
  • January 20Francesco Gessi, Italian painter (d. 1649)
  • February 2Georg II of Fleckenstein-Dagstuhl, German nobleman (d. 1644)
  • February 15Benjamin Bramer, German mathematician (d. 1652)
  • March 12Herman de Neyt, Flemish painter (d. 1642)
  • March 21Egon VIII of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg, Bavarian count and field-marshal (d. 1635)
  • March 22Frederick IX, Margrave of Brandenburg, Grand Master of the Order of Saint John (d. 1611)
  • March 27Celestyn Myślenta, Polish theologian (d. 1653)
  • March 29Margherita Aldobrandini, Parmesan regent (d. 1646)
  • March – Johann Heinrich Alsted, German theologian (d. 1638)
  • April 4Padovanino, Italian painter (d. 1649)
  • April 5Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher (d. 1679)[62]
  • April 15Claudius Salmasius, French classical scholar (d. 1653)
  • April 16Emanuel Filibert of Savoy, Viceroy of Sicily (d. 1624)
  • May 2Étienne Pascal, French mathematician (d. 1651)
  • May 9Herman Hugo, Jesuit priest, writer, military chaplain (d. 1629)
  • May 13Ole Worm, Danish physician and antiquary (d. 1654)
  • May 28Pierre Séguier, Chancellor of France (d. 1672)
  • June 3Julius Frederick, Duke of Württemberg-Weiltingen (1617–16135) (d. 1635)
  • June 9Johann Andreas Herbst, German composer and music theorist (d. 1666)
  • June 11George Wither, English poet and satirist (d. 1667)
  • June 14Hoshina Masasada, Japanese daimyō who ruled the Ino Domain (d. 1661)
  • June 30Giovanni Maria Sabino, Italian composer, organist and teacher (d. 1649)
Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg
  • July 7Wolrad IV, Count of Waldeck-Eisenberg (1588–1640) (d. 1640)
  • July 29William Spring of Pakenham, Member of Parliament (d. 1638)
  • August 25Elizabeth Poole, English settler in Plymouth Colony (d. 1654)
  • August – François de La Mothe Le Vayer, French writer (d. 1672)
  • September 1Henri, Prince of Condé (d. 1646)
  • September 8Marin Mersenne, French theologian (d. 1648)
  • September 10Nicholas Lanier, English composer (d. 1666)[63]
  • September 13Edward Vaux, 4th Baron Vaux of Harrowden, English baron (d. 1661)
  • October 7Sir Drue Drury, 1st Baronet, English politician (d. 1632)
  • October 16Luke Wadding, Irish Franciscan friar and historian (d. 1657)
  • November 25Gilbert Ironside the elder, English bishop (d. 1671)
  • December 10
    • Johann von Aldringen, Austrian field marshal (d. 1634)
    • Isaac Beeckman, Dutch philosopher and scientist (d. 1637)
  • December 15
    • Charles de Condren, French theologian (d. 1641)
    • Adolf Frederick I, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1592–1628 and again 1631–1658) (d. 1658)
  • December 23Claude Bernard, French priest (d. 1641)
  • December 24Constance of Austria, Queen of Poland (d. 1631)
  • John Danvers, English politician (d. 1655)
  • John Endecott, English politician (d. 1665)
  • Robert Filmer, English political writer (d. 1653)
  • Accepted Frewen, English churchman (d. 1664)
  • Madame Ke, influential nanny of the Tianqi Emperor of China (approximately; d. 1627)
  • Francis Higginson, colonial American Puritan (d. 1630)
  • Jan Janssonius, Dutch cartographer (d. 1664)
  • Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet (d. 1665)
  • John Winthrop, influential Puritan in the history of Massachusetts (d. 1649)

