Óengus I

Óengus mac Fergusa
King of the Picts
The figure of the Old Testament King David shown killing a lion on the St Andrews Sarcophagus is thought to represent King Óengus. The figure is dressed as a Roman emperor of Late Antiquity and wears a fibula like that of the Emperor Justinian on the mosaic at San Vitale, Ravenna.[1]
PredecessorNechtan son of Der-Ile
SuccessorBridei mac Fergus
Diedc. 761
St Andrews

Óengus son of Fergus (Pictish: *Onuist map Vurguist;[a] Old Irish: Óengus mac Fergusso, "Angus son of Fergus"), was king of the Picts from 732 until his death in 761. His reign can be reconstructed in some detail from a variety of sources. The unprecedented gains he made, and the legacy he left, mean Óengus can be considered the first king of what would become Scotland.

Wresting power from his rivals, Óengus became the chief king in Pictland following a period of civil war in the late 720s. During his reign, the neighbouring kingdom of Dál Riata was subsumed under Pictish rule and he extended Pictish influence through Northumbria, Mercia and Ireland, and Óengus is credited with establishing the cult of Saint Andrew in Scotland, at Cennrígmonaid.

The most powerful ruler in Scotland over more than two decades, kings from Óengus' family dominated Pictland for a century, until defeat at the hands of Vikings in 839 began a new period of instability, ending with the coming to power of another Pictish line, that of Cináed mac Ailpín.

Sources and background

Surviving Pictish sources for the period are few, limited to king lists, the original of which was prepared in the early 720s,[2] and a number of accounts relating to the foundation of St Andrews, then called Cennrígmonaid. Beyond Pictland, the principal sources are the Irish annals, of which the Annals of Ulster and the Annals of Tigernach are the most reliable. These include materials from an annal kept at the monastery of Iona in Scotland. Óengus and the Picts appear occasionally in Welsh sources, such as the Annales Cambriae, and more frequently in Northumbrian sources, of which the Continuation of Bede's chronicle and the Historia Regum Anglorum attributed to Symeon of Durham are the most important.[b]

Selected political groups in Northern Britain around 740 AD

The Picts were one of four political groups in north Britain in the early 8th century. Pictland ran from the River Forth northwards, including Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles. Prior to the Viking Age, the main power in Pictland appears to have been the kingdom of Fortriu. Known high-status sites in Fortriu include Burghead and Craig Phádraig by Inverness. Pictland appears to have had only one bishop with his seat at Rosemarkie.[c]

From the Forth south to the River Humber lay the kingdom of Northumbria. Once the dominant force in Britain, it remained a powerful kingdom, but the end of the old dynasty of kings with the death of Osric in 729 led to conflict between rival families for the throne. The growing power of the Mercian kingdom to the south added to the problems faced by Northumbrian kings. For most of Óengus's reign Northumbria was ruled by the capable King Eadberht Eating.[d]

To the south-west of Pictland were the Gaels of Dál Riata where the kingship was disputed between the Cenél Loairn of northern Argyll and the Cenél nGabráin of Kintyre. In 723 Selbach mac Ferchair abdicated as head of the Cenél Loairn and king of Dál Riata in favour of his son Dúngal, who was driven out as king of Dál Riata by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenél nGabráin in 726. Dúngal and Eochaid were still in conflict as late as 731, when Dúngal burnt Tarbert.[e]

The history of the fourth group, the Britons of Alt Clut, later the kingdom of Strathclyde, leaves little trace in the record. King Teudebur map Beli had ruled from Dumbarton Rock since 722, and continued to do so until his death in 752 when his son Dumnagual succeeded him.[5][f]

Rise to power

An early medieval Irish genealogy tract claims Óengus to be a descendant of Cairpre Cruithnecháin or "Cairbre the little Pict", of the Eóganachta of Munster. The branch of the kindred from which it's claimed he came, known in the annals as the Éoganachta of Mag Gergind, are generally accepted as having been located in modern Angus and the Mearns.[6][7][g]

Óengus thus appears to have been a native of the Mearns, possibly born into an established Verturian kindred there. Indeed, it's relatively nearby, at the hill of Moncrieffe, near Perth, that he first appears in the records, defeating his rival, Alpin (or Pictish Elphin), in battle. That the Irish annals envision his kin as 'Éoganachta' suggests he was the descendant of an obscure 'Vuen' (or Wen), the Pictish British cognate of Gaelic Éogan.[8]

