1557

Millennium:2nd millennium
Centuries:
  • 15th century
  • 16th century
  • 17th century
Decades:
  • 1530s
  • 1540s
  • 1550s
  • 1560s
  • 1570s
Years:
  • 1554
  • 1555
  • 1556
  • 1557
  • 1558
  • 1559
  • 1560
1557 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1557
MDLVII
Ab urbe condita2310
Armenian calendar1006
ԹՎ ՌԶ
Assyrian calendar6307
Balinese saka calendar1478–1479
Bengali calendar964
Berber calendar2507
English Regnal yearPh. & M. – 4 Ph. & M.
Buddhist calendar2101
Burmese calendar919
Byzantine calendar7065–7066
Chinese calendar丙辰(Fire Dragon)
4253 or 4193
    — to —
丁巳年 (Fire Snake)
4254 or 4194
Coptic calendar1273–1274
Discordian calendar2723
Ethiopian calendar1549–1550
Hebrew calendar5317–5318
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1613–1614
 - Shaka Samvat1478–1479
 - Kali Yuga4657–4658
Holocene calendar11557
Igbo calendar557–558
Iranian calendar935–936
Islamic calendar964–965
Japanese calendarKōji 3
(弘治3年)
Javanese calendar1476–1477
Julian calendar1557
MDLVII
Korean calendar3890
Minguo calendar355 before ROC
民前355年
Nanakshahi calendar89
Thai solar calendar2099–2100
Tibetan calendar阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
1683 or 1302 or 530
    — to —
阴火蛇年
(female Fire-Snake)
1684 or 1303 or 531
August: Battle of St. Quentin


Year 1557 (MDLVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Events

The first known equation, equivalent to 14x+15=71 in modern syntax.

January–June

  • March – The Takeda clan besiege Katsurayama Castle in eastern Japan. The siege ends with the last stand of the castle garrison, and the complete destruction of Katsurayama, allowing the Takeda to further expand in Shinano Province.
  • April 12 – The Spanish settlement of Cuenca, Ecuador, is founded.
  • April 30Arauco WarBattle of Mataquito: Spanish forces of Governor Francisco de Villagra launch a dawn surprise attack against the Mapuche (headed by their toqui Lautaro), in present-day Chile.
  • By June – The 1557 influenza pandemic has spread, probably from China, to Europe.
  • June 7Mary I of England joins her husband Philip II of Spain, in his war against France.
  • June 10 – The New Testament of the Geneva Bible, a Protestant Bible translation into English (produced under the supervision of William Whittingham, and printed in Roman type), is published in Geneva.

July–December

  • August 10Battle of St. Quentin: French forces under Marshal Anne de Montmorency are decisively defeated by the Spanish and English under Duke Emanuel Philibert of Savoy. Montmorency himself is captured, but Philip II refuses to press his advantage, and withdraws to the Netherlands.
  • September 11October 8 – The Colloquy of Worms convenes.
  • October 23Mohammed al-Shaykh was assassinated.
  • October 27Emperor Ōgimachi accedes to the throne of Japan.

Date unknown

  • Özdemir Pasha conquers the Red Sea port of Massawa for the Ottoman Empire.
  • Cossack chieftain Dimitrash tries to take Azov.
  • With the permission of the Ming dynasty government of China, and for the benefit of both Western and Eastern merchants, the Portuguese settle in Macau (retroceded in 1999). Direct Sino-Portuguese trade has existed since 1513, but this is the first official legal treaty port on traditional Chinese soil, that will form a long-term Western settlement.
  • Spain becomes bankrupt, throwing the German banking houses into chaos.[1]
  • Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, is refounded by John Caius.[2]
  • The following schools are founded in England:
    • Brentwood School, Essex, by Sir Antony Browne.
    • Hampton School, Hampton, London, by Robert Hammond.
    • Repton School, by Sir John Port.
  • Welsh-born mathematician Robert Recorde publishes The Whetstone of Witte in London, containing the first recorded use of the equals sign and also the first use in English of plus and minus signs.[3]
  • German adventurer Hans Staden publishes a widely translated account of his detention by the Tupí people of Brazil, Warhaftige Historia und beschreibung eyner Landtschafft der Wilden Nacketen, Grimmigen Menschfresser-Leuthen in der Newenwelt America gelegen ("True Story and Description of a Country of Wild, Naked, Grim, Man-eating People in the New World, America").