1589

Henry Vane the Elder
Robert Arnauld d'Andilly
Gabriel Báthory
  • January 8Ivan Gundulić, Croatian poet (d. 1638)
  • January 11William Strode, English politician (d. 1666)
  • January 28Francisco Ximénez de Urrea, Spanish historian (d. 1647)
  • February 5
    • Honorat de Bueil, seigneur de Racan (d. 1670)
    • Esteban Manuel de Villegas, Spanish poet (d. 1669)
  • February 7Jacob de Witt, Mayor of Dordrecht (d. 1674)
  • February 8Peter Melander Graf von Holzappel, Protestant military leader in the Thirty Years' War (d. 1648)
  • February 18
    • Henry Vane the Elder, English politician (d. 1655)
    • Maarten Gerritsz Vries, Dutch explorer (d. 1646)
  • March 1Thomas Middleton, English politician (d. 1662)
  • March 3Gisbertus Voetius, Dutch theologian (d. 1676)[64]
  • March 18Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset, English noble (d. 1624)
  • April 16Nicolaes le Febure, Dutch Golden Age member of the Haarlem schutterij (d. 1641)
  • April 17Martin Zeiler, German author (d. 1661)
  • April 18John, Duke of Östergötland, Swedish prince (d. 1618)
  • April 20John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, son of John I (d. 1652)
  • April 28Margaret of Savoy, Vicereine of Portugal (d. 1655)
  • May 12François L’Anglois, French artist (d. 1647)
  • May 28Robert Arnauld d'Andilly, French writer (d. 1674)
  • June 9John of St. Thomas, Portuguese philosopher (d. 1644)
  • June 16Albrycht Władysław Radziwiłł, Polish prince (d. 1636)
  • June 20Giambattista Altieri, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1654)
  • July 2Richard Pepys, English politician (d. 1659)
  • July 3Johann Georg Wirsung, German anatomist (d. 1643)
  • July 15Cornelis Bol, Flemish painter and etcher (d. 1666)
  • July 16Sinibaldo Scorza, Italian painter (d. 1631)
  • August 1Alexandrine von Taxis, German Imperial General Post Master (d. 1666)
  • August 8Framlingham Gawdy, English politician (d. 1654)
  • August 12
    • Domenico Fiasella, Italian painter (d. 1669)
    • Ulrich, Duke of Pomerania, Bishop of Cammin (d. 1622)
  • August 15Gabriel Báthory, Prince of Transylvania (d. 1613)
  • September 1Giovanni Pesaro, Doge of Venice (d. 1659)
  • September 7August of Saxony, German prince (d. 1615)
  • September 17Agostinho Barbosa, Portuguese bishop in Italy and writer on canon law (d. 1649)
  • October 2Muhammad Parviz, Mughal emperor (d. 1626)
  • October 7Maria Magdalena of Austria (d. 1631)
  • October 8Pedro de Villagómez Vivanco, Roman Catholic prelate, Archbishop of Lima, then Bishop of Arequipa (d. 1671)
  • October 24Giuseppe Marcinò, Italian priest, member of the Order of Friars Minor - or Capuchins (d. 1655)
  • October 25Jan Stanisław Sapieha, Grand Hetman of Lithuania (d. 1635)
  • December 21Otto, Count of Lippe-Brake (1621–1657) (d. 1657)