Otherwise much of Óengus' early life is unknown; he was middle-aged by the time he entered into history.[9] His close kin included at least two sons, Bridei (died 736) and Talorgan (died 782), and two brothers, Talorgan (died 750) and Bridei (died 763).[h]

King Nechtan son of Der-Ilei abdicated to enter a monastery in 724 and was imprisoned by his successor Drest in 726. In 728 and 729, four kings competed for power in Pictland: Drest; Nechtan; Alpín, of whom little is known; and lastly Óengus, who was a partisan of Nechtan, and perhaps his acknowledged heir.[i]

Four battles large enough to be recorded in Ireland were fought in 728 and 729. Alpín was defeated twice by Óengus, after which Nechtan was restored to power. In 729 a battle between supporters of Óengus and Nechtan's enemies was fought at Monith Carno (traditionally Cairn o' Mount, near Fettercairn) where the supporters of Óengus were victorious. Nechtan was restored to the kingship, probably until his death in 732.[11] On 12 August 729 Óengus defeated and killed Drest in battle at Druimm Derg Blathuug, a place which has not been identified.

Piercing of Dal Riata

Satellite image of northern Britain and Ireland showing the approximate area of Dál Riata (shaded).

In the 730s, Óengus fought against Dál Riata whose traditional overlords and protectors in Ireland, the Cenél Conaill, were much weakened at this time. A fleet from Dál Riata fought for Flaithbertach mac Loingsig, chief of the Cenél Conaill, in his war with Áed Allán of the Cenél nEógan, and suffered heavy losses in 733.[9][12] Dál Riata was ruled by Eochaid mac Echdach of the Cenél nGabráin who died in 733, and the king lists are unclear as to who, if anyone, succeeded him as overking. The Cenél Loairn of north Argyll were ruled by Dúngal mac Selbaig whom Eochaid had deposed as overking of Dál Riata in the 720s.

Fighting between the Picts, led by Óengus's son Bridei, and the Dál Riata, led by Talorgan mac Congussa, is recorded in 731. In 733, Dúngal mac Selbaig "profaned [the sanctuary] of Tory Island when he dragged Bridei out of it." Dúngal, previously deposed as overking of Dál Riata, was overthrown as king of the Cenél Loairn and replaced by his first cousin Muiredach mac Ainbcellaig.[13]

In 734 Talorgan mac Congussa was handed over to the Picts by his brother and drowned by them.[14] Talorgan son of Drostan was captured near Dún Ollaigh. He appears to have been the King of Atholl, and was drowned on Óengus's order in 739.[j] Dúngal too was a target in this year. He was wounded, the unidentified fortress of Dún Leithfinn was destroyed, and he "fled into Ireland, to be out of the power of Óengus."[16]

The annals report a second campaign by Óengus against the Dál Riata in 736. Dúngal, who had returned from Ireland, and his brother Feradach, were captured and bound in chains. The fortresses of Creic and Dunadd were taken. Muiredach of the Cenél Loairn was no more successful, defeated with heavy loss by Óengus's brother Talorgan mac Fergusa, perhaps by Loch Awe. A final campaign in 741 saw the Dál Riata again defeated. This was recorded in the Annals of Ulster as Percutio Dál Riatai la h-Óengus m. Forggusso, the "smiting of Dál Riata by Óengus son of Fergus".[17] With this Dál Riata disappears from the record for a generation.[18][19][20][k]

It may be that Óengus was involved in wars in Ireland, perhaps fighting with Áed Allán, or against him as an ally of Cathal mac Finguine.[21] The evidence for such involvement is limited. There is the presence of Óengus's son Bridei at Tory Island, on the north-west coast of Donegal in 733, close to the lands of Áed Allán's enemy Flaithbertach mac Loingsig. Less certainly, the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland report the presence of a Pictish fleet from Fortriu fighting for Flaithbertach in 733 rather than against him.[9][22][l]