Births

Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor
  • January 1Stephen Bocskay, Prince of Transylvania (d. 1606)
  • February 11Johannes Wtenbogaert, Leader of the Remonstrants (d. 1644)
  • February 15
    • Alfonso Fontanelli, Italian composer (d. 1622)
    • Vittoria Accoramboni, Italian noblewoman (d. 1585)
  • February 24Mathias, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1619)
  • March 21Anne Howard, Countess of Arundel, English countess and poet (d. 1630)
  • March 22Casimir VI, Duke of Pomerania and Lutheran Administrator of Cammin Prince-Bishopric (d. 1605)
  • April 4Lew Sapieha, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1633)
  • April 11Frederick, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Vohenstrauss-Parkstein (d. 1597)
  • May 5Emanuel Philibert de Lalaing, Belgian noble and army commander (d. 1590)
  • May 31 – Tsar Feodor I of Russia (d. 1598)
  • June 10Leandro Bassano, Italian painter (d. 1622)
  • June 28Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, English nobleman (d. 1595)
  • August 16Agostino Carracci, Italian painter and graphical artist (d. 1602)
  • August 19Frederick I, Duke of Württemberg (d. 1608)
  • August 26Sibylle of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg by birth and by marriage Margravine of Burgau (d. 1628)
  • September 4Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Danish-Norwegian royal consort (d. 1631)
  • September 11Joseph Calasanz, Spanish priest and founder of Piarists (d. 1648)
  • September 16Jacques Mauduit, French composer (d. 1627)
  • October 5Antoine Favre, Savoisian lawyer, first President of the Sovereign Senate of Savoy (d. 1624)
  • date unknown
    • Julius Caesar, English judge and politician (d. 1636)
    • Giovanni Croce, Italian composer (d. 1609)
    • Balthasar Gérard, assassin of William I of Orange (d. 1584)
    • Toda Katsushige, Japanese warlord (d. 1600)
    • Olaus Martini, Archbishop of Uppsala (d. 1609)
    • Thomas Morley, English composer (d. 1602)
    • Oda Nobutada, Japanese general (d. 1582)
  • probableGiovanni Gabrieli, Italian composer and organist (d. 1612)

Deaths

John III of Portugal
Jacques Cartier
Emperor Go-Nara of Japan
  • January 2Pontormo, Italian painter (b. 1494)
  • January 4Philip, Duke of Mecklenburg, (b. 1514)
  • January 8Albert Alcibiades, Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach ("Albert the Warlike"), Prince of Bayreuth (b. 1522)
  • March 13Louis de Bourbon de Vendôme, French cardinal (b. 1493)
  • April 9Mikael Agricola, Finnish scholar (b. c. 1510)
  • April 24Georg Rörer, German theologian (b. 1492)
  • April 29Lautaro, Mapuche warrior (b. 1534)
  • May 18John II, Count Palatine of Simmern, Count Palatine of Simmern (1509-1557) (b. 1492)
  • June 11 – King John III of Portugal (b. 1502)
  • July 10Giovanni Battista Ramusio, Italian geographer (b. 1485)
  • July 16Anne of Cleves, fourth queen of Henry VIII of England (b. 1515)[4]
  • August 1Olaus Magnus, Swedish ecclesiastic and writer (b. 1490)
  • August 18Claude de la Sengle, 48th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1494)
  • September 1Jacques Cartier, French explorer (b. 1491)[5]
  • September 13John Cheke, English classical scholar and statesman (b. 1514)
  • September 15Juan Álvarez de Toledo, Spanish Catholic cardinal (b. 1488)
  • September 27Emperor Go-Nara of Japan (b. 1495)
  • October 5 or October 6Kamran Mirza, Mughal prince (b. 1509)
  • October 20Jean Salmon Macrin, French poet (b. 1490)
  • October 25William Cavendish, English courtier (b. 1505)
  • November 19
    • Bona Sforza, queen of Sigismund I of Poland (b. 1494)
    • Maria de' Medici, Italian noble (b. 1540)
  • December 6Elisabeth of Hesse, Hereditary Princess of Saxony (b. 1502)
  • December 13Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, Italian mathematician (b. 1499)
  • December 27Queen Dangyeong, Korean royal consort (b. 1487)
  • date unknown
    • Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, Spanish historian (b. 1478)
    • Charlotte Guillard, French printer
    • Nicolas de Herberay des Essarts, French translator
    • Geoffrey Glyn, English lawyer[6]
  • probable
    • Sebastian Cabot, Italian-born English explorer (b. 1476)
    • Thomas Crecquillon, Flemish composer (b. 1490)

References

  1. ^ Archer, Christon; et al. (2002). World History of Warfare. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-8032-4423-8.
  2. ^ "History – Gonville & Caius". Gonville & Caius College. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  3. ^ H. S. Bennett (1989). English Books and Readers 1475 to 1557: Being a Study in the History of the Book Trade from Caxton to the Incorporation of the Stationers' Company. Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-37988-5.
  4. ^ "Anne of Cleves | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  5. ^ International Hydrographic Review. International Hydrographic Bureau. 1984. p. 10.
  6. ^ Academi Gymreig (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales. University of Wales Press. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6.

Media files used on this page

First Equation Ever.png
The first equation ever written, by Robert Recorde in his treatise The Whetstone of Witte, in 1557. The equation is represented, in modern terms, by , and its solution is x=4.

14x+15 = 71
14x+15-15 = 71-15 = 56

14x/14 = 56/14 = 4
Iimatyas.jpg
Coronation medal of Matthias II of Hungary
Jacques Cartier 1851-1852.jpg
لوحة تمثل صورة جانبية للمستكشف جاك كارتييه،من إنتاج الرسام ثيوفيل هامل (1844).
San Quintin.png
(c) Catalan, CC-BY-SA-3.0
map of situation of the Battle of San Quintin