Deaths

1580

Henry, King of Portugal
Anna of Austria
  • January 5Anna Sibylle of Hanau-Lichtenberg, German noblewoman (b. 1542)
  • January 18
    • Antonio Scandello, Italian composer (b. 1517)
    • Archangelo de' Bianchi, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1516)
  • January 31 – King Henry of Portugal (b. 1512)[65]
  • February 2Bessho Nagaharu, Japanese retainer (b. 1558)
  • February 24Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel, English nobleman (b. 1511)
  • April 20Francesco Alciati, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1522)
  • May 3Thomas Tusser, English poet and farmer (b. c. 1524)
  • May 31Dorothea of Denmark, Electress Palatine, Princess of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (b. 1520)
  • June 10Luís de Camões, Portuguese poet (b. c. 1524)[66]
  • June 18Juliana of Stolberg, German countess (b. 1506)
  • August 1Albrecht Giese, German politician and diplomat (b. 1524)
  • August 12Luca Longhi, Italian painter (b. 1507)
  • August 15Vincenzo Borghini, Italian monk (b. 1515)
  • August 19Andrea Palladio, Italian architect (b. 1508)[67]
  • August 20Jerónimo Osório, Portuguese historian (b. 1506)
  • August 28Antonín Brus z Mohelnice, Moravian Catholic archbishop (b. 1518)
  • August 30Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (b. 1528)
  • September 19Catherine Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk, English noblewoman (b. 1519)
  • September 20Honorat II of Savoy, French Navy admiral (b. 1511)
  • SeptemberAnne de Pisseleu d'Heilly, French royal mistress and cultural patron (b. 1508)
  • October 1John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev (b. 1521)
  • October 5Matsudaira Shigeyoshi, Japanese general (b. 1493)
  • October 8Hieronymus Wolf, German historian (b. 1516)
  • October 26Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain (b. 1549)
  • November 3Jerónimo Zurita y Castro, Spanish historian (b. 1512)
  • November 16Marie of Baden-Sponheim, German noblewoman (b. 1507
  • November 30Richard Farrant, English composer (b. 1530)
  • December 1Giovanni Morone, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1509)
  • date unknown
    • Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, Italian anatomist (b. 1545)
    • Ruy López de Segura, Spanish priest and writer on chess (b. 1530)
    • Inés de Suárez, Spanish conquistadora (b. 1507)
    • Lucrezia Galletta, Italian courtesan and banker
  • possible date
    • John Heywood, English dramatist (b. 1497)
    • Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, Scottish chronicler (b. c. 1532)

1581

James Douglas
Saint Louis Bertrand
King Bayinnaung
Saints Alexander Briant and Edmund Campion died on December 1, 1581

1582

Saint Teresa of Avila
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo
  • January 23Jean Bauhin, French physician (b. 1511)
  • January 26Thomas Platter, Swiss humanist scholar (b. 1499)
  • February 18Sakuma Nobumori, Japanese retainer and samurai (b. 1527)
  • March 14Elisabeth of Hesse, Electress Palatine by marriage (1576-1582) (b. 1539)
  • March 18Juan Jauregui, attempted assassin of William I of Orange (b. 1562)
  • March 22Daniel Brendel von Homburg, Roman Catholic archbishop (b. 1522)
  • March 29Philip de' Medici, Italian noble, Grand Prince of Tuscany (b. 1577)
  • April 3Takeda Katsuyori, Japanese daimyō of Takeda Clan (b. 1546)
  • April 16Oyamada Nobushige, Japanese samurai (b. 1545)
  • April 21Francisco de Toledo, Spanish soldier and politician (b. 1515)
  • May 3Giorgio Mainerio, Italian composer (b. 1530)
  • May 5Charlotte of Bourbon, Princess consort of Orange, married to William I of Orange (b. 1547)
  • June 13Matteo Tafuri, Italian alchemist (b. 1492)
  • June 21
    • Oda Nobunaga, Japanese daimyō of the Oda Clan (b. 1534) (forced suicide)[69]
    • Oda Nobutada, Japanese samurai, oldest son of Nobunaga (b. 1557) (forced suicide)
    • Anayama Nobukimi, Japanese military commander (b. 1541)
  • June 23Shimizu Muneharu, Japanese military commander (b. 1537)
  • July 2Akechi Mitsuhide, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1528)
  • July 3James Crichton, Scottish scholar (b. 1560)
  • July 7Kawajiri Hidetaka, Japanese samurai (b. 1527)
  • July 17Jacques Peletier du Mans, French mathematician (b. 1517)
  • September 23Louis, Duke of Montpensier (b. 1513)
  • September 28George Buchanan, Scottish humanist scholar (b. 1506)
  • October 4Teresa of Ávila, Spanish Carmelite nun, poet and saint (b. 1515)[70]
  • October 21Laurent Joubert, French physician (b. 1529)
  • November 21Diego, Prince of Asturias, Portuguese prince (b. 1575)
  • December 11Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba, Spanish general (b. 1507)
  • date unknown
    • Wu Cheng'en, Chinese novelist and poet of the Ming dynasty
    • Hans Hendrik van Paesschen, Flemish architect (b. 1510)
    • Zhang Juzheng, Ming dynasty official (b. 1525)
    • Takeda Nobukado, Japanese samurai (b. 1529)
    • Sen Soulintha, Laotian king of Lan Xang (b. 1511)