Alt Clut, Northumbria, and Mercia

In 740, a war between the Picts and the Northumbrians is reported, during which Æthelbald, King of Mercia, took advantage of the absence of Eadberht of Northumbria to ravage his lands, and perhaps burn York.[23] The reason for the war is unclear, but it has been suggested that it was related to the killing of Earnwine son of Eadwulf on Eadberht's orders. Earnwine's father had been an exile in the north after his defeat in the civil war of 705–706, and it may be that Óengus, or Æthelbald, or both, had tried to place him on the Northumbrian throne.[24]

(c) John Phillips, CC BY-SA 2.0
Escomb Church, County Durham. The stone churches built for Nechtan, and perhaps Óengus's church at St Andrews, are presumed to have been similar.[25]

Battles between the Picts and the Britons of Alt Clut, or Strathclyde, are recorded in 744 and again in 750, when Kyle was taken from Alt Clut by Eadberht of Northumbria. The 750 battle between the Britons and the Picts is reported at a place named Mocetauc (perhaps Mugdock near Milngavie) in which Talorgan mac Fergusa, Óengus's brother, was killed.[26][27] Following the defeat in 750, the Annals of Ulster record "the ebbing of the sovereignty of Óengus".[28] This is thought to refer to the coming to power of Áed Find, son of Eochaid mac Echdach, in all or part of Dál Riata, and his rejection of Óengus's overlordship.[29][30][m]

Unlike the straightforward narrative of the attacks on Dál Riata, a number of interpretations have been offered of the relations between Óengus, Eadberht and Æthelbald in the period from 740 to 750. One suggestion is that Óengus and Æthelbald were allied against Eadberht, or even that they exercised a joint rulership of Britain, or bretwaldaship, Óengus collecting tribute north of the River Humber and Æthelbald south of the Humber. This rests largely on a confused passage in Symeon of Durham's Historia Regum Anglorum, and it has more recently been suggested that the interpretation offered by Frank Stenton—that it is based on a textual error and that Óengus and Æthelbald were not associated in any sort of joint overlordship—is the correct one.[27][29]

In 756, Óengus is found campaigning alongside Eadberht of Northumbria. The campaign is reported as follows:

In the year of the Lord's incarnation 756, king Eadberht in the eighteenth year of his reign, and Unust, king of Picts led armies to the town of Dumbarton. And hence the Britons accepted terms there, on the first day of the month of August. But on the tenth day of the same month perished almost the whole army which he led from Ouania to Niwanbirig.[31]

That Ouania is Govan is now reasonably certain,[32][33] but the location of Newanbirig is less so. Although there are very many Newburghs, it is Newburgh-on-Tyne near Hexham that has been the preferred location.[34] An alternative interpretation of the events of 756 has been advanced: it identifies Newanbirig with Newborough by Lichfield in the kingdom of Mercia. A defeat here for Eadberht and Óengus by Æthelbald's Mercians would correspond with the claim in the Saint Andrews foundation legends that a king named Óengus son of Fergus founded the church there as a thanksgiving to Saint Andrew for saving him after a defeat in Mercia.[35][n]

Cult of Saint Andrew

The St Andrews Sarcophagus

The story of the foundation of St Andrews, originally Cennrígmonaid, is not contemporary and may contain many inventions. The Irish annals report the death of "Tuathalán, abbot of Cinrigh Móna", in 747, making it certain that St Andrews had been founded before that date, probably by Óengus or by Nechtan son of Der-Ilei.[21][36][37][38][o] It is generally presumed that the St Andrews Sarcophagus was executed at the command of Óengus.[21][39][40][p] Later generations may have conflated this king Óengus with the 9th century king of the same name.[41][42] The choice of David as a model is, as Alex Woolf notes, an appropriate one: David too was an usurper.[43]

The cult of Saint Andrew may have come to Pictland from Northumbria, as had the cult of Saint Peter which had been favoured by Nechtan, and in particular from the monastery at Hexham which was dedicated to Saint Andrew. This apparent connection with the Northumbrian church may have left a written record. Óengus, like his successors and possible kinsmen Caustantín and Eógan, is recorded prominently in the Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, a list of some 3000 benefactors for whom prayers were said in religious institutions connected with Durham.[44][45][q]