1583

King Magnus of Livonia

1584

Tsar Ivan IV of Russia

1585

  • January 16Edward Clinton, 1st Earl of Lincoln, English admiral (b. 1512)
  • February 6Edmund Plowden, English legal scholar (b. 1518)
  • February 13Alfonso Salmeron, Spanish Jesuit biblical scholar (b. 1515)
  • March 10Rembert Dodoens, Flemish physician and botanist (b. 1517)
  • April 3Thomas Goldwell, English ecclesiastic (b. 1501)
  • April 22Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück and Paderborn (b. 1550)
  • April 10Pope Gregory XIII (b. 1502)[77]
  • May 15Niwa Nagahide, Japanese warlord (b. 1535)
  • June 4Muretus, French humanist (b. 1526)
  • June 18Jacques, Duke of Nemours, French nobleman and soldier (b. 1531)
  • June 21Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland, English nobleman and conspirator, suicide (b. 1532)
  • June 19Francisco de Holanda, Portuguese artist (b. 1517)
  • June 22Simon Sulzer, Swiss theologian (b. 1508)
  • July 6Thomas Aufield, English Catholic martyr (b. 1552)
  • July 28Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, English nobleman, soldier and politician (b. 1527)
  • c. July? – Shimon Lavi, Sephardi kabbalist (b. 1486)
  • August 5 or August 6Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia
  • September 6Luca Cambiasi, Italian painter (b. 1527)
  • October 1Anne of Denmark, Electress of Saxony (b. 1532)
  • October 19Johannes Crato von Krafftheim, German humanist and physician (b. 1519)
  • October 29Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, Ottoman (Turkish) grand vizier (b. 1526)
  • November 2Tachibana Dōsetsu, Japanese daimyō (b. 1513)
  • November 23Thomas Tallis, English composer (b. c. 1510)
  • November 28Hernando Franco, Spanish composer (b. 1532)
  • December – Pierre de Ronsard, French poet (b. 1524)[78]
  • December 4John Willock, Scottish reformer (b. c. 1515)
  • December 22Vittoria Accoramboni, Italian noblewoman (b. 1557)
  • approx. date – Qiu Zhu, Chinese painter
  • date unknown
    • Taqi ad-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Turkish scientist (b. 1526)
    • Stanisław Lubomirski, Polish nobleman
    • Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm, Vietnamese administrator, educator, poet, sage and later a saint of the Cao Dai religion (d. 1491)

1586

Saint Margaret Clitherow
Prince Masahito
Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle
Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Philip Sidney
King Stefan Batory