Death and legacy

Óengus died in 761, "aged probably more than seventy, ... the dominating figure in the politics of Northern Britain".[46] His death is reported in the usual brief style by the annalists, except for the continuator of Bede in Northumbria, possibly relying upon a Dál Riata source, who wrote:

Óengus, king of the Picts, died. From the beginning of his reign right to the end he perpetrated bloody crimes, like a tyrannical slaughterer.[47][48][49][50]

The Pictish Chronicle king lists have it that he was succeeded by his brother Bridei. His son Talorgan was later king, and is the first son of a Pictish king known to have become king.[51][r]

The following 9th-century Irish praise poem from the Book of Leinster is associated with Óengus:[7]

Good the day when Óengus took Alba,

hilly Alba with its strong chiefs;
he brought battle to palisaded towns,

with feet, with hands, with broad shields.[7]

An assessment of Óengus is problematic, not least because annalistic sources provide very little information on Scotland in the succeeding generations. His apparent Irish links add to the long list of arguments which challenge the idea that the "Gaelicisation" of eastern Scotland began in the time of Cináed mac Ailpín; indeed there are good reasons for believing that process began before Óengus's reign.[s] Many of the Pictish kings until the death of Eógan mac Óengusa in 839 belong to the family of Óengus, in particular the 9th-century sons of Fergus, Caustantín and Óengus.[43][53][t]

The amount of information which has survived about Óengus compared with other Pictish kings, the nature and geographical range of his activities and the length of his reign combine to make King Óengus one of the most significant rulers of the insular Dark Ages.[u]


  1. ^ Forsyth (2000) discusses the various forms of Óengus's name, also providing Ungus(t) as an alternative Pictish form.
  2. ^ Most sources are collected in Early Sources of Scottish History (ESSH) and Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers (SAEC), edited by Alan Orr Anderson.
  3. ^ Early 8th-century bishops include Curetán, Fergus and Brecc.[3][4] Surveys of North Britain can be found in D. W. Harding, The Iron Age in Northern Britain: Celts and Romans, Natives and Invaders (2004), and Leslie Alcock, Kings & Warriors, Craftsmen & Priests in Northern Britain AD 550–850 (2003). Foster (2004) excludes southern Scotland and northern England.
  4. ^ Surveys of Northumbria include David Rollason's Northumbria, 500–1100: Creation and Destruction of a Kingdom (2003), and Nick Higham's The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100 (1993).
  5. ^ John Bannerman, Studies in the History of Dalriada (1974), remains the standard work on Dál Riata.
  6. ^ "Rotri, king of the Britons", whose death is recorded in the Annales Cambriae s.a. 754, has sometimes been identified as a king of Alt Clut, but this notice refers to Rhodri Molwynog ap Idwal, King of Gwynedd.
  7. ^ The genealogy appears in the Rawlinson B 502 manuscript, ¶1083.
  8. ^ Yorke (2006), pp. 49–50, 54 & 288–289 discusses the reconstructed relationship between late Pictish kings. Talorgan is a hypocoristic form of Talorg.[10]
  9. ^ For reports of events from 724 to 729, see Anderson (1990), pp. 221–227. For Óengus as Nechtan's supporter, Henderson (1998), pp. 155–156 and Woolf (2005), p. 36.
  10. ^ Talorgan was related to Nechtan, and is called his brother in 713, which may mean half-brother, foster-brother, or brother-in-law.[15]
  11. ^ Who led the Dál Riata in 741 is unclear: the sons of Fiannamail ua Dúnchado named by the Annals of Ulster may be unconnected, and the mention of Alpín son of Crup, sometimes taken to be the same person as the Alpín overthrown in 729, may be misplaced.
  12. ^ As already noted, most Irish annals say that Flaithbertach was supported by a fleet from Dál Riata.
  13. ^ The entry for 752 in the Annals of Tigernach, recording "the battle of Asreth in Circinn", is thought to be misplaced.
  14. ^ This version of the St Andrews foundation legend is given in Anderson (1980), pp. 258–260.
  15. ^ The most recent study, Yorke (2006), favours "Óengus".
  16. ^ It is less certain whose remains the sarcophagus contained. Woolf and MacLean (2000) argue for Óengus while Henderson favours Nechtan mac Der Ilei. Clancy, "Caustantín", favours a 9th-century date.
  17. ^ Óengus is listed 43rd, Caustantín 80th and Eógan 100th.
  18. ^ Sons of kings became kings more frequently in the 9th century, but it was not until the 11th century that kings were succeeded by their descendants rather than their brothers or cousins.
  19. ^ Nechtan son of Der-Ilei and his brother Bridei are thought to have had a Gaelic father, Dargart mac Finguine of the Cenél Comgaill.[52]
  20. ^ Arguing otherwise, see Bannerman (1999), passim. The arguments are compared in Yorke (2006), pp. 49–50, 54 & 288–289.
  21. ^ The strongest claims are made in those accounts which take Óengus to have been joint Bretwalda with Æthelbald, such as Charles-Edwards, Forsyth and Yorke. Other, such as Broun and Woolf, make less sweeping claims, but make Óengus among the most powerful Pictish kings and the dominant force in northern Britain. For Óengus's significance on a cultural and artistic level see Henderson & Henderson (2004), p. 12 and MacLean (2000), pp. 200–201.