1587

Juraj Drašković
Ralph Sadler
Godfried van Mierlo
Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
  • January 31Juraj Drašković, Croatian Roman Catholic cardinal (b. 1525)
  • January – Thomas Seckford, English official (b. 1515)
  • February 8Mary, Queen of Scots (executed) (b. 1542)[82]
  • February 9Vincenzo Ruffo, Italian composer (b. 1510)
  • February 13Dorothea of Saxony, Duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (b. 1563)
  • February 22Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach, princess of Brandenburg-Ansbach (b. 1535)
  • February 26Magdalene of Lippe, Countess of Lippe by birth, and Landgravine of Hesse-Darmstadt (b. 1552)
  • March 15Caspar Olevian, German theologian (b. 1536)[83]
  • March 30Ralph Sadler, English statesman (b. 1507)
  • April 10Henry III, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels (b. 1542)
  • April 11Thomas Bromley, English lord chancellor (b. 1530)
  • April 8John Foxe, English author (b. 1516)[84]
  • April 14Edward Manners, 3rd Earl of Rutland (b. 1549)
  • April 16Anne Seymour, Duchess of Somerset (b. c. 1510)[85]
  • May 9Jakob Schegk, German physician (b. 1511)
  • May 17Gotthard Kettler, Duke of Courland and Semigallia (b. 1517)
  • May 29Ignatius Ni'matallah, Syriac Orthodox patriarch of Antioch (b. c. 1515)[86]
  • June 11Ōtomo Sōrin, Japanese Christian daimyō (b. 1530)
  • June 15Frederick II, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (b. 1568)
  • June 23Ōmura Sumitada, Japanese Christian daimyō (b. 1533)
  • July 7Joachim of Zollern, Titular Count of Hohenzollern (b. 1554)
  • July 28Godfried van Mierlo, Dutch Dominican friar and bishop (b. 1518)
  • August 14Guglielmo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (b. 1538)
  • August 29Vincenzo Bellavere, Italian composer (b. c. 1540)[87]
  • September 3Henry Cheyne, 1st Baron Cheyne, English politician and baron (b. 1540)
  • September 19Jacobus Pamelius, Belgian bishop (b. 1536)[88]
  • October 19Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1541)
  • November 1Alfonso d'Este, Lord of Montecchio, Italian nobleman (b. 1527)
  • November 10Abe Motozane, Japanese warlord (b. 1513)
  • December 13Hai Rui, Ming Dynasty "model official" (b. 1514)
  • December 11Andreas Gaill, German jurist and statesman (b. 1526)
  • date unknown
    • Dudley Fenner, English Puritan divine (b. c. 1558)
    • Jan Tarło, Polish nobleman (b. 1527)
  • probableGeorge Whetstone, English writer (b. 1544)

1588

Henri, Prince of Conde
King Frederick II of Denmark
Henry I, Duke of Guise

1589

Philothei
Saint Benedict the Moor
    • Pietro de' Mariscalchi, Italian painter (b. 1520)
    • Tansen, Indian musician (b. 1506)
    • Heo Nanseolheon, Korean poet (b. 1563)
    • Charles Dançay, French diplomat (b. 1510)

References

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Media files used on this page

AdolfFriedrichI.JPG
Ölgemälde von Herzog Adolf Friedrich I. von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-1658)
JohannGeorgAnhDorotheaSimmern.jpg
Doppelportrait von Fürst Georg I. von Anhalt-Dessau (1567-1618) und seiner Gemahlin Dorothea von Pfalz-Simmern (1581-1631), um 1600
Bernal Diaz del Castillo.jpg
Memorial in honour of Bernal Días del Castillo(1492 or 1493 - 1581) was a soldier, who wrote an eyewitness account of the conquest of Mexico under Hernán Cortés, he wrote a book that named "The Conquest of New Spain", about this conquest. This memorial is located in Medina del Campo (Spain)
DiegoSpanien.jpg
Porträt des Infanten Don Diego (1575-1582)
Quevedo (copia de Velázquez).jpg
Retrato del célebre poeta y escritor español Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas (1580-1645), que fue señor de la Torre de Juan Abad, caballero de la Orden de Santiago y el máximo exponente del Conceptismo en España, siendo además enemigo acérrimo del insigne poeta cordobés Luis de Góngora y Argote, que era el máximo representante del Culteranismo. Este célebre lienzo, conservado en el Instituto Valencia de Don Juan, ha sido con frecuencia atribuido a Diego Velázquez, aunque en realidad solo es una de las tres copias del original perdido que pinto el célebre pintor hispalense y que fueron ejecutadas en su taller. Y el que se conserva en el Instituto Valencia de Don Juan perteneció desde el siglo XVII a los condes de Oñate, aunque en 1880 fue vendido a los condes de Valencia de Don Juan. Sin embargo, hay otras dos versiones de ella, hallándose una en Apsley House, Londres, y la otra en Madrid, en la colección de la familia de Xabier de Salas. Las dos primeras incluyen la inscripción alusiva al nombre del retratado, mientras que la última no, pero sí una «J» en el campo de la derecha, que es el resto de la firma del autor, que según los últimos estudios podría haber sido el pintor Juan van der Hamen.
Tho overbury.jpg
Oil portrait of Sir Thomas Overbury (1581-1613) by Sylvester Harding
Capela do Divino Espírito Santo em Porto Alegre 011-aa.JPG
Author/Creator: Eugenio Hansen, OFS, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Capela do Divino Espírito Santo em Porto Alegre
Sir Philip Sidney from NPG.jpg