  1. ^ See Charles-Edwards (2000), Yorke (2006), pp. 236–237 and Henderson (1998), pp. 105ff. For similar images, see Henderson & Henderson (2004), pp. 130–132.
  2. ^ Anderson (1980), pp. 88–102
  3. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 221
  4. ^ Yorke (2006), pp. 153–155
  5. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 240–241 & 243
  6. ^ James E. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland, Scotland to 795, p.289
  7. ^ a b c Forsyth (2000), pp. 27–28
  8. ^ James E. Fraser, From Caledonia to Pictland, Scotland to 795, p.290
  9. ^ a b c Woolf (2005), p. 36
  10. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 253, note 2
  11. ^ Woolf (2006a)
  12. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 229–230
  13. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 227–229
  14. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 232 & corrigenda, p. xviii
  15. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 214, 236
  16. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 232
  17. ^ AU 741.10
  18. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 182, 232–238
  19. ^ Woolf (2005), pp. 36–37
  20. ^ Anderson (1980), pp. 184–186
  21. ^ a b c Woolf (2002)
  22. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 227–228
  23. ^ Anderson (1908), pp. 55–56
  24. ^ Woolf (2005), p. 37. For Earnwine, see Kirby (1991), p. 150, Yorke (1990), p. 90
  25. ^ Foster (2004), p. 89
  26. ^ Anderson (1990), pp. 238–239
  27. ^ a b Anderson (1908), p. 56
  28. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 240
  29. ^ a b Woolf (2005), p. 38
  30. ^ Anderson (1980), pp. 186–187
  31. ^ After Forsyth (2000), p. 29; see also Anderson (1908), p. 57.
  32. ^ Forsyth (2000), pp. 29–30
  33. ^ Woolf (2005), p. 39
  34. ^ Kirby (1991), p. 150
  35. ^ Woolf (2005), pp. 39–40.
  36. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 238
  37. ^ Forsyth (2000), pp. 21–22
  38. ^ Foster (1998), pp. 42–43
  39. ^ Henderson (1998), pp. 155–156
  40. ^ MacLean (2000), pp. 200–201
  41. ^ Foster (1998), p. 42
  42. ^ Broun (1998), pp. 80–81
  43. ^ a b Woolf (2005), p. 40
  44. ^ Forsyth (2000), pp. 25–26
  45. ^ Yorke (2006), p. 167
  46. ^ Forsyth (2000), p. 21
  47. ^ Forsyth (2000), p. 22
  48. ^ Anderson (1990), p. 244
  49. ^ Anderson (1908), p. 57
  50. ^ Woolf (2005), p. 37
  51. ^ Yorke (2006), p. 49
  52. ^ See Clancy (2002b) and Yorke (2006), pp. 54–55.
  53. ^ Broun (1998), passim

Primary sources

  • Anderson, Alan Orr (1990). Early Sources of Scottish History AD 500 to 1286. 1. Reprinted, with corrections by Marjorie O. Anderson. Stamford: Paul Watkins. ISBN 1-871615-03-8.
  • Anderson, Alan Orr (1908). Scottish Annals from English Chroniclers A.D. 500–1286. London: D. Nutt.
  • Bede (1990). D. H. Farmer (ed.). Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Translated by Leo Sherley-Price. Revised by R. E. Latham. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-044565-X.