Sir Philip Sidney, by unknown artist, given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1925. See source website for additional information.

This set of images was gathered by User:Dcoetzee from the National Portrait Gallery, London website using a special tool. All images in this batch are listed as "unknown author" by the NPG, who is diligent in researching authors, and was donated to the NPG before 1939 according to their website.

18th century copy of an original c. 1578 (see Strong, "Sidney's Appearance Reconsidered", p. 4)
Bayinnaung.JPG
Author/Creator: Phyo WP, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Statue of Bayinnaung in front of the National Museum
Guru Ram Das.jpg
Guru Ram Das
Margarita de Austria, reina de España.jpg
Author/Creator: Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A rainha Margarida da Áustria
Hedevig af Sachsen.JPG
Hedevig af Sachsen (1581- 1641), prinsesse af Danmark og Norge (datter af Frederik II og Sophie af Mecklenburg), Frederiksborg Slot
Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna.jpg
Gabriel Gustafsson Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö (1587-1640)
An unidentified man (1) by Hans Holbein the Younger.jpg
A portrait drawing of an unidentified man, perhaps Sir Ralph Sadler (1507–1587).
BathoriG.jpg
Prince Gábor Báthori of Transylvania
Rembert Dodoens00.jpg
Rembert Dodoens/Rembertus Dodonaeus (1517-1585)
John Cotton by Smibert.jpg
Painting of John Cotton (1693-1757) Minister of the Newton (Mass) Church
St.Philothei.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg
This portrait of the later Henry III of France was long mistaken for a portrait of his younger brother Francis of Alençon, due to a false inscription at the bottom of the portrait. (Not shown here.) The preparatory sketch that formed the basis of this work, preserved in the National Library of France, shows clearly that this is Henry III.
Conde-henri.jpg
Crayon de l'école de Clouet représentant Henri d Bourbon, prince de Condé (1552–1588)
GeorgII.1615.JPG
Ölgemälde von Herzog Georg II. von Pommern, früher Stadtmuseum Stettin, seit 1945 verschollen.
Regent Morton.jpg
James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton
Taichang.jpg
Taichang Emperor (1585—1620) Hanging Scroll, Colors on Silk, Palace Museum Beijing, see [1]
Cardeal D. Henrique, cópia de original de c. 1590.jpg
Cardeal D. Henrique.(31 Jan. 1512; 31 Jan. 1580)
Juraj II. Drašković.jpg
Author/Creator: Silverije, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Juraj II Drašković (George II Drashkovich), (1525 - 1587), Catholic Bishop and Cardinal, Ban (Viceroy) of Croatia
Hertsog Magnuse pitsat.jpg
Hertsog Magnuse pitsat Saare-Lääne piiskopina.
Edmundus Campion.jpg
Portrait of Edmund Campion (labelled Thomas Campion in error)
Thomas Middleton.jpg
Thomas Middleton, from Two New Playes 1657