Secondary sources

  • Anderson, Marjorie Ogilvie (1980). Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7011-1604-8.
  • Aitchison, Nick (2006). Forteviot: a Pictish and Scottish royal centre.
  • Bannerman, John (1999). "The Scottish takeover of Pictland and the relics of Columba". In Dauvit Broun; Thomas Owen Clancy (eds.). Spes Scotorum: Saint Columba, Iona and Scotland. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. ISBN 0-567-08682-8.
  • Broun, Dauvit (1998). "Pictish kings 761–839: integration with Dál Riata or separate development". In Sally Foster (ed.). The St Andrews Sarcophagus: a Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 71–83. ISBN 978-1-85182-414-4.
  • Byrne, Francis John (2001). Irish Kings and High-Kings (2nd revised ed.). Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-196-1.
  • Charles-Edwards, T. M. (2000). "'The Continuation of Bede', s.a. 750: High-Kings of Tara and 'Bretwaldas'". In Alfred P. Smyth (ed.). Seanchas: Studies in Early Medieval Irish Archaeology, History and Literature in Honour of Francis J. Byrne. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-489-8.
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen (2002a). "Caustantín son of Fergus (Uurgust)". In M. Lynch (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen (2002b). "Nechtan son of Derile". In M. Lynch (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
  • Foster, Sally (1998). "Discovery, recovery, context and display". In Sally Foster (ed.). The St Andrews Sarcophagus: a Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 36–62. ISBN 978-1-85182-414-4.
  • Foster, Sally (2004). Picts, Gaels, and Scots: Early Historic Scotland (2nd ed.). London: Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-8874-3.
  • Forsyth, Katherine (2000). "Evidence of a lost Pictish source in the Historia Regum Anglorum of Symeon of Durham". In Simon Taylor (ed.). Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the Occasion of her Ninetieth Birthday. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 19–32. ISBN 1-85182-516-9.
  • Henderson, Isabel (1998). "Primus inter Pares: the St Andrews Sarcophagus and Pictish sculpture". In Sally Foster (ed.). The St Andrews Sarcophagus: a Pictish Masterpiece and its International Connections. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 97–167. ISBN 978-1-85182-414-4.
  • Henderson, George; Henderson, Isabel (2004). The Art of the Picts. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-23807-3.
  • Kirby, D. P. (1991). The Earliest English Kings. London: Unwin Hyman. ISBN 0-04-445692-1.
  • MacLean, Douglas (2000). "The Northumbrian perspective". In Simon Taylor (ed.). Kings, Clerics and Chronicles in Scotland, 500–1297: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the Occasion of her Ninetieth Birthday. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1-85182-516-5.
  • Woolf, Alex (2002). "Ungus (Onuist), son of Uurgust". In M. Lynch (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
  • Woolf, Alex (2005). "Onuist son of Uurguist: tyrannus carnifex or a David for the Picts?". In David Hill; Margaret Worthington (eds.). Aethelbald and Offa: Two Eighth-Century Kings of Mercia. British Archaeological Reports, British series. 383. Oxford: Archaeopress. ISBN 1-84171-687-1.
  • Woolf, Alex (2006a). "AU 729.2 and the last years of Nechtan mac Der-Ilei" (PDF). The Scottish Historical Review. 85 (1): 131–137. doi:10.1353/shr.2006.0030.
  • Woolf, Alex (2006b). "Dún Nechtain, Fortriu and the geography of the Picts". The Scottish Historical Review. 85 (2): 182–201. doi:10.1353/shr.2007.0029.
  • Yorke, Barbara (1990). Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-70724-9.
  • Yorke, Barbara (2006). The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600–800. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-77292-3.

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Media files used on this page

This is the royal figure on the St Andrew's sarcophagus. The figure is dressed like a late antique Roman emperor, baring what is probably a kaiserfibel on the neckline of his garment in the grandest tradition of imitatio imperii. It may therefore be taken as an indirect depiction of the king who commission it. en:Óengus I of the Picts?
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Photo of the St Andrew's Sarcophagus.
Escomb Church (John Phillips).jpg
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Escomb Church
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